MS3-IDQ: Utilizing MS3 Spectra beyond Quantification Yields Increased Coverage of the Phosphoproteome in Isobaric Tag Experiments.
ABSTRACT: Protein phosphorylation is critically important for many cellular processes, including progression through the cell cycle, cellular metabolism, and differentiation. Isobaric labeling, for example, tandem mass tags (TMT), in phosphoproteomics workflows enables both relative and absolute quantitation of these phosphorylation events. Traditional TMT workflows identify peptides using fragment ions at the MS2 level and quantify reporter ions at the MS3 level. However, in addition to the TMT reporter ions, MS3 spectra also include fragment ions that can be used to identify peptides. Here we describe using MS3 spectra for both phosphopeptide identification and quantification, a process that we term MS3-IDQ. To maximize quantified phosphopeptides, we optimize several instrument parameters, including the modality of mass analyzer (i.e., ion trap or Orbitrap), MS2 automatic gain control (AGC), and MS3 normalized collision energy (NCE), to achieve the best balance of identified and quantified peptides. Our optimized MS3-IDQ method included the following parameters for the MS3 scan: NCE = 37.5 and AGC target = 1.5 × 105, and scan range = 100-2000. Data from the MS3 scan were complementary to those of the MS2 scan, and the combination of these scans can increase phosphoproteome coverage by >50%, thereby yielding a greater number of quantified and accurately localized phosphopeptides.
Project description:Comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is now feasible, but reproducible quantification remains challenging, especially for post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation. Here, we compare the most popular quantification techniques for global phosphoproteomics: label-free quantification (LFQ), stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and MS2- and MS3-measured tandem mass tags (TMT). In a mixed species comparison with fixed phosphopeptide ratios, we find LFQ and SILAC to be the most accurate techniques. MS2-based TMT yields the highest precision but lowest accuracy due to ratio compression, which MS3-based TMT can partly rescue. However, MS2-based TMT outperforms MS3-based TMT when analyzing phosphoproteome changes in the DNA damage response, since its higher precision and larger identification numbers allow detection of a greater number of significantly regulated phosphopeptides. Finally, we utilize the TMT multiplexing capabilities to develop an algorithm for determining phosphorylation site stoichiometry, showing that such applications benefit from the high accuracy of MS3-based TMT.
Project description:Multiplexed quantitation via isobaric chemical tags (e.g., tandem mass tags (TMT) and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)) has the potential to revolutionize quantitative proteomics. However, until recently the utility of these tags was questionable due to reporter ion ratio distortion resulting from fragmentation of coisolated interfering species. These interfering signals can be negated through additional gas-phase manipulations (e.g., MS/MS/MS (MS3) and proton-transfer reactions (PTR)). These methods, however, have a significant sensitivity penalty. Using isolation waveforms with multiple frequency notches (i.e., synchronous precursor selection, SPS), we coisolated and cofragmented multiple MS2 fragment ions, thereby increasing the number of reporter ions in the MS3 spectrum 10-fold over the standard MS3 method (i.e., MultiNotch MS3). By increasing the reporter ion signals, this method improves the dynamic range of reporter ion quantitation, reduces reporter ion signal variance, and ultimately produces more high-quality quantitative measurements. To demonstrate utility, we analyzed biological triplicates of eight colon cancer cell lines using the MultiNotch MS3 method. Across all the replicates we quantified 8,378 proteins in union and 6,168 proteins in common. Taking into account that each of these quantified proteins contains eight distinct cell-line measurements, this data set encompasses 174,704 quantitative ratios each measured in triplicate across the biological replicates. Herein, we demonstrate that the MultiNotch MS3 method uniquely combines multiplexing capacity with quantitative sensitivity and accuracy, drastically increasing the informational value obtainable from proteomic experiments.
Project description:The recently developed and commercially available carbonyl-reactive tandem mass tags (aminoxyTMT) enable multiplexed quantification of glycans through comparison of reporter ion intensities. However, challenges still exist for collision activated dissociation (CAD) MS/MS based quantification of aminoxyTMT due to the relatively low reporter ion yield especially for glycans with labile structures. To circumvent this limitation, we utilized the unique structural features of N-glycan molecules, the common core sugar sequence (HexNAc)2(Man)3, and common m/z of Yn ions generated from different types of precursors by MS/MS and designed a Y1 ion triggered, targeted MultiNotch MS3 relative quantification approach based on aminoxyTMT labeling. This approach was implemented on a nanoHILIC-Tribrid quadrupole-ion trap-Orbitrap platform, which enables prescreening of aminoxyTMT labeled N-glycan precursor ions by Y1 ion fragment ion mass in a higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) MS/MS scan and coisolation and cofragmentation of multiple Yn fragment ions that carry the isobaric tags from the inclusion list in the MS/MS/MS scan. Through systematical optimization and evaluation using N-glycans released from several glycoprotein standards and human serum proteins, we demonstrated that the Y1 ion triggered, targeted MultiNotch MS3 approach offers improved accuracy, precision, and sensitivity for relative quantification compared to traditional data-dependent MS2 and Y1 ion MS3 quantification methods.
Project description:As a driver for many biological processes, phosphorylation remains an area of intense research interest. Advances in multiplexed quantitation utilizing isobaric tags (e.g., TMT and iTRAQ) have the potential to create a new paradigm in quantitative proteomics. New instrumentation and software are propelling these multiplexed workflows forward, which results in more accurate, sensitive, and reproducible quantitation across tens of thousands of phosphopeptides. This study assesses the performance of multiplexed quantitative phosphoproteomics on the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer. Utilizing a two-phosphoproteome model of precursor ion interference, we assessed the accuracy of phosphopeptide quantitation across a variety of experimental approaches. These methods included the use of synchronous precursor selection (SPS) to enhance TMT reporter ion intensity and accuracy. We found that (i) ratio distortion remained a problem for phosphopeptide analysis in multiplexed quantitative workflows, (ii) ratio distortion can be overcome by the use of an SPS-MS3 scan, (iii) interfering ions generally possessed a different charge state than the target precursor, and (iv) selecting only the phosphate neutral loss peak (single notch) for the MS3 scan still provided accurate ratio measurements. Remarkably, these data suggest that the underlying cause of interference may not be due to coeluting and cofragmented peptides but instead from consistent, low level background fragmentation. Finally, as a proof-of-concept 10-plex experiment, we compared phosphopeptide levels from five murine brains to five livers. In total, the SPS-MS3 method quantified 38?247 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 11?000 phosphorylation sites. With 10 measurements recorded for each phosphopeptide, this equates to more than 628?000 binary comparisons collected in less than 48 h.
Project description:Alterations in cellular phosphorylation patterns have been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, through multiple mechanisms. Herein we present a survey of the phosphorylation profiles of an isogenic pair of human cancer cell lines with opposite metastatic phenotype. Phosphopeptides were enriched from tumor cell lysates with titanium dioxide and zirconium dioxide, and identified with nano-LC-MS/MS using an automatic cross-validation of MS/MS and MS/MS/MS (MS2+MS3) data-dependent neutral loss method. A spectral counting quantitative strategy was applied to the two cell line samples on the MS2-only scan, which was implemented successively after each MS2+MS3 scan in the same sample. For all regulated phosphopeptides reported by spectral counting analysis, sequence and phosphorylation site assignments were validated by a MS2+MS3 data-dependent neutral loss method. With this approach, we identified over 70 phosphorylated sites on 27 phosphoproteins as being differentially expressed with respect to tumor cell phenotype. The altered expression levels of proteins identified by LC-MS/MS were validated using Western blotting. Using network pathway analysis, we observed that the majority of the differentially expressed proteins were highly interconnected and belong to two major intracellular signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that the phosphorylation of isoform A of lamin A/C and GTPase activating protein binding protein 1 is associated with metastatic propensity. The study demonstrates a quantitative and comparative proteomics strategy to identify differential phosphorylation patterns in complex biological samples.
Project description:Quantitative analysis of proteomes across multiple time points, organelles, and perturbations is essential for understanding both fundamental biology and disease states. The development of isobaric tags (e.g., TMT) has enabled the simultaneous measurement of peptide abundances across several different conditions. These multiplexed approaches are promising in principle because of advantages in throughput and measurement quality. However, in practice, existing multiplexing approaches suffer from key limitations. In its simple implementation (TMT-MS2), measurements are distorted by chemical noise leading to poor measurement accuracy. The current state-of-the-art (TMT-MS3) addresses this but requires specialized quadrupole-iontrap-Orbitrap instrumentation. The complement reporter ion approach (TMTc) produces high accuracy measurements and is compatible with many more instruments, like quadrupole-Orbitraps. However, the required deconvolution of the TMTc cluster leads to poor measurement precision. Here, we introduce TMTc+, which adds the modeling of the MS2-isolation step into the deconvolution algorithm. The resulting measurements are comparable in precision to TMT-MS3/MS2. The improved duty cycle and lower filtering requirements make TMTc+ more sensitive than TMT-MS3 and comparable with TMT-MS2. At the same time, unlike TMT-MS2, TMTc+ is exquisitely able to distinguish signal from chemical noise even outperforming TMT-MS3. Lastly, we compare TMTc+ to quantitative label-free proteomics of total HeLa lysate and find that TMTc+ quantifies 7.8k versus 3.9k proteins in a 5-plex sample. At the same time, the median coefficient of variation improves from 13% to 4%. Thus, TMTc+ advances quantitative proteomics by enabling accurate, sensitive, and precise multiplexed experiments on more commonly used instruments.
Project description:Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled toisobaric labeling has developed rapidly into a powerful strategy for high-throughput protein quantification. Sample multiplexing and exceptional sensitivity allow for the quantification of tens of thousands of peptides and, by inference, thousands of proteins from multiple samples in a single MS experiment. Accurate quantification demands a consistent and robust sample-preparation strategy. Here, we present a detailed workflow for SPS-MS3-based quantitative abundance profiling of tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeled proteins and phosphopeptides that we have named the streamlined (SL)-TMT protocol. We describe a universally applicable strategy that requires minimal individual sample processing and permits the seamless addition of a phosphopeptide enrichment step ("mini-phos") with little deviation from the deep proteome analysis. To showcase our workflow, we profile the proteome of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast grown with either glucose or pyruvate as the carbon source. Here, we have established a streamlined TMT protocol that enables deep proteome and medium-scale phosphoproteome analysis.
Project description:Isobaric labeling strategies, such as isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) or tandem mass tags (TMT), have promised to dramatically increase the power of quantitative proteomics. However, when applied to complex mixtures, both the accuracy and precision are undermined by interfering peptide ions that coisolate and cofragment with the target peptide. Additional gas-phase isolation steps, such as proton-transfer ion-ion reactions (PTR) or higher-order MS3 scans, can almost completely eliminate this problem. Unfortunately, these methods come at the expense of decreased acquisition speed and sensitivity. Here we present a method that allows accurate quantification of TMT-labeled peptides at the MS2 level without additional ion purification. Quantification is based on the fragment ion cluster that carries most of the TMT mass balance. In contrast to the use of low m/z reporter ions, the localization of these complement TMT (TMT(C)) ions in the spectrum is precursor-specific; coeluting peptides do not generally affect the measurement of the TMT(C) ion cluster of interest. Unlike the PTR or MS3 strategies, this method can be implemented on a wide range of high-resolution mass spectrometers like the quadrupole Orbitrap instruments (QExactive). A current limitation of the method is that the efficiency of TMT(C) ion formation is affected by both peptide sequence and peptide ion charge state; we discuss potential routes to overcome this problem. Finally, we show that the complement reporter ion approach allows parallelization of multiplexed quantification and therefore holds the potential to multiply the number of distinct peptides that can be quantified in a given time frame.
Project description:Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification with a vital role in cellular signaling. Isobaric labeling-based strategies, such as tandem mass tags (TMT), can measure the relative phosphorylation states of peptides in a multiplexed format. However, the low stoichiometry of protein phosphorylation constrains the depth of phosphopeptide analysis by mass spectrometry. As such, robust and sensitive workflows are required. Here we evaluate and optimize high-Field Asymmetric waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) coupled to Orbitrap Tribrid mass spectrometers for the analysis of TMT-labeled phosphopeptides. We determined that using FAIMS-MS3 with three compensation voltages (CV) in a single method (e.g., CV = -40/-60/-80 V) maximizes phosphopeptide coverage while minimizing inter-CV overlap. Furthermore, consecutive analyses using MSA-CID (multistage activation collision-induced dissociation) and HCD (higher-energy collisional dissociation) fragmentation at the MS2 stage increases the depth of phosphorylation analysis. The methodology and results outlined herein provide a template for tailoring optimized FAIMS-based methods.
Project description:The intrinsic nature of glycosylation, namely nontemplate encoded, stepwise elongation and termination with a diverse range of isomeric glyco-epitopes (glycotopes), translates into ambiguity in most cases of mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycomic mapping. It is arguable that whether one needs to delineate every single glycomic entity, which may be counterproductive. Instead, one should focus on identifying as many structural features as possible that would collectively define the glycomic characteristics of a cell or tissue, and how these may change in response to self-programmed development, immuno-activation, and malignant transformation. We have been pursuing this line of analytical strategy that homes in on identifying the terminal sulfo-, sialyl, and/or fucosylated glycotopes by comprehensive nanoLC-MS2-product dependent MS3 analysis of permethylated glycans, in conjunction with development of a data mining computational tool, GlyPick, to enable an automated, high throughput, semi-quantitative glycotope-centric glycomic mapping amenable to even nonexperts. We demonstrate in this work that diagnostic MS2 ions can be relied on to inform the presence of specific glycotopes, whereas their possible isomeric identities can be resolved at MS3 level. Both MS2 and associated MS3 data can be acquired exhaustively and processed automatically by GlyPick. The high acquisition speed, resolution, and mass accuracy afforded by top-notch Orbitrap Fusion MS system now allow a sensible spectral count and/or summed ion intensity-based glycome-wide glycotope quantification. We report here the technical aspects, reproducibility and optimization of such an analytical approach that uses the same acidic reverse phase C18 nanoLC conditions fully compatible with proteomic analysis to allow rapid hassle-free switching. We further show how this workflow is particularly effective when applied to larger, multiply sialylated and fucosylated N-glycans derived from mouse brain. The complexity of their terminal glycotopes including variants of fucosylated and disialylated type 1 and 2 chains would otherwise not be adequately delineated by any conventional LC-MS/MS analysis.