Growth Promoting Rhizospheric and Endophytic Bacteria from Curcuma longa L. as Biocontrol Agents against Rhizome Rot and Leaf Blight Diseases.
ABSTRACT: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and endophytic bacteria were isolated from different varieties of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) from South India. Totally 50 strains representing, 30 PGPR and 20 endophytic bacteria were identified based on biochemical assays and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The isolates were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric, by dual culture and liquid culture assays. Results revealed that only five isolates of PGPR and four endophytic bacteria showed more than 70% suppression of test pathogens in both assays. The SEM studies of interaction zone showed significant ultrastructural changes of the hyphae like shriveling, breakage and desication of the pathogens by PGPR B. cereus (RBac-DOB-S24) and endophyte P. aeruginosa (BacDOB-E19). Selected isolates showed multiple Plant growth promoting traits. The rhizome bacterization followed by soil application of B. cereus (RBacDOB-S24) showed lowest Percent Disease Incidence (PDI) of rhizome rot and leaf blight, 16.4% and 15.5% respectively. Similarly, P. aeruginosa (BacDOB-E19) recorded PDI of rhizome rot (17.5%) and leaf blight (17.7%). The treatment of these promising isolates exhibited significant increase in plant height and fresh rhizome yield/plant in comparison with untreated control under greenhouse condition. Thereby, these isolates can be exploited as a potential biocontrol agent for suppressing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric.
Project description:This data article contains data, related to fungal diseases of Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), that were collected at Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta. Pictures described leaf spot, leaf blight and rhizome rot diseases, and associated fungi and fungus-like organisms were listed. Data of plant height and disease incidence, against plant age was described with graphs. Further, data of disease severity for planting years of 2016 and 2017 were compared and percentage commercial loss of rhizome rot for the planting years calculated https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpb.2018.10.001 (Ayodele et al., 2018).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) accumulate important pharmacologically active metabolites at high levels in their rhizomes. Despite their importance, relatively little is known regarding gene expression in the rhizomes of ginger and turmeric. RESULTS: In order to identify rhizome-enriched genes and genes encoding specialized metabolism enzymes and pathway regulators, we evaluated an assembled collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from eight different ginger and turmeric tissues. Comparisons to publicly available sorghum rhizome ESTs revealed a total of 777 gene transcripts expressed in ginger/turmeric and sorghum rhizomes but apparently absent from other tissues. The list of rhizome-specific transcripts was enriched for genes associated with regulation of tissue growth, development, and transcription. In particular, transcripts for ethylene response factors and AUX/IAA proteins appeared to accumulate in patterns mirroring results from previous studies regarding rhizome growth responses to exogenous applications of auxin and ethylene. Thus, these genes may play important roles in defining rhizome growth and development. Additional associations were made for ginger and turmeric rhizome-enriched MADS box transcription factors, their putative rhizome-enriched homologs in sorghum, and rhizomatous QTLs in rice. Additionally, analysis of both primary and specialized metabolism genes indicates that ginger and turmeric rhizomes are primarily devoted to the utilization of leaf supplied sucrose for the production and/or storage of specialized metabolites associated with the phenylpropanoid pathway and putative type III polyketide synthase gene products. This finding reinforces earlier hypotheses predicting roles of this enzyme class in the production of curcuminoids and gingerols. CONCLUSION: A significant set of genes were found to be exclusively or preferentially expressed in the rhizome of ginger and turmeric. Specific transcription factors and other regulatory genes were found that were common to the two species and that are excellent candidates for involvement in rhizome growth, differentiation and development. Large classes of enzymes involved in specialized metabolism were also found to have apparent tissue-specific expression, suggesting that gene expression itself may play an important role in regulating metabolite production in these plants.
Project description:Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is one of the common medicinal crops of high economical value in Vietnam. A survey in the Central Highlands of Vietnam revealed a turmeric growing area showing serious disease symptoms, including stunting of the plant, yellowing or darkening of the leaf margins and tips, and underdeveloped dry and rotten rhizomes. An inspection for plant pathogens in soil samples from this area revealed a high density and frequency of Rotylenchus reniformis, with a significant relationship between the density of R. reniformis, rhizome weight, and level of plant damage. This study provides the first report of R. reniformis found in parasitic association with turmeric in Vietnam with the support of molecular data and examines its resulting damage.Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is one of the common medicinal crops of high economical value in Vietnam. A survey in the Central Highlands of Vietnam revealed a turmeric growing area showing serious disease symptoms, including stunting of the plant, yellowing or darkening of the leaf margins and tips, and underdeveloped dry and rotten rhizomes. An inspection for plant pathogens in soil samples from this area revealed a high density and frequency of Rotylenchus reniformis, with a significant relationship between the density of R. reniformis, rhizome weight, and level of plant damage. This study provides the first report of R. reniformis found in parasitic association with turmeric in Vietnam with the support of molecular data and examines its resulting damage.
Project description:Two varieties of turmeric, FMO (Fat Mild Orange) and TYA (Thin Yellow Aromatic) were compared. Rhizomes were harvested 3, 5, and 7 months after planting, roots were harvested at 7 months, and leaves were harvested at 7 months. Plants were grown under controlled conditions in the greenhouse. Overall design: We used an interwoven loop design for hybridizations. There are two interwoven loops included in this experiment, one for rhizome samples from the different developmental stages, and a second for leaf and root 7 month old samples compared to 7 month old rhizome samples. The two loops were connected at the 7 month old rhizome samples.
Project description:Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are the rhizosphere bacteria that may be utilized to augment plant growth and suppress plant diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize PGPR indigenous to cucumber rhizosphere in Bangladesh, and to evaluate their ability to suppress Phytophthora crown rot in cucumber. A total of 66 isolates were isolated, out of which 10 (PPB1, PPB2, PPB3, PPB4, PPB5, PPB8, PPB9, PPB10, PPB11, and PPB12) were selected based on their in vitro plant growth promoting attributes and antagonism of phytopathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences identified these isolates as new strains of Pseudomonas stutzeri, Bacillus subtilis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The selected isolates produced high levels (26.78-51.28 ?g mL(-1)) of indole-3-acetic acid, while significant acetylene reduction activities (1.79-4.9 ?mole C2H4 mg(-1) protein h(-1)) were observed in eight isolates. Cucumber plants grown from seeds that were treated with these PGPR strains displayed significantly higher levels of germination, seedling vigour, growth, and N content in root and shoot tissue compared to non-treated control plants. All selected isolates were able to successfully colonize the cucumber roots. Moreover, treating cucumber seeds with these isolates significantly suppressed Phytophthora crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and characteristic morphological alterations in P. capsici hyphae that grew toward PGPR colonies were observed. Since these PGPR inoculants exhibited multiple traits beneficial to the host plants, they may be applied in the development of new, safe, and effective seed treatments as an alternative to chemical fungicides.
Project description:Two varieties of turmeric, FMO (Fat Mild Orange) and TYA (Thin Yellow Aromatic) were compared. Rhizomes were harvested 3, 5, and 7 months after planting, roots were harvested at 7 months, and leaves were harvested at 7 months. Plants were grown under controlled conditions in the greenhouse. We used an interwoven loop design for hybridizations. There are two interwoven loops included in this experiment, one for rhizome samples from the different developmental stages, and a second for leaf and root 7 month old samples compared to 7 month old rhizome samples. The two loops were connected at the 7 month old rhizome samples.
Project description:Curcuma longa is well known for its use as spice and medicine. The remarkable feature of the plant is the presence of rhizome, which provides an interesting habitat for association by various groups of bacteria. Some of these associated endophytic bacteria can have growth-promoting effects. In the current study, two species of endophytic Paenibacillus has been identified from the rhizome as indole 3 acetic acid producers. These isolates can thus have potential growth-regulating effect in rhizomes.
Project description:Incidence rates of diseases in kiwiberry orchards were investigated monthly from late June to late September in Gwangyang and Boseong in 2015 and 2016. The impact of postharvest fruit rot was investigated during ripening after harvest. Bacterial canker was only observed on one single tree in 2015, but black rot, powdery mildew, leaf spot and blight, and postharvest fruit rot diseases were problematic throughout the study period in both 2015 and 2016. Incidence rates of the diseases varied with kiwiberry cultivar, region and sampling time. Incidence rates of powdery mildew, leaf spot and blight diseases increased significantly during the late growing stages near fruit harvest, while black rot peaked in late August. Incidence rate of postharvest fruit rot on fruit without fruit stalks was less than half of fruit with fruit stalks, regardless of kiwiberry cultivars. Among the four cultivars, Mansu was relatively resistant to black rot and postharvest fruit rot diseases. In our knowledge, this is the first report of various potential pathogens of kiwiberry in Korea.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Endophytic fungi play an important role in balancing the ecosystem and boosting host growth. In the present study, we investigated the endophytic fungal diversity of healthy Panax notoginseng and evaluated its potential antimicrobial activity against five major phytopathogens causing root-rot of P. notoginseng. METHODS:A culture-dependent technique, combining morphological and molecular methods, was used to analyze endophytic fungal diversity. A double-layer agar technique was used to challenge the phytopathogens of P. notoginseng. RESULTS:A total of 89 fungi were obtained from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of P. notoginseng, and 41 isolates representing different morphotypes were selected for taxonomic characterization. The fungal isolates belonged to Ascomycota (96.6%) and Zygomycota (3.4%). All isolates were classified to 23 genera and an unknown taxon belonging to Sordariomycetes. The number of isolates obtained from different tissues ranged from 12 to 42 for leaves and roots, respectively. The selected endophytic fungal isolates were challenged by the root-rot pathogens Alternaria panax, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Phoma herbarum, and Mycocentrospora acerina. Twenty-six of the 41 isolates (63.4%) exhibited activity against at least one of the pathogens tested. CONCLUSION:Our results suggested that P. notoginseng harbors diversified endophytic fungi that would provide a basis for the identification of new bioactive compounds, and for effective biocontrol of notoginseng root rot.
Project description:Fusarium graminearum can cause Giberella Ear Rot (GER) and seedling blight in maize, resulting in major yield losses. Besides GER, the infected grains are consequently contaminated with multiple mycotoxins of F. graminearum. Zearalenone and trichothecenes, such as deoxynivalenol and its acetylated forms, are among the major mycotoxins associated with F. graminearum infection in maize. In the current work, we explored the effect of the endophytic fungal genera of Epicoccum and Sordaria, to control F. graminearum infection in comparative trials with Piriformospora spp., an elusive endophytic genus. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of these endophytes on zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol levels using in vitro and in planta assays. As plants are endowed with several detoxification mechanisms comprising e.g., glucosylation of trichothecenes, the effect of the isolated fungal endophytes on the deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside level was also assessed. In general, results showed a considerable variability in the antifungal activity, both among species and among isolates within one species. Additionally, the effect on mycotoxin levels was variable, and not necessarily related to the antifungal activity except for zearalenone levels which were consistently reduced by the endophytes. These results highlight the great potential of certain endophytic fungal strains as new biocontrol agents in agricultural science.