Mosquito arbovirus survey in selected areas of Kenya: detection of insect-specific virus.
ABSTRACT: Background:Many arboviral outbreaks have occurred in various locations in Kenya. Entomological surveys are suitable methods for revealing information about circulating arboviruses before human outbreaks are recognized. Therefore, mosquitoes were collected in Kenya to determine the distribution of arboviruses. Methods:Various species of mosquitoes were sampled from January to July 2012 using several collection methods. Mosquito homogenates were directly tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using various arbovirus-targeted primer pairs. Results:We collected 12,569 mosquitoes. Although no human-related arboviruses were detected, Culex flavivirus (CxFV), an insect-specific arbovirus, was detected in 54 pools of 324 Culex quinquefasciatus individuals collected during the rainy season. Of these 54 positive pools, 96.3% (52/54) of the mosquitoes were collected in Busia, on the border of western Kenya and Uganda. The remaining two CxFV-positive pools were collected in Mombasa and Kakamega, far from Busia. Phylogenetic analysis revealed minimal genetic diversity among the CxFVs collected in Mombasa, Kakamega, and Busia, even though these cities are in geographically different regions. Additionally, CxFV was detected in one mosquito pool collected in Mombasa during the dry season. In addition to Culex mosquitoes, Aedes (Stegomyia) and Anopheles mosquitoes were also positive for the Flavivirus genus. Cell fusing agent virus was detected in one pool of Aedes aegypti. Mosquito flavivirus was detected in three pools of Anopheles gambiae s.l. collected in the dry and rainy seasons. Conclusions:Although no mosquitoes were positive for human-related arbovirus, insect-specific viruses were detected in various species of mosquitoes. The heterogeneity observed in the number of CxFVs in Culex mosquitoes in different locations in Kenya suggests that the abundance of human-related viruses might differ depending on the abundance of insect-specific viruses. We may have underestimated the circulation of any human-related arbovirus in Kenya, and the collection of larger samples may allow for determination of the presence of human-related arboviruses.
Project description:Adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected in 2007 and tested for specific viruses, including West Nile virus, as part of the ongoing arbovirus surveillance efforts in the state of Iowa. A subset of these mosquitoes (6,061 individuals in 340 pools) was further tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using flavivirus universal primers. Of the 211 pools of Culex pipiens (L.) tested, 50 were positive. One of 51 pools of Culex tarsalis Coquillet was also positive. The flavivirus minimum infection rates (expressed as the number of positive mosquito pools per 1,000 mosquitoes tested) for Cx. pipiens and Cx. tarsalis were 10.3 and 1.2, respectively. Flavivirus RNA was not detected in Aedes triseriatus (Say) (52 pools), Culex erraticus (Dyar & Knab) (25 pools), or Culex territans Walker (one pool). Sequence analysis of all RT-PCR products revealed that the mosquitoes had been infected with Culex flavivirus (CxFV), an insect-specific virus previously isolated in Japan, Indonesia, Texas, Mexico, Guatemala and Trinidad. The complete genome of one isolate was sequenced, as were the envelope protein genes of eight other isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CxFV isolates from the United States (Iowa and Texas) are more closely related to CxFV isolates from Asia than those from Mexico, Guatemala, and Trinidad.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mosquito-borne diseases are rapidly spreading due to increasing international travel and trade. Routine mosquito surveillance and screening for mosquito-borne pathogens can be early indicators for local disease transmission and outbreaks. However, arbovirus detection in mosquito vectors has rarely been reported in Saudi Arabia.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 769,541 <i>Aedes</i> and <i>Culex</i> mosquitoes were collected by Black Hole traps during routine mosquito surveillance in the first half of 2016. <i>Culex. quinquefasciatus</i> and <i>Ae. aegypti</i> were the most prevalent species observed. Twenty-five and 24 randomly selected pools of <i>Ae. aegypti</i> and <i>Cx. quinquefasciatus</i>, respectively, were screened for arboviruses by RT-PCR.<h4>Results</h4>Dengue 2 (DENV-2) and four strains of insect-specific flaviviruses, including one of cell-fusing agent virus (CFAV) and three of Phlebotomus-associated flavivirus (PAFV) were detected in pools of <i>Ae. aegypti</i>. We also detected 10 strains of Culex flavivirus (CxFV) in pools of <i>Cx. quinquefasciatus</i>. Phylogenetic analysis using whole genome sequences placed the DENV strain into the cosmopolitan 1 sub-DENV-2 genotype, and the CxFVs into the African/Caribbean/Latin American genotype. These analyses also showed that the DENV-2 strain detected in the present study was closely related to strains detected in China in 2014 and in Japan in 2018, which suggests frequent movement of DENV-2 strains among these countries. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis suggested at least five introductions of DENV-2 into Saudi Arabia from 2014 through 2018, most probably from India.<h4>Conclusions</h4>To our knowledge, this study reports the first detection of four arboviruses DENV, CFAV, PAFV, and CxFV in mosquitoes in Saudi Arabia, which shows that they are co-circulating in Jeddah. Our findings show a need for widespread mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance programs in Saudi Arabia, which will improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of the mosquito-borne arboviruses within the country and help early predict and mitigate the risk of human infections and outbreaks.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Flaviviruses are important pathogens for humans and animals (Dengue viruses, Yellow fever virus, Zika virus and West Nile virus). Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific virus of the genus Flavivirus, detected in a wide variety of mosquito species. OBJECTIVE:To detect Flavivirus in mosquitoes of a tropical region of the Colombian Caribbean. METHODS:In 2014, an entomological surveillance of arboviruses was conducted in the department of Cordoba area of the Caribbean, Colombia. A total of 8270 mosquitoes were captured as follow: Mansonia (n = 3271/39.5%), Culex (n = 2668/32.26%), Anopheles (n = 840/10.15%), Aedeomyia (n = 411/4.9%), Psorophora (n = 397/4.8%), Coquilletidia (n = 369/4.46%), Uranotaenia (n = 261/3.15%) and Aedes (n = 53/0.6%). All mosquito species were collected in dry tropical forest of the Caribbean area. Universal primers for NS5 gene (958 pb), RT-PCR for flavivirus and sequencing were used for molecular identification of viruses detected. RESULTS:Two pools belonging to Culex coronator were positive for flavivirus RNA sequence by RT-PCR. The sequences of the PCR amplicons, matched that of the Culex flaviviruses, CxFv COL PM_149 (GenBank: KR014201) and CxFv COL PM_212 (GenBank: KT307717). Phylogenetic analysis of the NS5 protein sequences of the Culex flaviviruses sequences with those of reference sequences available in GenBank indicated viruses of Genotype II, closely related to the Brazilian strain, BR_SJRP_01_ (GenBank: KT726939), from Culex sp. The alignment of Culex flavivirus sequences CxFv COL_ PM 212 and CxFv COL_ PM 149 with sequences of strains detected in different geographical regions grouped the strains in a Latin American clade reported in Brazil, Argentina and Mexico. CONCLUSIONS:The present work illustrated that CxFV was circulating among vectors of human pathogenic arboviruses in Colombia, but the impact of CxFV on other flaviviruses which are endemic in the study area still remains to be explored.
Project description:Few studies have investigated the many mosquito species that harbor arboviruses in Kenya. During the 2006-2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in North Eastern Province, Kenya, exophilic mosquitoes were collected from homesteads within 2 affected areas: Gumarey (rural) and Sogan-Godud (urban). Mosquitoes (n = 920) were pooled by trap location and tested for Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. The most common mosquitoes trapped belonged to the genus Culex (75%). Of 105 mosquito pools tested, 22% were positive for Rift Valley fever virus, 18% were positive for West Nile virus, and 3% were positive for both. Estimated mosquito minimum infection rates did not differ between locations. Our data demonstrate the local abundance of mosquitoes that could propagate arboviral infections in Kenya and the high prevalence of vector arbovirus positivity during a Rift Valley fever outbreak.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes have been implicated as causative agents of both human and animal illnesses in East Africa. Although epidemics of arboviral emerging infectious diseases have risen in frequency in recent years, the extent to which mosquitoes maintain pathogens in circulation during inter-epidemic periods is still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate whether arboviruses may be maintained by vertical transmission via immature life stages of different mosquito vector species. METHODOLOGY:We collected immature mosquitoes (egg, larva, pupa) on the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in western Kenya and reared them to adults. Mosquito pools (?25 specimens/pool) of each species were screened for mosquito-borne viruses by high-resolution melting analysis and sequencing of multiplex PCR products of genus-specific primers (alphaviruses, flaviviruses, phleboviruses and Bunyamwera-group orthobunyaviruses). We further confirmed positive samples by culturing in baby hamster kidney and Aedes mosquito cell lines and re-sequencing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Culex univittatus (2/31pools) and Anopheles gambiae (1/77 pools) from the Lake Victoria region were positive for Bunyamwera virus, a pathogenic virus that is of public health concern. In addition, Aedes aegypti (3/50), Aedes luteocephalus (3/13), Aedes spp. (2/15), and Culex pipiens (1/140) pools were positive for Aedes flaviviruses at Lake Victoria, whereas at Lake Baringo, three pools of An. gambiae mosquitoes were positive for Anopheles flavivirus. These insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFVs), which are presumably non-pathogenic to vertebrates, were found in known medically important arbovirus and malaria vectors. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that not only ISFVs, but also a pathogenic arbovirus, are naturally maintained within mosquito populations by vertical transmission, even in the absence of vertebrate hosts. Therefore, virus and vector surveillance, even during inter-epidemics, and the study of vector-arbovirus-ISFV interactions, may aid in identifying arbovirus transmission risks, with the potential to inform control strategies that lead to disease prevention.
Project description:Background: Management of arboviruses relies heavily on vector control. Implementation and sustenance of effective control measures requires regular surveillance of mosquito occurrences, species abundance and distribution. The current study evaluated larval habitat diversity and productivity, mosquito species diversity and distribution in selected sites along the coast of Kenya. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of mosquito breeding habitats, species diversity and distribution was conducted in urban, peri-urban and forested ecological zones in Mombasa and Kilifi counties. Results: A total of 13,009 immature mosquitoes were collected from 17 diverse aquatic habitats along the coast of Kenya. Larval productivity differed significantly (F (16, 243) = 3.21, P < 0.0001) among the aquatic habitats, with tyre habitats recording the highest larval population. Culex pipiens (50.17%) and Aedes aegypti (38.73%) were the dominant mosquito species in urban areas, while Ae. vittatus (89%) was the dominant species in forested areas. In total, 4,735 adult mosquitoes belonging to 19 species were collected in Haller Park, Bamburi, Gede and Arabuko Sokoke forest. Urban areas supported higher densities of Ae. aegypti compared to peri-urban and forest areas, which, on the other hand, supported greater mosquito species diversity. Conclusions: High Ae. aegypti production in urban and peri-urban areas present a greater risk of arbovirus outbreaks. Targeting productive habitats of Aedes aegypti, such as discarded tyres, containers and poorly maintained drainage systems in urban areas and preventing human-vector contact in peri-urban and forested areas could have a significant impact on the prevalence of arboviruses along the coast of Kenya, forestalling the periodic outbreaks experienced in the region.
Project description:Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus globally distributed in mosquitoes of the genus Culex. CxFV was positively associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infection in a case-control study of 268 mosquito pools from an endemic focus of WNV transmission in Chicago, United States. Specifically, WNV-positive Culex mosquito pools were four times more likely also to be infected with CxFV than were spatiotemporally matched WNV-negative pools. In addition, mosquito pools from residential sites characterized by dense housing and impermeable surfaces were more likely to be infected with CxFV than were pools from nearby urban green spaces. Further, 6/15 (40%) WNV-positive individual mosquitoes were also CxFV positive, demonstrating that both viruses can coinfect mosquitoes in nature. Phylogenetic analysis of CxFV from Chicago demonstrated a pattern similar to WNV, consisting of low global viral diversity and lack of geographic clustering. These results illustrate a positive ecological association between CxFV and WNV, and that coinfection of individual mosquitoes can occur naturally in areas of high flaviviral transmission. These conclusions represent a challenge to the hypothesis of super-infection exclusion in the CxFV/WNV system, whereby an established infection with one virus may interfere with secondary viral infection with a similar virus. This study suggests that infection with insect-specific flaviviruses such as CxFV may not exclude secondary infection with genetically distinct flaviviruses such as WNV, and that both viruses can naturally coinfect mosquitoes that are epidemic bridge vectors of WNV to humans.
Project description:BACKGROUND:With increases in global travel and trade, the spread of arboviruses is undoubtedly alarming. Pathogen detection in field-caught mosquitoes can provide the earliest possible warning of transmission. Insect-specific flavivirus (ISFV) has been first detected in 1991 and documented worldwide in the latest ten years. Although infection with ISFVs is apparently limited to insects, an increase in the infection rate of mosquito-borne flaviviruses may be able to induce cytopathic effects in vertebrate cells during co-infection with other human pathogens. However, little is known whether ISFVs persist in most regions of China. METHODS:During the mosquito activity season in 2016, a surveillance program was carried out to detect ISFVs in mosquitoes in metropolitan Shanghai, China. The presence of ISFVs was randomly tested in different species of mosquitoes using RT-PCR-based and hemi-nested PCR assays, following by the sequencing of PCR products. Sequences from positive pooled samples were compared with those deposited in GenBank. Thereafter, sequences of representative insect flaviviruses were used for further phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses. RESULTS:Our investigations showed: (1) the presence of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) in 11/161 pooled samples (nine pools in Songjiang District, one pool in Huangpu District, and one pool in Qingpu District) of Aedes albopictus, (2) the presence of Quang Binh virus (QBV) in 10/195 pooled samples (all in Chongming District) of Culex tritaeniorhynchus; and (3) the presence of Culex flavivirus (CxFV) in 9/228 pooled samples (six pools in Pudong New Area, two pools in Huangpu District, and one pool in Chongming District) of Cx. pipiens. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses of the gene sequences of envelope proteins indicated that Shanghai CxFV strains belonged to the Asia/USA genotype. The overall maximum likelihood estimation values (and 95% confidence interval) for CxFV, QBV, and AEFV in mosquitoes collected in Shanghai in 2016 were 1.34 (0.66-2.45), 1.65 (0.87-2.85), and 1.51 (0.77-2.70) per 1000, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:This study reveals the presence and the geographical distribution of ISFVs, and determines the genetic variation and the infection rate of ISFVs in Shanghai, China. At least, three insect flaviviruses including ISFVs, AEFV, CxFV, and QBV, co-circulate in this area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AEFV in China.
Project description:Mosquitoes transmit many kinds of arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses), and numerous arboviral diseases have become serious problems in Indonesia. In this study, we conducted surveillance of mosquito-borne viruses at several sites in Indonesia during 2016-2018 for risk assessment of arbovirus infection and analysis of virus biodiversity in mosquito populations. We collected 10,015 mosquitoes comprising at least 11 species from 4 genera. Major collected mosquito species were Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes aegypti, and Armigeres subalbatus. The collected mosquitoes were divided into 285 pools and used for virus isolation using two mammalian cell lines, Vero and BHK-21, and one mosquito cell line, C6/36. Seventy-two pools showed clear cytopathic effects only in C6/36 cells. Using RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing approaches, these isolates were identified as insect flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus), Banna virus (family Reoviridae, genus Seadornavirus), new permutotetravirus (designed as Bogor virus) (family Permutotetraviridae, genus Alphapermutotetravirus), and alphamesoniviruses 2 and 3 (family Mesoniviridae, genus Alphamesonivirus). We believed that this large surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses provides basic information for the prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases.
Project description:Classical insect-specific flaviviruses (cISFs) have been widely detected in different countries in the last decades. Here, we characterize the near full-length genomes of two cISFs detected in mosquitoes collected in the city of Macapá, state of Amapá, Amazon region of Brazil. A total of 105 pools of female mosquitos were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis identified three strains of cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) and two of Culex flavivirus (CxFV). All sequences were obtained from pools of Culex sp., except for one sequence of CFAV detected in a pool of Aedes aegypti. Both CxFV strains are phylogenetically related to a strain isolated in 2012 in the Southeast region of Brazil. The CFAV strains are the first of this species to be identified in Brazil and one of them is highly divergent from other strains of CFAV that have been detected worldwide. In conclusion, CFAV and CxFV, circulate in mosquitoes in Brazil. One strain of CFAV is highly divergent from others previously described, suggesting that a novel strain of CFAV is present in this region.