Structure and analysis of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Borrelia burgdorferi prepared in a transition-state complex with ADP and vanadate moieties.
ABSTRACT: Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs) are implicated in a wide variety of cellular functions owing to their enzymatic conversion of NDP to NTP. NDK from Borrelia burgdorferi (BbNDK) was selected for functional and structural analysis to determine whether its activity is required for infection and to assess its potential for therapeutic inhibition. The Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Diseases (SSGCID) expressed recombinant BbNDK protein. The protein was crystallized and structures were solved of both the apoenzyme and a liganded form with ADP and vanadate ligands. This provided two structures and allowed the elucidation of changes between the apo and ligand-bound enzymes. Infectivity studies with ndk transposon mutants demonstrated that NDK function was important for establishing a robust infection in mice, and provided a rationale for therapeutic targeting of BbNDK. The protein structure was compared with other NDK structures found in the Protein Data Bank and was found to have similar primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures, with conserved residues acting as the catalytic pocket, primarily using His132 as the phosphohistidine-transfer residue. Vanadate and ADP complexes model the transition state of this phosphoryl-transfer reaction, demonstrating that the pocket closes when bound to ADP, while allowing the addition or removal of a ?-phosphate. This analysis provides a framework for the design of potential therapeutics targeting BbNDK inhibition.
Project description:Nucleoside-diphosphate-kinases (NDKs) are leaderless, multifunctional enzymes. The mode(s) of NDK secretion is currently undefined, while extracellular translocation of bacterial NDKs is critical for avoidance of host pathogen clearance by opportunistic pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis-NDK during infection inhibits extracellular-ATP (eATP)/P2X<sub>7</sub>-receptor mediated cell death in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) via eATP hydrolysis. Furthermore, depletion of pannexin-1-hemichannel (PNX1) coupled with P2X<sub>7</sub>-receptor blocks the infection-induced eATP release in GECs, and P. gingivalis-NDK impacts this pathway. Ultrastructural and confocal microscopy of P. gingivalis-co-cultured GECs or green-fluorescent-protein (GFP)-P. gingivalis-NDK transfected GECs revealed a perinuclear/cytoplasmic localization of NDK. eATP stimulation induced NDK recruitment to the cell periphery. Depletion of PNX1 by siRNA or inhibition by probenecid resulted in significant blocking of extracellular NDK activity and secretion using ATPase and ELISA assays. Co-immunoprecipitation-coupled Mass-spectrometry method revealed association of P. gingivalis-NDK to the myosin-9 motor molecule. Interestingly, inhibition of myosin-9, actin, and lipid-rafts, shown to be involved in PNX1-hemichannel function, resulted in marked intracellular accumulation of NDK and decreased NDK secretion from infected GECs. These results elucidate for the first time PNX1-hemichannels as potentially main extracellular translocation pathway for NDKs from an intracellular pathogen, suggesting that PNX1-hemichannels may represent a therapeutic target for chronic opportunistic infections.
Project description:The analysis of the Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus genome revealed the first virus-encoded nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), an enzyme that is central to the synthesis of RNA and DNA, ubiquitous in cellular organisms, and well conserved among the three domains of life. In contrast with the broad specificity of cellular NDKs for all types of ribo- and deoxyribonucleotides, the mimivirus enzyme exhibits a strongly preferential affinity for deoxypyrimidines. In order to elucidate the molecular basis of this unique substrate specificity, we determined the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus NDK alone and in complex with various nucleotides. As predicted from a sequence comparison with cellular NDKs, the 3D structure of the mimivirus enzyme exhibits a shorter Kpn loop, previously recognized as a main feature of the NDK active site. The structure of the viral enzyme in complex with various nucleotides also pinpointed two residue changes, both located near the active site and specific to the viral NDK, which could explain its stronger affinity for deoxynucleotides and pyrimidine nucleotides. The role of these residues was explored by building a set of viral NDK variants, assaying their enzymatic activities, and determining their 3D structures in complex with various nucleotides. A total of 26 crystallographic structures were determined at resolutions ranging from 2.8 A to 1.5 A. Our results suggest that the mimivirus enzyme progressively evolved from an ancestral NDK under the constraints of optimizing its efficiency for the replication of an AT-rich (73%) viral genome in a thymidine-limited host environment.
Project description:Nucleoside diphosphate kinases from haloarchaea Haloarcula quadrata (NDK-q) and H. sinaiiensis (NDK-s) are identical except for one out of 154 residues, i.e., Arg(31) in NDK-q and Cys(31) in NDK-s. However, the salt-dependent activity profiles of NDK-q and NDK-s are quite different: the optimal NaCl concentrations of NDK-q and NDK-s are 1 M and 2 M, respectively. We analyzed the relationships of the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures and NDK activity of these NDKs at various salt concentrations, and revealed that 1), NDK-q is present as a hexamer under a wide range of salt concentrations (0.2-4 M NaCl), whereas NDK-s is present as a hexamer at an NaCl concentration above 2 M and as a dimer at NaCl concentrations below 1 M; 2), dimeric NDK-s has lower activity than hexameric NDK-s; and 3), dimeric NDK-s has higher helicity than hexameric NDK-s. We also determined the crystal structure of hexameric NDK-q, and revealed that Arg(31) plays an important role in stabilizing the hexamer. Thus the substitution of Arg (as in NDK-q) to Cys (as in NDK-s) at position 31 destabilizes the hexameric assembly, and causes dissociation to less active dimers at low salt concentrations.
Project description:MutS, a member of the ABC ATPases superfamily, is a mismatch DNA-binding protein constituent of the DNA post-replicative mismatch repair system (MMRS). In this work, it is shown that the ATPase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli MutS is inhibited by ortho- and decavanadate. Structural comparison of the region involved in the ATP binding of E.coli MutS with the corresponding region of other ABC ATPases inhibited by vanadate, including the myosin- orthovanadate-Mg complex, showed that they are highly similar. From these results it is proposed that the orthovanadate inhibition of MutS ATPase can take place by a similar mechanism to that described for other ATPases. Docking of decavanadate on the ATP-binding region of MutS showed that the energetically more favorable interaction of this compound would take place with the complex MutS- ADP-Mg, suggesting that the inhibitory effect could be produced by a steric impediment of the protein ATP/ADP exchange. Besides the effect observed on the ATPase activity, vanadate also affects the DNA-binding capability of the protein, and partially inhibits the oligomerization of MutS and the temperature-induced inactivation of the protein. From the results obtained, and considering that vanadate is an intracellular trace component, this compound could be considered as a new modulator of the MMRS.
Project description:We have previously shown that a homologue of a conserved nucleoside-diphosphate-kinase (Ndk) family of multifunctional enzymes and secreted molecule in Porphyromonas gingivalis can modulate select host molecular pathways including downregulation of reactive-oxygen-species generation to promote bacterial survival in human gingival epithelial cells (GECs). In this study, we describe a novel kinase function for bacterial effector, P. gingivalis-Ndk, in abrogating epithelial cell death by phosphorylating heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) in GECs. Infection by P. gingivalis was recently suggested to increase phosphorylation of HSP27 in cancer-epithelial cells; however, the mechanism and biological significance of antiapoptotic phospho-HSP27 during infection has never been characterised. Interestingly, using glutathione S-transferase-rNdk pull-down analysed by mass spectrometry, we identified HSP27 in GECs as a strong binder of P. gingivalis-Ndk and further verified using confocal microscopy and ELISA. Therefore, we hypothesised P. gingivalis-Ndk can phosphorylate HSP27 for inhibition of apoptosis in GECs. We further employed P. gingivalis-Ndk protein constructs and an isogenic P. gingivalis-ndk-deficient-mutant strain for functional examination. P. gingivalis-infected GECs displayed significantly increased phospho-HSP27 compared with ndk-deficient-strain during 24 hr infection. Phospho-HSP27 was significantly increased by transfection of GFP-tagged-Ndk into uninfected-GECs, and in vitro phosphorylation assays revealed direct phosphorylation of HSP27 at serines 78 and 82 by P. gingivalis-Ndk. Depletion of HSP27 via siRNA significantly reversed resistance against staurosporine-mediated-apoptosis during infection. Transfection of recombinant P. gingivalis-Ndk protein into GECs substantially decreased staurosporine-induced-apoptosis. Finally, ndk-deficient-mutant strain was unable to inhibit staurosporine-induced Cytochrome C release/Caspase-9 activation. Thus, we show for the first time the phosphorylation of HSP27 by a bacterial effector-P. gingivalis-Ndk-and a novel function of Ndks that is directly involved in inhibition of host cell apoptosis and the subsequent bacterial survival.
Project description:Skeletal mass is maintained by a balance between formation and resorption, cell proliferation and apoptosis. In vitro, glucocorticoids (GCs) decrease extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) activation by mitogens, thus inhibiting osteoblast proliferation. Both ERK activity and proliferation are restored by co-treatment with the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, vanadate. Since ERK signalling may also be anti-apoptotic, we explored the effects of vanadate on GC-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Apoptosis in MBA-15.4 pre-osteoblasts increased from 6 h and remained up to eightfold higher through 6 days of 10(- 6) M dexamethasone (Dex) treatment. Co-incubation with 10(- 7) M vanadate markedly reduced apoptosis at all time points. Vanadate also prevented GC-induced poly-ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage. We assessed the transcriptional profiles of seven anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), inhibitors of apoptosis protein-1 (IAP-1), IAP-2, X-linked IAP (XIAP), Fas-associated death-domain-like IL-1beta-converting enzyme-inhibitory protein (FLIP(Long)) and FLIP(Short)) in osteoblasts subjected to various stimuli using real-time quantitative PCR. Although these anti-apoptotic genes responded to different mitogenic conditions, Dex failed to repress their expression, and in fact significantly up-regulated Bcl-X(L), IAP-2 and XIAP. Dex may therefore induce apoptosis by up-regulating pro-apoptotic gene expression. We have previously demonstrated that rats treated with GC develop low formation osteoporosis (bone histomorphometry and DEXA) and skeletal fragility (breaking strength) that were largely prevented by co-treatment with vanadate. We report here that vertebrae from rats treated with 3.5 mg/kg per day methylprednisolone for 9 weeks showed increased incidence of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-dUTP nick end-labelling-positive apoptotic osteocytes, which was reduced by vanadate co-treatment. We conclude that vanadate prevents GC-induced apoptosis of pre-osteoblasts in vitro and osteocytes in vivo, and this may contribute to its bone-sparing effects in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) is a housekeeping enzyme that plays key roles in nucleotide recycling and homeostasis in trypanosomatids. It is also secreted by the intracellular parasite Leishmania to modulate the host response. These functions make NDK an attractive target for drug design and for studies aiming at a better understanding of the mechanisms mediating host-pathogen interactions. RESULTS:We report the crystal structure and biophysical characterization of the NDK from Leishmania braziliensis (LbNDK). The subunit consists of six ?-helices along with a core of four ?-strands arranged in a ?2?3?1?4 antiparallel topology order. In contrast to the NDK from L. major, the LbNDK C-terminal extension is partially unfolded. SAXS data showed that LbNDK forms hexamers in solution in the pH range from 7.0 to 4.0, a hydrodynamic behavior conserved in most eukaryotic NDKs. However, DSF assays show that acidification and alkalization decrease the hexamer stability. CONCLUSIONS:Our results support that LbNDK remains hexameric in pH conditions akin to that faced by this enzyme when secreted by Leishmania amastigotes in the parasitophorous vacuoles (pH 4.7 to 5.3). The unusual unfolded conformation of LbNDK C-terminus decreases the surface buried in the trimer interface exposing new regions that might be explored for the development of compounds designed to disturb enzyme oligomerization, which may impair the important nucleotide salvage pathway in these parasites.
Project description:The binding of uridine vanadate to ribonuclease A has been investigated by one- and two-dimensional 1H NMR. The homonuclear Nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy spectrum of the uridine vanadate/RNase A complex exhibits cross peaks between both the C5H and C6H protons of uridine vanadate and the H epsilon 1 proton of His-12 of ribonuclease A. These cross peaks suggest that the H epsilon 1 proton of His-12 is in the vicinity of the uracil base of uridine vanadate, as observed in the crystallographic structure of the uridine vanadate/RNase A complex. However, no cross peaks are observed between the C5H and C6H protons of uridine vanadate and the H epsilon 1 proton of His-119 of ribonuclease A, although they were predicted based upon the distances calculated from coordinates of the crystallographic structure of the complex. These results suggest that there is a significant difference between the positioning of the His-119 side chain in the solution and in the crystallographic structures.
Project description:The temperature-sensitive swoH1 mutant of Aspergillus nidulans was previously identified in a screen for mutants with defects in polar growth. In the present work, we found that the swoH1 mutant swelled, lysed, and did not produce conidia during extended incubation at the restrictive temperature. When shifted from the permissive to the restrictive temperature, swoH1 showed the temperature-sensitive swelling phenotype only after 8 h at the higher temperature. The swoH gene was mapped to chromosome II and cloned by complementation of the temperature-sensitive phenotype. The sequence showed that swoH encodes a homologue of nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs) from other organisms. Deletion experiments showed that the swoH gene is essential. A hemagglutinin-SwoHp fusion complemented the mutant phenotype, and the purified fusion protein possessed phosphate transferase activity in thin-layer chromatography assays. Sequencing of the mutant allele showed a predicted V83F change. Structural modeling suggested that the swoH1 mutation would lead to perturbation of the NDK active site. Crude cell extracts from the swoH1 mutant grown at the permissive temperature had approximately 20% of the NDK activity seen in the wild type and did not show any decrease in activity when assayed at higher temperatures. Though the data are not conclusive, the lack of temperature-sensitive NDK activity in the swoH1 mutant raises the intriguing possibility that the SwoH NDK is required for growth at elevated temperatures rather than for polarity maintenance.
Project description:Vanadium is a transition metal that has been added recently to the EU list of Raw Critical Metals. The growing needs of vanadium primarily in the steel industry justify its increasing economic value. However, because mining of vanadium sources (i. e. ores, concentrates and vanadiferous slags) is expanding, so is vanadium environmental contamination. Bioleaching comes forth as smart strategy to deal with supply demand and environmental contamination. It requires organisms that are able to mobilize the metal and at the same time are resistant to the leachate generated. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying vanadium resistance in Ochrobactrum tritici strains. The highly resistant strain 5bvl1 was able to grow at concentrations > 30 mM vanadate, while the O. tritici type strain only tolerated < 3 mM vanadate concentrations. Screening of O. tritici single mutants (chrA, chrC, chrF and recA) growth during vanadate exposure revealed that vanadate resistance was associated with chromate resistance mechanisms (in particular ChrA, an efflux pump and ChrC, a superoxide dismutase). We also showed that sensitivity to vanadate was correlated with increased accumulation of vanadate intracellularly, while in resistant cells this was not found. Other up-regulated proteins found during vanadate exposure were ABC transporters for methionine and iron, suggesting that cellular responses to vanadate toxicity may also induce changes in unspecific transport and chelation of vanadate.