Efficacy and safety of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy in patients with haematological and solid malignancies: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Patients with relapsed or refractory malignancies have a poor prognosis. Immunotherapy with chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells redirects a patient's immune cells against the tumour antigen. CAR-T cell therapy has demonstrated promise in treating patients with several haematological malignancies, including acute B-cell lymphoblastic leukaemia and B-cell lymphomas. CAR-T cell therapy for patients with other solid tumours is also being tested. Safety is an important consideration in CAR-T cell therapy given the potential for serious adverse events, including death. Previous reviews on CAR-T cell therapy have been limited in scope and methodology. Herein, we present a protocol for a systematic review to identify CAR-T cell interventional studies and examine the safety and efficacy of this therapy in patients with haematology malignancies and solid tumours. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We will search MEDLINE, including In-Process and Epub Ahead of Print, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1946 to 22 February 2017. Studies will be screened by title, abstract and full text independently and in duplicate. Studies that report administering CAR-T cells of any chimeric antigen receptor construct targeting antigens in patients with haematological malignancies and solid tumours will be eligible for inclusion. Outcomes to be extracted will include complete response rate (primary outcome), overall response rate, overall survival, relapse and adverse events. A meta-analysis will be performed to synthesise the prevalence of outcomes reported as proportions with 95% CIs. The potential for bias within included studies will be assessed using a modified Institute of Health Economics tool. Heterogeneity of effect sizes will be determined using the Cochrane I 2 statistic. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The review findings will be submitted for peer-reviewed journal publication and presented at relevant conferences and scientific meetings to promote knowledge transfer. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42017075331.
Project description:Immunotherapy of cancer had its early beginnings in the times when the elements of the immune system were still poorly characterized. However, with the progress in molecular biology, it has become feasible to re-engineer T cells in order to eradicate tumour cells. The use of synthetic chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) helped to re-target and simultaneously unleash the cytotoxic potential of T cells. CAR-T therapy proved to be remarkably effective in cases of haematological malignancies, often refractory and relapsed. The success of this approach yielded two Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals for the first "living drug" modalities. However, CAR-T therapy is not without flaws. Apart from the side effects associated with the treatment, it became apparent that CAR introduction alters T cell biology and the possible therapeutic outcomes. Additionally, it was shown that CAR-T approaches in solid tumours do not recapitulate the success in the haemato-oncology. Therefore, in this review, we aim to discuss the recent concerns of CAR-T therapy for both haematological and solid tumours. We also summarise the general strategies that are implemented to enhance the efficacy and safety of the CAR-T regimens in blood and solid malignancies.
Project description:Although adoptive T-cell therapy has shown remarkable clinical efficacy in haematological malignancies, its success in combating solid tumours has been limited. Here, we report that PTPN2 deletion in T cells enhances cancer immunosurveillance and the efficacy of adoptively transferred tumour-specific T cells. T-cell-specific PTPN2 deficiency prevented tumours forming in aged mice heterozygous for the tumour suppressor p53. Adoptive transfer of PTPN2-deficient CD8+ T cells markedly repressed tumour formation in mice bearing mammary tumours. Moreover, PTPN2 deletion in T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the oncoprotein HER-2 increased the activation of the Src family kinase LCK and cytokine-induced STAT-5 signalling, thereby enhancing both CAR T-cell activation and homing to CXCL9/10-expressing tumours to eradicate HER-2+ mammary tumours in vivo. Our findings define PTPN2 as a target for bolstering T-cell-mediated anti-tumour immunity and CAR T-cell therapy against solid tumours.
Project description:Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a rapidly developing method for adoptive immunotherapy of tumours in recent years. CAR T-cell therapies have demonstrated unprecedented efficacy in the treatment of patients with haematological malignancies. A 90% complete response (CR) rate has been reported in patients with advanced relapse or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, while >50% CR rates have been reported in cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and partial B-cell lymphoma. Despite the high CR rates, a subset of the patients with complete remission still relapse. The mechanism of development of resistance is not clearly understood. Some patients have been reported to demonstrate antigen-positive relapse, whereas others show antigen-negative relapses. Patients who relapse following CAR T-cell therapy, have very poor prognosis and novel approaches to overcome resistance are required urgently. Herein, we have reviewed current literature and research that have investigated the strategies to overcome resistance to CAR T-cell therapy.
Project description:Chimeric antigen receptors are genetically encoded artificial fusion molecules that can re-program the specificity of peripheral blood polyclonal T-cells against a selected cell surface target. Unparallelled clinical efficacy has recently been demonstrated using this approach to treat patients with refractory B-cell malignancy. However, the approach is technically challenging and can elicit severe toxicity in patients. Moreover, solid tumours have largely proven refractory to this approach. In this review, we describe the important structural features of CARs and how this may influence function. Emerging clinical experience is summarized in both solid tumours and haematological malignancies. Finally, we consider the particular challenges imposed by solid tumours to the successful development of CAR T-cell immunotherapy, together with a number of innovative strategies that have been developed in an effort to reverse the balance in favour of therapeutic benefit.
Project description:Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has shown promise in the treatment of haematological cancers and is currently being investigated for solid tumours, including high-grade glioma brain tumours. There is a desperate need to quantitatively study the factors that contribute to the efficacy of CAR T-cell therapy in solid tumours. In this work, we use a mathematical model of predator-prey dynamics to explore the kinetics of CAR T-cell killing in glioma: the Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell treatment Response in GliOma (CARRGO) model. The model includes rates of cancer cell proliferation, CAR T-cell killing, proliferation, exhaustion, and persistence. We use patient-derived and engineered cancer cell lines with an in vitro real-time cell analyser to parametrize the CARRGO model. We observe that CAR T-cell dose correlates inversely with the killing rate and correlates directly with the net rate of proliferation and exhaustion. This suggests that at a lower dose of CAR T-cells, individual T-cells kill more cancer cells but become more exhausted when compared with higher doses. Furthermore, the exhaustion rate was observed to increase significantly with tumour growth rate and was dependent on level of antigen expression. The CARRGO model highlights nonlinear dynamics involved in CAR T-cell therapy and provides novel insights into the kinetics of CAR T-cell killing. The model suggests that CAR T-cell treatment may be tailored to individual tumour characteristics including tumour growth rate and antigen level to maximize therapeutic benefit.
Project description:Since the approval in 2017 and the outstanding success of Kymriah® and Yescarta®, the number of clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor-modified autologous T cells has been constantly rising. Currently, more than 200 clinical trials are listed on clinicaltrial.gov. In contrast to CAR-T cells, natural killer (NK) cells can be used from allogeneic donors as an "off the shelf product" and provide alternative candidates for cancer retargeting. This review summarises preclinical results of CAR-engineered NK cells using both primary human NK cells and the cell line NK-92, and provides an overview about the first clinical CAR-NK cell studies targeting haematological malignancies and solid tumours, respectively.
Project description:Genetically engineered T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) are rapidly emerging a promising new treatment for haematological and non-haematological malignancies. CAR-T therapy can induce rapid and durable clinical responses but is associated with unique acute toxicities. Moreover, CAR-T cells are vulnerable to immunosuppressive mechanisms. Here, we report that CAR-T cells release extracellular vesicles, mostly in the form of exosomes that carry CAR on their surface. The CAR-containing exosomes express a high level of cytotoxic molecules and inhibit tumour growth. Compared with CAR-T cells, CAR exosomes do not express Programmed cell Death protein 1 (PD1), and their antitumour effect cannot be weakened by recombinant PD-L1 treatment. In a preclinical in vivo model of cytokine release syndrome, the administration of CAR exosomes is relatively safe compared with CAR-T therapy. This study supports the use of exosomes as biomimetic nanovesicles that may be useful in future therapeutic approaches against tumours.
Project description:Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR)-T cell therapy has recently made promising advances towards treatment of B-cell malignancies. This approach makes use of an antibody-derived single chain variable fragment (scFv)-based CAR to target the CD19 antigen. Currently scFvs are the most common strategy for creation of CARs, but tumor cells can also be targeted using non-antibody based approaches with designs focused on the interaction between natural receptors and their ligands. This emerging strategy has been used in unique ways to target multiple tumor types, including solid and haematological malignancies. In this review, we will highlight the performance of receptor-ligand combinations as designs for CARs to treat cancer, with a particular focus on haematologic malignancies.
Project description:The engineered expression of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on the surface of T cells enables the redirection of T-cell specificity. Early clinical trials using CAR T cells for the treatment of patients with cancer showed modest results, but the impressive outcomes of several trials of CD19-targeted CAR T cells in the treatment of patients with B-cell malignancies have generated an increased enthusiasm for this approach. Important lessons have been derived from clinical trials of CD19-specific CAR T cells, and ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in haematological and solid malignancies. In this Review, we discuss these trials and present strategies that can increase the antitumour efficacy and safety of CAR T-cell therapy. Given the fast-moving nature of this field, we only discuss studies with direct translational application currently or soon-to-be tested in the clinical setting.
Project description:With the approval of talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) for inoperable locally advanced or metastatic malignant melanoma in the USA and Europe, oncolytic virotherapy is now emerging as a viable therapeutic option for cancer patients. In parallel, following the favourable results of several clinical trials, adoptive cell transfer using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T-cells is anticipated to enter routine clinical practice for the management of chemotherapy-refractory B-cell malignancies. However, CAR T-cell therapy for patients with advanced solid tumours has proved far less successful. This Review draws upon recent advances in the design of novel oncolytic viruses and CAR T-cells and provides a comprehensive overview of the synergistic potential of combination oncolytic virotherapy with CAR T-cell adoptive cell transfer for the management of solid tumours, drawing particular attention to the methods by which recombinant oncolytic viruses may augment CAR T-cell trafficking into the tumour microenvironment, mitigate or reverse local immunosuppression and enhance CAR T-cell effector function and persistence.