MySyntenyPortal: an application package to construct websites for synteny block analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Advances in sequencing technologies have facilitated large-scale comparative genomics based on whole genome sequencing. Constructing and investigating conserved genomic regions among multiple species (called synteny blocks) are essential in the comparative genomics. However, they require significant amounts of computational resources and time in addition to bioinformatics skills. Many web interfaces have been developed to make such tasks easier. However, these web interfaces cannot be customized for users who want to use their own set of genome sequences or definition of synteny blocks. RESULTS:To resolve this limitation, we present mySyntenyPortal, a stand-alone application package to construct websites for synteny block analyses by using users' own genome data. mySyntenyPortal provides both command line and web-based interfaces to build and manage websites for large-scale comparative genomic analyses. The websites can be also easily published and accessed by other users. To demonstrate the usability of mySyntenyPortal, we present an example study for building websites to compare genomes of three mammalian species (human, mouse, and cow) and show how they can be easily utilized to identify potential genes affected by genome rearrangements. CONCLUSIONS:mySyntenyPortal will contribute for extended comparative genomic analyses based on large-scale whole genome sequences by providing unique functionality to support the easy creation of interactive websites for synteny block analyses from user's own genome data.
Project description:Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies and genome assembly algorithms have enabled the accumulation of a huge volume of genome sequences from various species. This has provided new opportunities for large-scale comparative genomics studies. Identifying and utilizing synteny blocks, which are genomic regions conserved among multiple species, is key to understanding genomic architecture and the evolutionary history of genomes. However, the construction and visualization of such synteny blocks from multiple species are very challenging, especially for biologists with a lack of computational skills. Here, we present Synteny Portal, a versatile web-based application portal for constructing, visualizing and browsing synteny blocks. With Synteny Portal, users can easily (i) construct synteny blocks among multiple species by using prebuilt alignments in the UCSC genome browser database, (ii) visualize and download syntenic relationships as high-quality images, (iii) browse synteny blocks with genetic information and (iv) download the details of synteny blocks to be used as input for downstream synteny-based analyses, all in an intuitive and easy-to-use web-based interface. We believe that Synteny Portal will serve as a highly valuable tool that will enable biologists to easily perform comparative genomics studies by compensating limitations of existing tools. Synteny Portal is freely available at http://bioinfo.konkuk.ac.kr/synteny_portal.
Project description:The analysis of genome synteny is a common practice in comparative genomics. With the advent of DNA sequencing technologies, individual biologists can rapidly produce their genomic sequences of interest. Although web-based synteny visualization tools are convenient for biologists to use, none of the existing ones allow biologists to upload their own data for analysis.We have developed the web-based Genome Synteny Viewer (GSV) that allows users to upload two data files for synteny visualization, the mandatory synteny file for specifying genomic positions of conserved regions and the optional genome annotation file. GSV presents two selected genomes in a single integrated view while still retaining the browsing flexibility necessary for exploring individual genomes. Users can browse and filter for genomic regions of interest, change the color or shape of each annotation track as well as re-order, hide or show the tracks dynamically. Additional features include downloadable images, immediate email notification and tracking of usage history. The entire GSV package is also light-weighted which enables easy local installation.GSV provides a unique option for biologists to analyze genome synteny by uploading their own data set to a web-based comparative genome browser. A web server hosting GSV is provided at http://cas-bioinfo.cas.unt.edu/gsv, and the software is also freely available for local installations.
Project description:Web-based synteny visualization tools are important for sharing data and revealing patterns of complicated genome conservation and rearrangements. Such tools should allow biologists to upload genomic data for their own analysis. This requirement is critical because individual biologists are generating large amounts of genomic sequences that quickly overwhelm any centralized web resources to collect and display all those data. Recently, we published a web-based synteny viewer, GSV, which was designed to satisfy the above requirement. However, GSV can only compare two genomes at a given time. Extending the functionality of GSV to visualize multiple genomes is important to meet the increasing demand of the research community.We have developed a multi-Genome Synteny Viewer (mGSV). Similar to GSV, mGSV is a web-based tool that allows users to upload their own genomic data files for visualization. Multiple genomes can be presented in a single integrated view with an enhanced user interface. Users can navigate through all the selected genomes in either pairwise or multiple viewing mode to examine conserved genomic regions as well as the accompanying genome annotations. Besides serving users who manually interact with the web server, mGSV also provides Web Services for machine-to-machine communication to accept data sent by other remote resources. The entire mGSV package can also be downloaded for easy local installation.mGSV significantly enhances the original functionalities of GSV. A web server hosting mGSV is provided at http://cas-bioinfo.cas.unt.edu/mgsv.
Project description:Defining syntenic relationships among orthologous gene clusters is a frequent undertaking of biologists studying organismal evolution through comparative genomic approaches. With the increasing availability of genome data made possible through next-generation sequencing technology, there is a growing need for user-friendly tools capable of assessing synteny. Here we present SimpleSynteny, a new web-based platform capable of directly interrogating collinearity of local genomic neighbors across multiple species in a targeted manner. SimpleSynteny provides a pipeline for evaluating the synteny of a preselected set of gene targets across multiple organismal genomes. An emphasis has been placed on ease-of-use, and users are only required to submit FASTA files for their genomes and genes of interest. SimpleSynteny then guides the user through an iterative process of exploring and customizing genomes individually before combining them into a final high-resolution figure. Because the process is iterative, it allows the user to customize the organization of multiple contigs and incorporate knowledge from additional sources, rather than forcing complete dependence on the computational predictions. Additional tools are provided to help the user identify which contigs in a genome assembly contain gene targets and to optimize analyses of circular genomes. SimpleSynteny is freely available at: http://www.SimpleSynteny.com.
Project description:Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) has emerged as a model species for the Fagaceae family with extensive genomic resources including a physical map, a dense genetic map and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for chestnut blight resistance. These resources enable comparative genomics analyses relative to model plants. We assessed the degree of conservation between the chestnut genome and other well annotated and assembled plant genomic sequences, focusing on the QTL regions of most interest to the chestnut breeding community.The integrated physical and genetic map of Chinese chestnut has been improved to now include 858 shared sequence-based markers. The utility of the integrated map has also been improved through the addition of 42,970 BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequences spanning over 26 million bases of the estimated 800 Mb chestnut genome. Synteny between chestnut and ten model plant species was conducted on a macro-syntenic scale using sequences from both individual probes and BAC end sequences across the chestnut physical map. Blocks of synteny with chestnut were found in all ten reference species, with the percent of the chestnut physical map that could be aligned ranging from 10 to 39 %. The integrated genetic and physical map was utilized to identify BACs that spanned the three previously identified QTL regions conferring blight resistance. The clones were pooled and sequenced, yielding 396 sequence scaffolds covering 13.9 Mbp. Comparative genomic analysis on a microsytenic scale, using the QTL-associated genomic sequence, identified synteny from chestnut to other plant genomes ranging from 5.4 to 12.9 % of the genome sequences aligning.On both the macro- and micro-synteny levels, the peach, grape and poplar genomes were found to be the most structurally conserved with chestnut. Interestingly, these results did not strictly follow the expectation that decreased phylogenetic distance would correspond to increased levels of genome preservation, but rather suggest the additional influence of life-history traits on preservation of synteny. The regions of synteny that were detected provide an important tool for defining and cataloging genes in the QTL regions for advancing chestnut blight resistance research.
Project description:Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is a knowledgebase for comparative functional analysis in major crops and model plant species. The current release, #54, includes over 1.7 million genes from 44 reference genomes, most of which were organized into 62,367 gene families through orthologous and paralogous gene classification, whole-genome alignments, and synteny. Additional gene annotations include ontology-based protein structure and function; genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic diversity; and pathway associations. Gramene's Plant Reactome provides a knowledgebase of cellular-level plant pathway networks. Specifically, it uses curated rice reference pathways to derive pathway projections for an additional 66 species based on gene orthology, and facilitates display of gene expression, gene-gene interactions, and user-defined omics data in the context of these pathways. As a community portal, Gramene integrates best-of-class software and infrastructure components including the Ensembl genome browser, Reactome pathway browser, and Expression Atlas widgets, and undergoes periodic data and software upgrades. Via powerful, intuitive search interfaces, users can easily query across various portals and interactively analyze search results by clicking on diverse features such as genomic context, highly augmented gene trees, gene expression anatomograms, associated pathways, and external informatics resources. All data in Gramene are accessible through both visual and programmatic interfaces.
Project description:The identification of conserved syntenic regions enables discovery of predicted locations for orthologous and homeologous genes, even when no such gene is present. This capability means that synteny-based methods are far more effective than sequence similarity-based methods in identifying true-negatives, a necessity for studying gene loss and gene transposition. However, the identification of syntenic regions requires complex analyses which must be repeated for pairwise comparisons between any two species. Therefore, as the number of published genomes increases, there is a growing demand for scalable, simple-to-use applications to perform comparative genomic analyses that cater to both gene family studies and genome-scale studies. We implemented SynFind, a web-based tool that addresses this need. Given one query genome, SynFind is capable of identifying conserved syntenic regions in any set of target genomes. SynFind is capable of reporting per-gene information, useful for researchers studying specific gene families, as well as genome-wide data sets of syntenic gene and predicted gene locations, critical for researchers focused on large-scale genomic analyses. Inference of syntenic homologs provides the basis for correlation of functional changes around genes of interests between related organisms. Deployed on the CoGe online platform, SynFind is connected to the genomic data from over 15,000 organisms from all domains of life as well as supporting multiple releases of the same organism. SynFind makes use of a powerful job execution framework that promises scalability and reproducibility. SynFind can be accessed at http://genomevolution.org/CoGe/SynFind.pl. A video tutorial of SynFind using Phytophthrora as an example is available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Agczny9Nyc.
Project description:The first microbial genome sequence, Haemophilus influenzae, was published in 1995. Since then, more than 400 microbial genome sequences have been completed or commenced. This massive influx of data provides the opportunity to obtain biological insights through comparative genomics. However few tools are available for this scale of comparative analysis.The BLAST Score Ratio (BSR) approach, implemented in a Perl script, classifies all putative peptides within three genomes using a measure of similarity based on the ratio of BLAST scores. The output of the BSR analysis enables global visualization of the degree of proteome similarity between all three genomes. Additional output enables the genomic synteny (conserved gene order) between each genome pair to be assessed. Furthermore, we extend this synteny analysis by overlaying BSR data as a color dimension, enabling visualization of the degree of similarity of the peptides being compared.Combining the degree of similarity, synteny and annotation will allow rapid identification of conserved genomic regions as well as a number of common genomic rearrangements such as insertions, deletions and inversions. The script and example visualizations are available at: http://www.microbialgenomics.org/BSR/.
Project description:The annotation of genomes from NGS platforms needs to be automated and fully integrated. However, maintaining consistency and accuracy in genome annotation is a challenging problem because millions of protein database entries are not assigned reliable functions. This shortcoming limits the knowledge that can be extracted from genomes and metabolic models. Launched in 2005, the MicroScope platform (http://www.genoscope.cns.fr/agc/microscope) is an integrative resource that supports systematic and efficient revision of microbial genome annotation, data management and comparative analysis. Effective comparative analysis requires a consistent and complete view of biological data, and therefore, support for reviewing the quality of functional annotation is critical. MicroScope allows users to analyze microbial (meta)genomes together with post-genomic experiment results if any (i.e. transcriptomics, re-sequencing of evolved strains, mutant collections, phenotype data). It combines tools and graphical interfaces to analyze genomes and to perform the expert curation of gene functions in a comparative context. Starting with a short overview of the MicroScope system, this paper focuses on some major improvements of the Web interface, mainly for the submission of genomic data and on original tools and pipelines that have been developed and integrated in the platform: computation of pan-genomes and prediction of biosynthetic gene clusters. Today the resource contains data for more than 6000 microbial genomes, and among the 2700 personal accounts (65% of which are now from foreign countries), 14% of the users are performing expert annotations, on at least a weekly basis, contributing to improve the quality of microbial genome annotations.
Project description:To make genomic and epigenomic analyses more widely available to the biological research community, we have created LoadExp+, a suite of bioinformatics workflows integrated with the web-based comparative genomics platform, CoGe. LoadExp+ allows users to perform transcriptomic (RNA-seq), epigenomic (bisulfite-seq), chromatin-binding (ChIP-seq), variant identification (SNPs), and population genetics analyses against any genome in CoGe, including genomes integrated by users themselves. Through LoadExp+'s integration with CoGe's existing features, all analyses are available for visualization and additional downstream processing, and are available for export to CyVerse's data management and analysis platforms. LoadExp+ provides easy-to-use functionality to manage genomics and epigenomics data throughout its entire lifecycle using a publicly available web-based platform and facilitates greater accessibility of genomics analyses to researchers of all skill levels. LoadExp+ can be accessed at https://genomevolution.org.