Collagen-induced arthritis as an animal model of rheumatoid cachexia.
ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by chronic polyarticular synovitis and presents systemic changes that impact quality of life, such as impaired muscle function, seen in up to 66% of the patients. This can progress to severely debilitating state known as rheumatoid cachexia-without loss of fat mass and body weight-for which there is little consensus in terms of diagnosis or treatment. This study aims to evaluate whether the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) animal model also develops clinical and functional features characteristic of rheumatoid cachexia.Male DBA1/J mice were randomly divided into 2 groups: healthy animals (CO, n = 11) and CIA animals (n = 13). The clinical score and edema size, animal weight and food intake, free exploratory locomotion, grip strength, and endurance exercise performance were tested 0, 18, 35, 45, 55, and 65 days after disease induction. After euthanasia, several organs, visceral and brown fat, and muscles were dissected and weighed. Muscles were used to assess myofiber diameter. Ankle joint was used to assess arthritis severity by histological score. Statistical analysis were performed using one-way and two-way analyses of variance followed by Tukey's and Bonferroni's test or t-test of Pearson and statistical difference were assumed for a P value under 0.05.The CIA had significantly higher arthritis scores and larger hind paw edema volumes than CO. The CIA had decreased endurance exercise performance total time (fatigue; 23, 22, 24, and 21% at 35, 45, 55, and 65 days, respectively), grip strength (27, 55, 63, 60, and 66% at 25, 35, 45, 55, and 65 days, respectively), free locomotion (43, 57, 59, and 66% at 35, 45, 55, and 65 days, respectively), and tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle weight (25 and 24%, respectively) compared with CO. Sarcoplasmic ratios were also reduced in CIA (TA: 23 and GA: 22% less sarcoplasmic ratio), confirming the atrophy of skeletal muscle mass in these animals than in CO. Myofiber diameter was also reduced 45% in TA and 41% in GA in CIA when compared with the CO. Visceral and brown fat were lighter in CIA (54 and 39%, respectively) than CO group.The CIA model is a valid experimental model for rheumatoid cachexia given that the clinical changes observed were similar to those described in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, affecting mainly the joint but also other tissues. RA patients usually present weakness and muscle atrophy, nonarticular manifestations of the disease. Although causing great impact, the understanding of muscle atrophy, its development, and the mechanisms involved is still very limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate the development of muscle atrophy in skeletal muscle of a murine model of arthritis. METHODS: The experimental murine model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was used. DBA/1J mice were randomly divided into three groups: control (CO, n?=?25), sham arthritis (SA, n?=?25), and arthritis (CIA, n?=?28), analyzed in different time points: 25, 35, and 45 days after the induction of arthritis. The arthritis development was followed by clinical scores and hind paw edema three times a week. The spontaneous exploratory locomotion and weight were evaluated weekly. In all time points, serum was collected before the death of the animals for cytokine analysis, and myofiber cross-sectional areas (CSA) of gastrocnemius (GA) and tibialis anterior (TA) skeletal muscles were evaluated. RESULTS: The clinical parameters of arthritis progressively increased in CIA in all experimental times, demonstrating the greatest difference from other groups at 45 days after induction (clinical score: CO, 00?±?00; SA, 1.00?±?0.14; CIA, 3.28?±?0.41 p?>?0.05). The CIA animals had lower weights during all the experimentation periods with a difference of 6 % from CO at 45 days (p?>?0.05). CIA animals also demonstrated progressive decrease in distance walked, with a reduction of 54 % in 35 and 74 % at 45 days. Cytokine analysis identified significant increase in IL-6 serum levels in CIA than CO and SA in all experimental times. CSA of the myofiber of GA and TA was decreased 26 and 31 % (p?>?0.05) in CIA in 45 days after the induction of disease, respectively. There was significant and inverse correlation between the disease clinical score and myofiber CSA in 45 days (GA: r?=?-0.71; p?=?0.021). CONCLUSION: Our results point to a progressive development of muscle wasting, with premature onset arthritis. These observations are relevant to understand the development of muscle loss, as well as for the design of future studies trying to understand the mechanisms involved in muscle wasting. As far as we are concerned, this is the first study to evaluate the relation between disease score and muscle atrophy in a model of arthritis.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic disease that affects the osteoarticular system, associated with bone fragility and increased risk of fractures. Herein, we aimed to characterize the systemic impact of the rat collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model and explore its combination with femoral bone defect (FD). The impact of CIA on endogenous mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) was also investigated. CIA induction led to enlarged, more proliferative, spleen and draining lymph nodes, with altered proportion of lymphoid populations. Upon FD, CIA animals increased the systemic myeloid cell proportions, and their expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86. Screening plasma cytokine/chemokine levels showed increased tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), Interleukin (IL)-17, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-12 in CIA, and IL-2 and IL-6 increased in CIA and CIA+FD, while Fractalkine and Leptin were decreased in both groups. CIA-derived MSC showed lower metabolic activity and proliferation, and significantly increased osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation markers. Exposure of control-MSC to TNF-? partially mimicked the CIA-MSC phenotype in vitro. In conclusion, inflammatory conditions of CIA led to alterations in systemic immune cell proportions, circulating mediators, and in endogenous MSC. CIA animals respond to FD, and the combined model can be used to study the mechanisms of bone repair in inflammatory conditions.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Observations of microbial dysbiosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have raised interest in studying microbial-mucosal interactions as a potential trigger of RA. Using the murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, we undertook this study to test our hypothesis that microbiota modulate immune responses leading to autoimmune arthritis. METHODS:CIA was induced by immunization of mice with type II collagen (CII) in adjuvant on days 0 and 21, with arthritis appearing on days 23 and 24. Intestinal microbiota were profiled by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing every 7 days during the course of CIA, and intestinal mucosal changes were evaluated on days 14 and 35. Then, microbiota were depleted either early (7 days before immunization) or late (day 21 after immunization) by administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Disease severity, autoantibody and systemic cytokine production, and intestinal mucosal responses were monitored in the setting of microbial reduction. RESULTS:Significant dysbiosis and mucosal inflammation occurred early in CIA, prior to visible arthritis, and continued to evolve during the course of disease. Depletion of the microbiota prior to the induction of CIA resulted in an ~40% reduction in disease severity and in significantly reduced levels of serum inflammatory cytokines and anti-CII antibodies. In intestinal tissue, production of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-22 was delayed. Unexpectedly, microbial depletion during the late phase of CIA resulted in a >50% decrease in disease severity. Anti-CII antibodies were mildly reduced but were significantly impaired in their ability to activate complement, likely due to altered glycosylation profiles. CONCLUSION:These data support a model in which intestinal dysbiosis triggers mucosal immune responses that stimulate T and B cells that are key for the development of inflammatory arthritis.
Project description:PURPOSE:This study aimed to assess the activity of two phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, namely GRMS-55 and racemic lisofylline ((±)-LSF)) in vitro and in animal models of immune-mediated disorders. METHODS:Inhibition of human recombinant (hr)PDEs and TNF-alpha release from LPS-stimulated whole rat blood by the studied compounds were assessed in vitro. LPS-induced endotoxemia, concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis, and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) animal models were used for in vivo evaluation. The potency of the investigated compounds was evaluated using PK/PD and PK/PD/disease progression modeling. RESULTS:GRMS-55 is a potent hrPDE7A and hrPDE1B inhibitor, while (±)-LSF most strongly inhibits hrPDE3A and hrPDE4B. GRMS-55 decreased TNF-alpha levels in vivo and CIA progression with IC50 of 1.06 and 0.26 mg/L, while (±)-LSF with IC50 of 5.80 and 1.06 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, GRMS-55 significantly ameliorated symptoms of ConA-induced hepatitis. CONCLUSIONS:PDE4B but not PDE4D inhibition appears to be mainly engaged in anti-inflammatory activity of the studied compounds. GRMS-55 and (±)-LSF seem to be promising candidates for future studies on the treatment of immune-related diseases. The developed PK/PD models may be used to assess the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic potency of new compounds for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disorders.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that typically results in strong inflammation and bone destruction in the joints. It is generally known that the pathogenesis of RA is linked to cardiovascular and periodontal diseases. Though rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis share many pathologic features such as a perpetual inflammation and bone destruction, the precise mechanism underlying a link between these two diseases has not been fully elucidated. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice were orally infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) or Pg preincubated with an anti-FimA antibody (FimA Ab) specific for fimbriae that are flexible appendages on the cell surface. Pg-infected CIA mice showed oral microbiota disruption and increased alveolar bone loss and had synovitis and joint bone destruction. However, preincubation with FimA Ab led to a significant reduction in the severity of both oral disease and arthritis. Moreover, FimA Ab attenuated bacterial attachment and aggregation on human gingival and rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. In addition, we discovered bacteria may utilize dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils to migrate into the joints of CIA mice. These results suggest that disrupting Pg fimbriae function by FimA Ab ameliorates RA.
Project description:Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) regulates critical signal transduction pathways involved in the pathobiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune disorders. BMS-986142 is a potent and highly selective reversible small molecule inhibitor of BTK currently being investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of both RA and primary Sjögren's syndrome. In the present report, we detail the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of BMS-986142 and show this agent provides potent and selective inhibition of BTK (IC50 = 0.5 nM), blocks antigen receptor-dependent signaling and functional endpoints (cytokine production, co-stimulatory molecule expression, and proliferation) in human B cells (IC50 ≤ 5 nM), inhibits Fcγ receptor-dependent cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and blocks RANK-L-induced osteoclastogenesis. Through the benefits of impacting these important drivers of autoimmunity, BMS-986142 demonstrated robust efficacy in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). In both models, robust efficacy was observed without continuous, complete inhibition of BTK. When a suboptimal dose of BMS-986142 was combined with other agents representing the current standard of care for RA (e.g., methotrexate, the TNFα antagonist etanercept, or the murine form of CTLA4-Ig) in the CIA model, improved efficacy compared to either agent alone was observed. The results suggest BMS-986142 represents a potential therapeutic for clinical investigation in RA, as monotherapy or co-administered with agents with complementary mechanisms of action.
Project description:Background. Wutou decoction (WTD) has been wildly applied in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and experimental arthritis in rats for many years. Epigenetic deregulation is associated with the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis; however, the effects of WTD on epigenetic changes are unclear. This study is set to explore the effects of WTD on DNA methylation and histone modifications in rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods. The CIA model was established by the stimulation of collagen and adjuvant. The knee synovium was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and methylated CpG binding domain 2 (MBD2) expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined by Real-Time PCR. The global DNA histone H3-K4/H3-K27 methylation and total histones H3 and H4 acetylation of PBMCs were detected. Results. Our data demonstrated that the DNMT1 mRNA expression was significantly lowered in group WTD compared to that in group CIA (P < 0.05). The DNA methylation level was significantly reduced in group WTD compared to that in group CIA (P < 0.05). Moreover, H3 acetylation of PBMCs was overexpressed in WTD compared with CIA (P < 0.05). Conclusions. WTD may modulate DNA methylation and histone modifications, functioning as anti-inflammatory potential.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: NF-?B has been implicated as a therapeutic target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. We previously synthesized a thiourea analogue, SPA0355, which suppressed NF-?B activity. Here we have assessed the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of SPA0355. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We evaluated the effects of SPA0355 on human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes in vitro and on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice in vivo. KEY RESULTS: In vitro experiments demonstrated that SPA0355 suppressed chemokine production, matrix metalloproteinase secretion and cell proliferation induced by TNF-? in rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes. In addition, SPA0355 inhibited osteoclast differentiation induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor and the receptor activator of NF-?B ligand, in bone marrow macrophages. Mice with CIA that were pretreated with SPA0355 had a lower cumulative disease incidence and severity of arthritis, based on hind paw thickness, radiological and histopathological findings, and inflammatory cytokine levels, than mice treated with vehicle. Mice treated with SPA0355, after the onset of CIA, also showed significantly decreased disease incidence and joint oedema. The in vitro and in vivo protective effects of SPA0355 were mediated by inhibition of the NF-?B signalling pathway. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Taken together, these results suggested that using SPA0355 to block the NF-?B pathway in rheumatoid joints reduced both the inflammatory responses and tissue destruction. Therefore, SPA0355 may have therapeutic value in preventing or delaying joint destruction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Project description:Epidemiological studies show an association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis) is a well-known pathogen in periodontitis. This study investigated the pathogenic effects of P.gingivalis on autoimmune arthritis in vivo. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice were intraperitoneally injected with W83 and 2561 strains of P.gingivalis. Infection with P.gingivalis exacerbated arthritis score in CIA mice. Synovial inflammation and bone destruction in CIA mice infected with P.gingivalis were more severe than in uninfected CIA mice. Both W83 and 2561 strains were more pro-arthritic after arthritis symptom was fully activated. Interestingly, only W83 strain was arthritogenic before autoimmune reaction initiated. Citrullination was detected in synovial tissue of CIA mice and CIA mice inoculated with P.gingivalis, but not in normal control mice. The citrullinated area was greater in P.gingivalis-infected CIA mice than in non-infected CIA mice. This study showed that P.gingivalis exacerbated disease in a mouse model of autoimmune arthritis and increased the expression of citrullinated antigens in the synovium. The arthritogenic effects of P.gingivalis were at least in part, dependent upon the bacterial strain with or without fimbriae expression, route and time of infection. P.gingivalis-mediated citrullination may explain the possible link between periodontal disease and RA.
Project description:A deficiency in C5 protects against arthritis development. However, there is currently no approach successfully translating these findings into arthritis therapy, as by targeting the key component, C5a. The aim of this study was to develop a vaccination strategy targeting C5a as therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.An anti-C5a vaccine was generated by incorporating the unnatural amino acid p-nitrophenylalanine (4NPA) into selected sites in the murine C5a molecule. C5a-4NPA variants were screened for their immunogenicity in mice on different arthritis-susceptible class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) backgrounds. A candidate vaccine was tested for its impact on disease in a murine model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Immunity toward endogenous C5a as well as type II collagen was monitored and characterized.Replacing a single tyrosine residue in position 35 (Y(35) ) with 4NPA allowed the generation of an anti-C5a vaccine, which partly protected mice against the development of CIA while strongly ameliorating the severity of clinical disease. Although differing in just 3 atoms from wild-type C5a (wtC5a), C5aY(35) 4NPA induced loss of T cell and B cell tolerance toward the endogenous protein in mice expressing class II MHC H-2(q) molecules. Despite differential B cell epitope recognition, antibodies induced by both wtC5a and C5aY(35) 4NPA neutralized C5a. Thus, anti-wtC5a IgG titers during arthritis priming were potentially of critical importance for disease protection, because high titers of C5a-neutralizing antibodies after disease onset were unable to reverse the course of arthritis.The results of this study suggest that the most effective anti-C5a treatment in arthritis can be accomplished using a preventive vaccination strategy, and that treatment using conventional biologic or small molecule strategies targeting the C5a/C5aR axis may miss the optimal window for therapeutic intervention during the subclinical priming phase of the disease.