Severe bone marrow suppression due to methotrexate toxicity following aceclofenac-induced acute kidney injury.
ABSTRACT: Methotrexate is one of the most commonly used drugs in autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. Gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea and stomatitis, skin rashes, alopecia, central nervous system symptoms like headache and confusion, hepatotoxicity and myelosuppression are some of the adverse effects. However, low oral doses on a weekly basis seldom show any signs of toxicity. Leucovorin or folinic acid is given along with methotrexate as rescue to reduce the toxic effects like bone marrow suppression. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, like aceclofenac, are also used in chronic inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Nephrotoxicity is one of the adverse effects of both methotrexate and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; and its combined administration should be done with caution. This is a case of an elderly woman, a known case of rheumatoid arthritis, who presented in severe bone marrow suppression due to methotrexate toxicity following aceclofenac-induced acute kidney injury.
Project description:The objective of this systematic literature review was to determine the association between cardiovascular events (CVEs) and antirheumatic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA)/psoriasis (Pso). Systematic searches were performed of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases (1960 to December 2012) and proceedings from major relevant congresses (2010-2012) for controlled studies and randomised trials reporting confirmed CVEs in patients with RA or PsA/Pso treated with antirheumatic drugs. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed on extracted data. Out of 2630 references screened, 34 studies were included: 28 in RA and 6 in PsA/Pso. In RA, a reduced risk of all CVEs was reported with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (relative risk (RR), 0.70; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.90; p=0.005) and methotrexate (RR, 0.72; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.91; p=0.007). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increased the risk of all CVEs (RR, 1.18; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.38; p=0.04), which may have been specifically related to the effects of rofecoxib. Corticosteroids increased the risk of all CVEs (RR, 1.47; 95% CI 1.34 to 1.60; p<0.001). In PsA/Pso, systemic therapy decreased the risk of all CVEs (RR, 0.75; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.91; p=0.003). In RA, tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and methotrexate are associated with a decreased risk of all CVEs while corticosteroids and NSAIDs are associated with an increased risk. Targeting inflammation with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors or methotrexate may have positive cardiovascular effects in RA. In PsA/Pso, limited evidence suggests that systemic therapies are associated with a decrease in all CVE risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The high risk of cardiovascular disease is well recognized in rheumatoid arthritis. Type 2 diabetes also attributes to this increase in risk. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory condition, which aggravates insulin resistance, placing the patients at a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes. Methotrexate treatment, as a gold standard anti-inflammatory drug in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has shown beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. However, its impact on type 2 diabetes is still unknown. OBJECTIVE:To assess the strength of the association between exposure to methotrexate and the rate of development of type 2 diabetes in rheumatoid arthritis patients. METHODS:All rheumatoid arthritis studies reporting the use of methotrexate as an exposure and type 2 diabetes as an outcome were searched until March 2020 using MEDLINE, Cochrane and Scopus databases. Studies were included if the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis was made according to current guidelines or by a rheumatologist, and if there was information about methotrexate exposure and the type 2 diabetes outcome. The author and an independent assessor evaluated the articles for eligibility. Meta-analyses combined relative risk estimates from each study where raw counts were available. RESULTS:Sixteen studies reporting sufficient data for inclusion in the meta-analyses were identified. Methotrexate showed a promising effect on the risk of type 2 diabetes as this risk decreased in rheumatoid arthritis patients using methotrexate (Relative risk 0.48, 95% CI 0.16, 1.43). CONCLUSION:Rheumatoid arthritis patients on methotrexate treatment had a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to rheumatoid arthritis patients not exposed to methotrexate. This finding highlights the need for future, randomized control trials to confirm the beneficial effect of methotrexate on type 2 diabetes in the rheumatoid arthritis population.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of celecoxib with that of a classic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) on synovial inflammation and on the synovial expression of proinflammatory genes in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: 30 patients with severe knee OA scheduled for total knee replacement surgery were included in a 3 month clinical trial. They were randomised to two groups: patients treated with celecoxib (CBX) (200 mg/24 h) and patients treated with aceclofenac (ACF) (100 mg/12 h). Those patients with OA who did not want to be treated with NSAIDs served as a control group. During knee surgery, synovial fluid (SF) and synovial membrane (SM) were collected. A SM specimen was fixed and embedded in paraffin and another part was frozen for molecular biology studies. RESULTS: At the end of study both CBX and ACF treated patients showed a significant improvement in pain and knee function compared with controls. Both drugs significantly reduced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) SF concentration and down regulated COX-2 mRNA and protein expression at the SM. However, synovial macrophage infiltration (CD68 antigen staining) and expression of proinflammatory mediators, such as interleukin 1beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha, were decreased only by CBX treatment. CONCLUSION: Both drugs improved joint pain and function, inhibited SF PGE(2) concentration, and induced a decrease in synovial COX-2 expression and synthesis not related to the tissue inflammatory status. These data suggest that PGE(2) blocking agents may decrease PGE(2) production not only by direct COX-2 inhibition but also by down regulating COX-2 expression and synthesis. However, CBX and ACF appear to have different anti-inflammatory profiles in controlling OA synovial macrophage infiltration and proinflammatory expression.
Project description:Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Although the pathophysiology behind this disease is poorly understood, there are effective treatments for JIA based on the subtype of disease. Treatment options include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, intra-articular glucocorticoid injections, and traditional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs such as methotrexate. In the past decade, the use of biologic therapy in JIA, including tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, and interleukin-6 inhibitors, has dramatically increased with promising outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) acts via its EP4 receptor as a cytokine amplifier (e.g., interleukin [IL]-6) and induces the differentiation and expansion of inflammatory T-helper (Th) lymphocytes. These mechanisms play a key role in the onset and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We present the pharmacological characterisation of CR6086, a novel EP4 receptor antagonist, and provide evidence for its potential as a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD). METHODS:CR6086 affinity and pharmacodynamics were studied in EP4-expressing HEK293 cells by radioligand binding and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production, respectively. In immune cells, IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were analysed by RT-PCR, and IL-23 and IL-17 release were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) models, rats or mice were immunised with bovine collagen type II. Drugs were administered orally (etanercept and methotrexate intraperitoneally) starting at disease onset. Arthritis progression was evaluated by oedema, clinical score and histopathology. Anti-collagen II immunoglobulin G antibodies were measured by ELISA. RESULTS:CR6086 showed selectivity and high affinity for the human EP4 receptor (Ki = 16.6 nM) and functioned as a pure antagonist (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, 22 nM) on PGE2-stimulated cAMP production. In models of human immune cells in culture, CR6086 reduced key cytokine players of RA (IL-6 and VEGF expression in macrophages, IL-23 release from dendritic cells, IL-17 release from Th17 cells). In the CIA model of RA in rats and mice, CR6086 significantly improved all features of arthritis: severity, histology, inflammation and pain. In rats, CR6086 was better than the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor rofecoxib and at least as effective as the Janus kinase inhibitor tofacitinib. In mice, CR6086 and the biologic DMARD etanercept were highly effective, whereas the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug naproxen was ineffective. Importantly, in a study of CR6086/methotrexate, combined treatment greatly improved the effect of a fully immunosuppressive dose of methotrexate. CONCLUSIONS:CR6086 is a novel, potent EP4 antagonist showing favourable immunomodulatory properties, striking DMARD effects in rodents, and anti-inflammatory activity targeted to immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and distinct from the general effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors. These results support the clinical development of CR6086, both as a stand-alone DMARD and as a combination therapy with methotrexate. The proof-of-concept trial in patients with RA is ongoing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inflammatory processes have been shown to play a role in dementia. To understand this role, we selected two anti-inflammatory drugs (methotrexate and sulfasalazine) to study their association with dementia risk. METHODS:A retrospective matched case-control study of patients over 50 with rheumatoid arthritis (486 dementia cases and 641 controls) who were identified from electronic health records in the UK, Spain, Denmark and the Netherlands. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the risk of dementia. RESULTS:Prior methotrexate use was associated with a lower risk of dementia (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.98). Furthermore, methotrexate use with therapy longer than 4?years had the lowest risk of dementia (odds ratio 0.37, 95% CI 0.17-0.79). Sulfasalazine use was not associated with dementia (odds ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.57-1.37). CONCLUSIONS:Further studies are still required to clarify the relationship between prior methotrexate use and duration as well as biological treatments with dementia risk.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disease, and classical disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs) have proven efficacy. It is unknown what impact cDMARDs might have on dementia as an outcome.Incident diagnoses of rheumatoid arthritis in persons over 18 years from 1995 to 2011 were identified from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. There were 3876 cDMARD users and were propensity score matched to 1938 nonusers, on a wide range of confounders. Impact on dementia was assessed using survival models.cDMARD users were at reduced risk of dementia (hazard ratio: 0.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.42-0.85). The effect was strongest in methotrexate users (hazard ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval; 0.34-0.82).The strong effect of cDMARD use on halving of dementia risk requires replication in a trial and may provide an important therapeutic pharmacological treatment.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:At present, information about clinical efficacy and adverse events of controlled release (CR) form of pelubiprofen, a prodrug of 2-arylopropionic acid with relatively selective effects on cyclooxygenase-2 activity, remains scarce. In this study, we sought to determine non-inferiority of pelubiprofen CR 90 mg/day compared to aceclofenac 200 mg/day regarding clinical efficacy and adverse events after a 4-week course of medication in the patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 191 patients were randomly assigned to take either pelubiprofen CR 90 mg (n = 95) or aceclofenac 200 mg (n = 96). The primary outcome variable was non-inferiority of pain reduction between baseline and week 4 when assessed using a 100 mm pain visual analogue scale (VAS). Pelubiprofen was considered non-inferior to aceclofenac if the upper limit of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval for the difference in terms of pain VAS was above 15 mm (the average change of pain VAS in the pelubiprofen group-pain VAS reduction in the aceclofenac group). Secondary outcome variables were the changes in 100 mm pain VAS at week 2 versus baseline, K-Western Ontario, and McMaster University Arthritis Index (K-WOMAC) changes at weeks 2 and 4 as compared to baseline, patient global assessment at weeks 2 and 4. The frequency and amount of rescue medicine usage at weeks 2 and 4 were also evaluated as the secondary outcome variable. For safety analysis, adverse events, clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, and physical examinations were assessed and conducted at each follow-up visit. RESULTS:At week 4, the pain VAS values were significantly reduced in both groups receiving either pelubiprofen CR 90 mg or aceclofenac 200 mg as compared to the baseline. However, the pelubiprofen group and the aceclofenac group respectively showed the pain VAS changes of -22 and -21.9 in the pre-protocol set and -20.8 and -21.7 in the full analysis set, confirming non-inferiority. The pelubiprofen CR 90 mg showed a reduced incidence of adverse events compared to the aceclofenac 200 mg (p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS:Pelubiprofen CR 90 mg is as effective as aceclofenac 200 mg with reduced adverse events for the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.
Project description:Background:Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol found in berries, roots and wine that is well known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. The anti-inflammatory effect has been reported for both immune cells and connective tissues, but only few studies have investigated effects on immune mediated inflammatory arthritis. None of which have studied this effect when combining resveratrol with methotrexate or adalimumab, two major drugs in the treatment of immune mediated inflammatory arthritis.We therefore aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol alone and in combination with methotrexate or adalimumab in ex vivo models of immune mediated inflammatory arthritis. We furthermore aimed to describe any variations in this effect based on disease activity and cellular composition of the synovial fluid infiltrate. Methods:Synovial fluid mononuclear cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 7) and spondyloarthritis (n = 7) were cultured for either 48 h or 21 days. In both models, synovial fluid mononuclear cells were treated with resveratrol alone or in combination with methotrexate or adalimumab. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, matrix metalloproteinase 3 and tartrate resistant acidic phosphatase were measured to quantify inflammation, enzymatic degradation and osteoclast differentiation, respectively. Results:Resveratrol reduced monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 production by synovial fluid mononuclear cells significantly (p = 0.005) compared to untreated controls. The effect of resveratrol was greatest in cultures from patients with low disease activity, i.e. DAS28CRP ≤ 3.2 (p = 0.022), and in cultures dominated by lymphocytes (p = 0.03). Further, the combination of methotrexate and resveratrol significantly reduced monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 levels compared with methotrexate alone in cultures from patients with low disease activity (p = 0.016), and in cultures with high lymphocyte count (p = 0.011). Resveratrol did not significantly affect matrix metalloproteinase 3 and tartrate resistant acidic phosphatase production. Conclusion:Resveratrol has anti-inflammatory properties in our ex vivo model of immune mediated inflammatory arthritis. Results show an additive effect of resveratrol, when combined with methotrexate in samples dominated by lymphocytes and samples from patients with low disease activity. This suggests further investigations in vitro and whether this effect may also be present in a clinical setting.
Project description:The current study involves the evaluation of factors that influence the transcorneal permeation of aqueous drops of aceclofenac ophthalmic formulation through freshly excised goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas. Aceclofenac formulation with different concentrations 0.1-0.5% (w/v) and with different pH and different preservatives, was taken into account. The amount of drug permeated from different formulations was estimated using an Franz diffusion cell. A linear increase in drug permeation was observed with increase in pH (5.5 to 7.4). The apparent permeability coefficient was found to be maximum 15.01 ± 0.45 on goat cornea and maximum transport of aceclofenac was observed at physiological pH of tears (i.e., 7). The results advocate that aceclofenac 0.5% (w/v) ophthalmic solution (pH 7.0) containing BAK (0.01%) provides maximum in vitro ocular permeability through goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas.