Unique Contribution of Haptoglobin and Haptoglobin Genotype in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.
ABSTRACT: Survivors of cerebral aneurysm rupture are at risk for significant morbidity and neurological deficits. Much of this is related to the effects of blood in the subarachnoid space which induces an inflammatory cascade with numerous downstream consequences. Recent clinical trials have not been able to reduce the toxic effects of free hemoglobin or improve clinical outcome. One reason for this may be the inability to identify patients at high risk for neurologic decline. Recently, haptoglobin genotype has been identified as a pertinent factor in diabetes, sickle cell, and cardiovascular disease, with the Hp 2-2 genotype contributing to increased complications. Haptoglobin is a protein synthesized by the liver that binds free hemoglobin following red blood cell lysis, and in doing so, prevents hemoglobin induced toxicity and facilitates clearance. Clinical studies in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage indicate that Hp 2-2 patients may be a high-risk group for hemorrhage related complications and poor outcome. We review the relevance of haptoglobin in subarachnoid hemorrhage and discuss the effects of genotype and expression levels on the known mechanisms of early brain injury (EBI) and cerebral ischemia after aneurysm rupture. A better understanding of haptoglobin and its role in preventing hemoglobin related toxicity should lead to novel therapeutic avenues.
Project description:Delayed cerebral ischemia resulting from extracellular hemoglobin is an important determinant of outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Hemoglobin is scavenged by the CD163-haptoglobin system in the circulation, but little is known about this scavenging pathway in the human CNS. The components of this system were analyzed in normal cerebrospinal fluid and after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The intrathecal presence of the CD163-haptoglobin-hemoglobin scavenging system was unequivocally demonstrated. The resting capacity of the CD163-haptoglobin-hemoglobin system in the normal CNS was 50 000-fold lower than that of the circulation. After subarachnoid hemorrhage, the intrathecal CD163-haptoglobin-hemoglobin system was saturated, as shown by the presence of extracellular hemoglobin despite detectable haptoglobin. Hemoglobin efflux from the CNS was evident, enabling rescue hemoglobin scavenging by the systemic circulation. Therefore, the CNS is not capable of dealing with significant intrathecal hemolysis. Potential therapeutic options to prevent delayed cerebral ischemia ought to concentrate on augmenting the capacity of the intrathecal CD163-haptoglobin-hemoglobin scavenging system and strategies to encourage hemoglobin efflux from the brain.
Project description:Cerebral vasospasm (CV) and the resulting delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) significantly contribute to poor outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Free hemoglobin (Hb) within the subarachnoid space has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CV. Haptoglobin (Hp) binds free pro-oxidant Hb, thereby modulating its harmful effects. Humans can be of three Hp phenotypes: Hp1-1, Hp2-1, or Hp2-2. In several disease states, the Hp2-2 protein has been associated with reduced ability to protect against toxic free Hb. We hypothesized that individuals with the Hp2-2 phenotype would have more CV, DCI, mortality, and worse functional outcomes after aSAH. In a sample of 74 aSAH patients, Hp2-2 phenotype was significantly associated with increased focal moderate (P = 0.014) and severe (P = 0.008) CV and more global CV (P = 0.014) after controlling for covariates. Strong trends toward increased mortality (P = 0.079) and worse functional outcomes were seen for the Hp2-2 patients with modified Rankin scale at 6 wk (P = 0.076) and at 1 y (P = 0.051) and with Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended at discharge (P = 0.091) and at 1 y (P = 0.055). In conclusion, Hp2-2 phenotype is an independent risk factor for the development of both focal and global CV and also predicts poor functional outcomes and mortality after aSAH. Hp phenotyping may serve as a clinically useful tool in the critical care management of aSAH patients by allowing for early prediction of those patients who require increased vigilance due to their inherent genetic risk for the development of CV and resulting DCI and poor outcomes.
Project description:Haptoglobin (Hp) is a plasma protein involved in clearing extracellular haemoglobin and regulating inflammation; it exists as two genetic variants (Hp1 and Hp2). In a meta-analysis of six published studies, we confirm that Hp genotype affects short-term outcome (cerebral vasospasm and/or delayed cerebral ischemia) after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) but not long-term outcome (Glasgow Outcome Score and modified Rankin Scale between one and three months). A closer examination of the heterozygous group revealed that the short-term outcome of Hp2-1 individuals clustered with that of Hp1-1 and not Hp2-2, suggesting that the presence of one Hp1 allele was sufficient to confer protection. Since the presence of the Hp dimer is the only common feature between Hp1-1 and Hp2-1 individuals, the absence of this Hp moiety is most likely to underlie vasospasm in Hp2-2 individuals. These results have implications for prognosis after SAH and will inform further research into Hp-based mechanism of action and treatment.
Project description:Homozygosity for a 1.7 kb intragenic duplication of the Haptoglobin (Hp) gene (Hp 2-2 genotype), present in 36% of the population, has been associated with a 2-3 fold increased incidence of atherothrombosis in individuals with Diabetes (DM) in 10 longitudinal studies compared to DM individuals not homozygous for this duplication (Hp 1-1/2-1). The increased CVD risk associated with the Hp 2-2 genotype has been shown to be prevented with vitamin E supplementation in man. We sought to determine if there was an interaction between the Hp genotype and vitamin E on atherosclerotic plaque growth and stability in a transgenic model of the Hp polymorphism.Brachiocephalic artery atherosclerotic plaque volume was serially assessed by high resolution ultrasound in 28 Hp 1-1 and 26 Hp 2-2 mice in a C57Bl/6 ApoE(-/-) background. Hp 2-2 mice had more rapid plaque growth and an increased incidence of plaque hemorrhage and rupture. Vitamin E significantly reduced plaque growth in Hp 2-2 but not in Hp 1-1 mice with a significant pharmacogenomic interaction between the Hp genotype and vitamin E on plaque growth.These results may help explain why vitamin E supplementation in man can prevent CVD in Hp 2-2 DM but not in non Hp 2-2 DM individuals.
Project description:Statins have been shown to decrease aneurysm progression and rupture in two experimental settings: animals with cerebral aneurysm and humans with abdominal aortic aneurysms.To investigate statin use and outcomes in humans with unruptured cerebral aneurysms through Medicare administrative data.We used a 40% random sample Medicare denominator file and corresponding inpatient, outpatient (2003-2011), and prescription (2006-2011) claims to conduct a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with unruptured cerebral aneurysms, between 2003 and 2011. We used propensity score-adjusted models to investigate the association between statin use and risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Secondary analyses repeated the main models stratified on tobacco use status and separately assessed other composite outcomes.We identified 28?931 patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms (average age 72·0 years, 72·6% female); mean follow-up was 30·0 months; 41·3% used statins. Overall, 593 patients developed subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 703 underwent treatment before subarachnoid hemorrhage. Current or recent statin use was not associated with a difference in subarachnoid hemorrhage risk (odds ratio, 1·03; 95% conflict of interest 0·86-1·23); models stratified on tobacco use status were nearly identical. No association was observed between statin use and the composite outcome of subarachnoid hemorrhage or aneurysm treatment (odds ratio, 0·94; 95% conflict of interest, 0·84-1·06). The risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage or out-of-hospital death was lower among statin users (odds ratio, 0·69; 95% conflict of interest, 0·64-0·74).Statin use by patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms was not associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage risk. Given the prior animal experimental studies demonstrating a protective effect, further prospective studies are needed to investigate the potential relationship.
Project description:We report an unusual case of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by intraoperative rupture of an intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm coexisting with a prolactinoma. A 58-year-old man presenting with diplopia was found to have a left intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm encased by a suprasellar tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. His serum prolactin level was 5036 ng/mL. Proximal ligation of the left internal carotid artery with a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis was scheduled. Because the patient's diplopia had deteriorated, we started him on cabergoline at a dose of 0.25 mg once a week. One month after administration of cabergoline, the diplopia was improved to some extent and serum prolactin was decreased to 290 ng/ml. Six weeks after starting the cabergoline, the patient underwent a left frontotemporal craniotomy to treat the aneurysm. When the dura mater was opened, abnormal brain swelling and obvious subarachnoid hemorrhage were observed. Postoperative computed tomography demonstrated a thick subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case suggests that medical therapy for a pituitary adenoma should be started after treatment for a coexisting intracavernous aneurysm is completed.
Project description:After intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the brain parenchyma is exposed to blood containing red blood cells (RBCs) and consequently to its lysis products. Iron-rich hemoglobin (Hb) is the most abundant protein in RBCs. When released into the brain parenchyma during hemolysis, Hb becomes a central mediator of cytotoxicity. Our study indicates that haptoglobin (Hp), an acute-phase response protein primarily synthesized in the liver and known to bind and neutralize Hb in the bloodstream, is also expressed in brain in which it plays an important role in defending neurons from damage induced by hemolytic products after ICH. We demonstrate that the Hb-induced hypohaptoglobinemia aggravates ICH-induced brain damage while pharmacologic intervention with sulforaphane to induce brain Hp is linked to a reduction in brain damage. In agreement with these findings, Hp deficiency worsens whereas Hp overexpression alleviates ICH-mediated brain injury. We also identified that oligodendroglia are the primary source of brain-derived Hp among brain cells and that oligodendroglia-released Hp plays protective roles against Hb-mediated toxicity to neurons and oligodendrocytes. We conclude that Hp, particularly the brain-derived Hp, plays cytoprotective roles and represents a potential therapeutic target for ICH treatment.
Project description:Haptoglobin and Hemopexin are plasma acute phase proteins that bind with high affinity hemoglobin and heme, respectively. Several studies have demonstrated that they have a key role in the protection against oxidative stress and inflammation. However, little is known about the functional modules in which they are involved. To gain insights into this issue, we integrated bioinformatic and experimental approaches to identify genes coexpressed with Haptoglobin or Hemopexin and modulated in Haptoglobin and/or Hemopexin knock-out mice. These genes have a high probability to be functionally related to Haptoglobin and/or Hemopexin. We performed a gene expression analysis of the livers of Hp- and/or Hx-null mice compared to wild-type controls. The mice used in the following experiments, i.e. wild-type (Hp+/Hx+/), Hp-null (Hp-/-Hx+/), Hx-null (Hp+/Hx-/-), and HpHx-null (Hp-/-Hx-/-), were littermates derived by breeding F1 double heterozygous Hp+/-Hx+/- mice in the mixed genetic background C57/BLJ6 X 129Sv. We have three experimental points: Hx-null mice, Hp-null mice and HpHx-null mice. At least 5 adult mice per genotype were perfused via aorta with PBS, sacrificed and their liver pooled. Thirty microgram of total RNA were subjected to direct labeling reaction by incorporation of cyanin 3 (Cy3) or cyanin 5 (Cy5) fluorescent dyes into the cDNA by priming with oligo(dT). Four replicates were set up for each experimental point. In order to exclude artifacts resulting from different dye usage, we employed the dye-swap approach.
Project description:Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remains serious hemorrhagic stroke with high morbidities and mortalities. Aneurysm rupture causes arterial bleeding-induced mechanical brain tissue injuries and elevated intracranial pressure, followed by global cerebral ischemia. Post-subarachnoid hemorrhage ischemia, tissue injuries as well as extravasated blood components and the breakdown products activate microglia, astrocytes and Toll-like receptor 4, and disrupt blood-brain barrier associated with the induction of many inflammatory and other cascades. Once blood-brain barrier is disrupted, brain tissues are directly exposed to harmful blood contents and immune cells, which aggravate brain injuries furthermore. Blood-brain barrier disruption after subarachnoid hemorrhage may be developed by a variety of mechanisms including endothelial cell apoptosis and disruption of tight junction proteins. Many molecules and pathways have been reported to disrupt the blood-brain barrier after subarachnoid hemorrhage, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Multiple independent and/or interconnected signaling pathways may be involved in blood-brain barrier disruption after subarachnoid hemorrhage. This review provides recent understandings of the mechanisms and the potential therapeutic targets of blood-brain barrier disruption after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Project description:In the present study we aimed to investigate the systemic response to a rupture of intracranial aneurysms by an analysis of global gene expression profiles in peripheral blood cells. In addition, we sought to determine whether this approach could provide biomarkers related to clinical status of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured aneurysm were prospectively recruited from patients consecutively admitted to the Departments of Neurology or Neurosurgery and Neurotraumatology, University Hospital, Krakow, Poland in 2010 and 2011. Control subjects were recruited from patients of the Department of Neurology suffered from headaches.