Hippocampal lipidome and transcriptome profile alterations triggered by acute exposure of mice to GSM 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation: An exploratory study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The widespread use of wireless devices during the last decades is raising concerns about adverse health effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from these devices. Recent research is focusing on unraveling the underlying mechanisms of RF-EMR and potential cellular targets. The "omics" high-throughput approaches are powerful tools to investigate the global effects of RF-EMR on cellular physiology. METHODS:In this work, C57BL/6 adult male mice were whole-body exposed (nExp = 8) for 2 hr to GSM 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation at an average electric field intensity range of 4.3-17.5 V/m or sham-exposed (nSE = 8), and the RF-EMR effects on the hippocampal lipidome and transcriptome profiles were assessed 6 hr later. RESULTS:The data analysis of the phospholipid fatty acid residues revealed that the levels of four fatty acids [16:0, 16:1 (6c + 7c), 18:1 9c, eicosapentaenoic acid omega-3 (EPA, 20:5 ?3)] and the two fatty acid sums of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA and MUFA) were significantly altered (p < 0.05) in the exposed group. The observed changes indicate a membrane remodeling response of the tissue phospholipids after nonionizing radiation exposure, reducing SFA and EPA, while increasing MUFA residues. The microarray data analysis demonstrated that the expression of 178 genes changed significantly (p < 0.05) between the two groups, revealing an impact on genes involved in critical biological processes, such as cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, cell death, cell signaling, nervous system development and function, immune system response, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides preliminary evidence that mobile phone radiation induces hippocampal lipidome and transcriptome changes that may explain the brain proteome changes and memory deficits previously shown by our group.
Project description:The widespread use of wireless devices during the last decades is rising the concern about the adverse health effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from these devices. Studies are targeting on unrevealing the underlying mechanisms of RF-EMR action. The contribution of the “omics” high throughput approaches is a prerequisite towards this direction. In the present work, C57BL/6 adult male mice were sham-exposed (nSE=8) or whole-body exposed (nExp=8) for 2h to GSM 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation at 11 V/m average electric field intensity, and the RF-EMR effects on the hippocampal lipidome and transcriptome profile were evaluated. The data analysis of the phospholipids’ fatty acid residues revealed that the levels of six fatty acids (16:0, 16:1 6+7c, 18:1 9c, 20:5 w3, SFA, MUFA) were significantly altered (p<0.05) in the exposed group. The microarray data analysis demonstrated that the expression of 178 genes changed significantly (p<0.05) between the two groups with a fold change cut off of 1.5. In general, the observed changes point out the attention to a membrane remodeling response of the tissue phospholipids after non-ionizing radiation exposure, reducing the Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA) and EPA omega-3 (20:5 w3) and increasing Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA) residues and in parallel reflect an impact to genes implicated in critical biological processes, as cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, cell death, cell signaling, nervous system development and function, immune system response, lipid metabolism and cancer Overall design: Mice were equally divided into two groups: “exposed” (Exp) and “sham exposed” (SE). RNA was extracted from the hippocampus of both groups.
Project description:The role of diet and circulatory carotenoids and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are implicated in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) but not well studied in Chinese. However, other fatty acids were not comprehensively evaluated if it had additional consequence on AMD. This study investigated the relationship among dietary habits, fatty acids levels, carotenoids and AMD in Hong Kong Chinese adults. In this cross-sectional case-controlled study, plasma fatty acids including, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and carotenoids levels were quantified between patients with neovascular AMD (<i>n</i> = 99) and age-gender-matched controls (<i>n</i> = 198). A food frequency questionnaire was also conducted. Low blood carotenoid levels and omega-3 PUFAs namely DHA, EPA and ?-linolenic acid increased the odds ratio of developing neovascular AMD. High blood omega-6 PUFAs specifically arachidonic acid and eicosadienoic acid, oleic acid (a MUFA) and SFA levels increased the odds ratio of having neovascular AMD. Neovascular AMD group had significantly less omega-3 PUFA rich food (vegetables, nuts, seafood) intake and higher SFA (meat) intake than controls. In short, neovascular AMD was associated with lower circulatory levels of carotenoids and omega-3 PUFAs, and higher level of omega-6 PUFAs, oleic acid and SFAs in the Hong Kong Chinese population. These findings enhance the understandings of dietary impacts on neovascular AMD and provide a context for future nutritional intervention studies.
Project description:As the use of mobile phone devices is now highly prevalent, many studies have sought to evaluate the effects of the radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on both human health and biology. While several such studies have shown RF-EMR is capable of inducing cellular stress, the physicobiological origin of this stress remains largely unresolved. To explore the effect of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system, we exposed cultured mouse spermatogonial GC1 and spermatocyte GC2 cell lines, as well as cauda epididymal spermatozoa to a waveguide generating continuous wave RF-EMR (1.8 GHz, 0.15 and 1.5 W/kg). This study demonstrated that a 4 h exposure is capable of inducing the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in populations of GC1 (7 vs. 18%; <i>p</i> < 0.001) and GC2 cells (11.5 vs. 16 %; <i>p</i> < 0.01), identifying Complex III of the electron transport chain (ETC) as the potential source of electrons producing ROS. Assessing the generation of ROS in the presence of an antioxidant, penicillamine, as well as measuring lipid peroxidation via 4-hydroxynonenal levels, indicated that the elevated incidence of ROS generation observed under our exposure conditions did not necessarily induce an overt cellular oxidative stress response. However, exposure to RF-EMR at 0.15 W/kg for 3 h did induce significant DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa (that was no longer significant after 4 h), assessed by the alkaline comet assay (<i>p</i> < 0.05). Furthermore, this fragmentation was accompanied by an induction of oxidative DNA damage in the form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, which was significant (<i>p</i> < 0.05) after spermatozoa were exposed to RF-EMR for 4 h. At this exposure time point, a decline in sperm motility (<i>p</i> < 0.05) was also observed. This study contributes new evidence toward elucidating a mechanism to account for the effects of RF-EMR on biological systems, proposing Complex III of the mitochondrial ETC as the key target of this radiation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and a risk factor for cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure. Previously, we reported that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6,n-3) was more effective than eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5,n-3) at reversing western diet (WD) induced NASH in LDLR(-/-) mice.<h4>Methods</h4>Using livers from our previous study, we carried out a global non-targeted metabolomic approach to quantify diet-induced changes in hepatic metabolism.<h4>Results</h4>Livers from WD + olive oil (WD + O)-fed mice displayed histological and gene expression features consistent with NASH. The metabolomic analysis of 320 metabolites established that the WD and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation had broad effects on all major metabolic pathways. Livers from WD + O-fed mice were enriched in saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), palmitoyl-sphingomyelin, cholesterol, n-6 PUFA, n-6 PUFA-containing phosphoglycerolipids, n-6 PUFA-derived oxidized lipids (12-HETE) and depleted of C20-22 n-3 PUFA-containing phosphoglycerolipids, C20-22 n-3 PUFA-derived oxidized lipids (18-HEPE, 17,18-DiHETE) and S-lactoylglutathione, a methylglyoxal detoxification product. WD + DHA was more effective than WD + EPA at attenuating WD + O-induced changes in NASH gene expression markers, n-6 PUFA and oxidized lipids, citrate and S-lactosyl glutathione. Diet-induced changes in hepatic MUFA and sphingolipid content were associated with changes in expression of enzymes involved in MUFA and sphingolipid synthesis. Changes in hepatic oxidized fatty acids and S-lactoylglutathione, however, correlated with hepatic n-3 and n-6 C20-22 PUFA content. Hepatic C20-22 n-3 PUFA content was inversely associated with hepatic ?-tocopherol and ascorbate content and positively associated with urinary F2- and F3-isoprostanes, revealing diet effects on whole body oxidative stress.<h4>Conclusion</h4>DHA regulation of hepatic SFA, MUFA, PUFA, sphingomyelin, PUFA-derived oxidized lipids and S-lactoylglutathione may explain the protective effects of DHA against WD-induced NASH in LDLR(-/-) mice.
Project description:The use of copper complexes for redox and oxidative-based mechanisms in therapeutic strategies is an important field of multidisciplinary research. Here, a novel Cu(II) complex [Cu(TPMA)(Phen)](ClO4)2 (Cu-TPMA-Phen, where TPMA = tris-(2-pyridylmethyl)amine and Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) was studied using both the free and encapsulated forms. A hollow pH-sensitive drug-delivery system was synthesized, characterized, and used to encapsulate and release the copper complex, thus allowing for the comparison with the free drug. The human neuroblastoma-derived cell line NB100 was treated with 5 ?M Cu-PMA-Phen for 24 h, pointing to the consequences on mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA) present in the membrane lipidome, coupled with cell viability and death pathways (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium viability assay, flow cytometry, microscopy, caspase activation). In parallel, the Cu-TPMA-Phen reactivity with the fatty acid moieties of phospholipids was studied using the liposome model to work in a biomimetic environment. The main results concerned: (i) the membrane lipidome in treated cells, involving remodeling with a specific increase of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and a decrease of MUFA, but not PUFA; (ii) cytotoxic events and lipidome changes did not occur for the encapsulated Cu-TPMA-Phen, showing the influence of such nanocarriers on drug activity; and (iii) the liposome behavior confirmed that MUFA and PUFA fatty acid moieties in membranes are not affected by oxidative and isomerization reactions, proving the different reactivities of thiyl radicals generated from amphiphilic and hydrophilic thiols and Cu-TPMA-Phen. This study gives preliminary but important elements of copper(II) complex reactivity in cellular and biomimetic models, pointing mainly to the effects on membrane reactivity and remodeling based on the balance between SFA and MUFA in cell membranes that are subjects of strong interest for chemotherapeutic activities as well as connected to nutritional strategies.
Project description:Ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with increased dietary intake of fat and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Modification of fat metabolism may alter inflammation and disease severity. Our aim was to assess differences in dietary and serum fatty acid levels between control and UC subjects and associations with disease activity and inflammatory cytokines.Dietary histories, serum, and colonic tissue samples were prospectively collected from 137 UC subjects and 38 controls. Both histologic injury and the Mayo Disease Activity Index were assessed. Serum and tissue cytokines were measured by Luminex assay. Serum fatty acids were obtained by gas chromatography.UC subjects had increased total fat and oleic acid (OA) intake, but decreased arachidonic acid (AA) intake vs controls. In serum, there was less percent saturated fatty acid (SFA) and AA, with higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), linoleic acid, OA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in UC. Tissue cytokine levels were directly correlated with SFA and inversely correlated with PUFA, EPA, and DPA in UC subjects, but not controls. 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy blunted these associations.In summary, we found differences in serum fatty acids in UC subjects that correlated with pro-inflammatory tissue cytokines. We propose that fatty acids may affect cytokine production and thus be immunomodulatory in UC.
Project description:Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from various wireless devices has increased dramatically with the advancement of technology. One of the most vulnerable organs to the RF-EMR is the testes. This is due to the fact that testicular tissues are more susceptible to oxidative stress due to a high rate of cell division and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. As a result of extensive cell proliferation, replication errors occur, resulting in DNA fragmentation in the sperm. While high oxygen consumption increases the level of oxidative phosphorylation by-products (free radicals) in the mitochondria. Furthermore, due to its inability to effectively dissipate excess heat, testes are also susceptible to thermal effects from RF-EMR exposure. As a result, people are concerned about its impact on male reproductive function. The aim of this article was to conduct a review of literature on the effects of RF-EMR emitted by wireless devices on male reproductive hormones in experimental animals and humans. According to the findings of the studies, RF-EMR emitted by mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices can cause testosterone reduction. However, the effect on gonadotrophic hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) is inconclusive. These findings were influenced by several factors, which can influence energy absorption and the biological effect of RF-EMR. The effect of RF-EMR in the majority of animal and human studies appeared to be related to the duration of mobile phone use. Thus, limiting the use of wireless devices is recommended.
Project description:Saturated fatty acids (SFA) are widely thought to induce inflammation in adipose tissue (AT), while monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are purported to have the opposite effect; however, it is unclear if individual SFA and MUFA behave similarly. Our goal was to examine adipocyte transcriptional networks regulated by individual SFA (palmitic acid, PA; stearic acid, SA) and MUFA (palmitoleic acid, PMA; oleic acid, OA). Global gene expression was examined in differentiated preadipocytes treated with either 250 μM PA, SA, PMA, or OA for 48 hrs. Individual fatty acid treatments had significant effects on adipocyte gene expression. Functional analyses revealed that PA induced the TLR signalling pathway, while PMA had the opposite effect. SA and OA had similar effects, with increases in key metabolic pathways including mTOR and PPAR signalling, and a reduction in TLR signalling. Ccl5 was validated as a candidate gene that may mediate the differential inflammatory effects of SFA and MUFA in AT. Individual SFA and MUFA trigger distinct transcriptional responses in differentiated preadipocytes, with inflammatory and metabolic pathways particularly sensitive to these fatty acids. Overall design: A total of 4 microarrays were run for each FA treatment. We experienced difficulties with the cRNA amplification for one replicate from the OA treated cells; therefore this treatment group only had an n=3. For each sample, 100 ng of total RNA was prepared for hybridization to Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.1 ST array strips, according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Affymetrix Inc., Fremont, CA, USA).
Project description:The type and the amount of dietary fat have a significant influence on the metabolic pathways involved in the development of obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular diseases. However, it is unknown to what extent this modulation is achieved through DNA methylation. We assessed the effects of cholesterol intake, the proportion of energy intake derived from fat, the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA), the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) to SFA, and the ratio of MUFA+PUFA to SFA on genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in normal-weight and obese children. We determined the genome-wide methylation profile in the blood of 69 Greek preadolescents (?10 years old) as well as their dietary intake for two consecutive weekdays and one weekend day. The methylation levels of one CpG island shore and four sites were significantly correlated with total fat intake. The methylation levels of 2 islands, 11 island shores and 16 sites were significantly correlated with PUFA/SFA; of 9 islands, 26 island shores and 158 sites with MUFA/SFA; and of 10 islands, 40 island shores and 130 sites with (MUFA+PUFA)/SFA. We found significant gene enrichment in 34 pathways for PUFA/SFA, including the leptin pathway, and a significant enrichment in 5 pathways for (MUFA+PUFA)/SFA. Our results suggest that specific changes in DNA methylation may have an important role in the mechanisms involved in the physiological responses to different types of dietary fat.
Project description:Saturated fatty acids (SFA) are widely thought to induce inflammation in adipose tissue (AT), while monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are purported to have the opposite effect; however, it is unclear if individual SFA and MUFA behave similarly. Our goal was to examine adipocyte transcriptional networks regulated by individual SFA (palmitic acid, PA; stearic acid, SA) and MUFA (palmitoleic acid, PMA; oleic acid, OA). Global gene expression was examined in differentiated preadipocytes treated with either 250 M-NM-<M PA, SA, PMA, or OA for 48 hrs. Individual fatty acid treatments had significant effects on adipocyte gene expression. Functional analyses revealed that PA induced the TLR signalling pathway, while PMA had the opposite effect. SA and OA had similar effects, with increases in key metabolic pathways including mTOR and PPAR signalling, and a reduction in TLR signalling. Ccl5 was validated as a candidate gene that may mediate the differential inflammatory effects of SFA and MUFA in AT. Individual SFA and MUFA trigger distinct transcriptional responses in differentiated preadipocytes, with inflammatory and metabolic pathways particularly sensitive to these fatty acids. A total of 4 microarrays were run for each FA treatment. We experienced difficulties with the cRNA amplification for one replicate from the OA treated cells; therefore this treatment group only had an n=3. For each sample, 100 ng of total RNA was prepared for hybridization to Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.1 ST array strips, according to the manufacturerM-bM-^@M-^Ys instructions (Affymetrix Inc., Fremont, CA, USA).