Intranasal delivery of VEGF enhances compensatory lung growth in mice.
ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has previously been demonstrated to accelerate compensatory lung growth (CLG) in mice and may be a useful therapy for pulmonary hypoplasia. Systemic administration of VEGF can result in side effects such as hypotension and edema. The aim of this study was to explore nasal delivery as a route for intrapulmonary VEGF administration. Eight-week-old C57BL/6 male mice underwent left pneumonectomy, followed by daily nasal instillation of VEGF at 0.5 mg/kg or isovolumetric saline. Lung volume measurement, morphometric analysis, and protein expression studies were performed on lung tissues harvested on postoperative day (POD) 4. To understand the mechanism by which VEGF accelerates lung growth, proliferation of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) was assessed in a co-culture model with lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-L) treated with and without VEGF (10 ng/mL). The assay was then repeated with a heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) neutralizing antibody ranging from 0.5-50 ?g/mL. Compared to control mice, the VEGF-treated group displayed significantly higher lung volume (P = 0.001) and alveolar count (P = 0.005) on POD 4. VEGF treatment resulted in increased pulmonary expression of HB-EGF (P = 0.02). VEGF-treated HMVEC-L increased HBEC proliferation (P = 0.002) while the addition of an HB-EGF neutralizing antibody at 5 and 50 ?g/mL abolished this effect (P = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively). These findings demonstrate that nasal delivery of VEGF enhanced CLG. These effects could be mediated by a paracrine mechanism through upregulation of HB-EGF, an epithelial cell mitogen.
Project description:Exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) accelerates compensatory lung growth (CLG) in mice after unilateral pneumonectomy. In this study, we unexpectedly discovered a method to enhance CLG with a VEGF inhibitor, soluble VEGFR1. Eight-week-old C57BL/6 male mice underwent left pneumonectomy, followed by daily intraperitoneal (ip) injection of either saline (control) or 20 ?g/kg of VEGFR1-Fc. On post-operative day (POD) 4, mice underwent pulmonary function tests (PFT) and lungs were harvested for volume measurement and analyses of the VEGF signaling pathway. To investigate the role of hypoxia in mediating the effects of VEGFR1, experiments were repeated with concurrent administration of PT-2385, an inhibitor of hypoxia-induced factor (HIF)2?, via orogastric gavage at 10 mg/kg every 12 hours for 4 days. We found that VEGFR1-treated mice had increased total lung capacity (P = 0.006), pulmonary compliance (P = 0.03), and post-euthanasia lung volume (P = 0.049) compared to control mice. VEGFR1 treatment increased pulmonary levels of VEGF (P = 0.008) and VEGFR2 (P = 0.01). It also stimulated endothelial proliferation (P < 0.0001) and enhanced pulmonary surfactant production (P = 0.03). The addition of PT-2385 abolished the increase in lung volume and endothelial proliferation in response to VEGFR1. By paradoxically stimulating angiogenesis and enhancing lung growth, VEGFR1 could represent a new treatment strategy for neonatal lung diseases characterized by dysfunction of the HIF-VEGF pathway.
Project description:Heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is an angiogenic factor mediating radial migration of the developing forebrain, while vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to influence rostral migratory stream in rodents. Cell migratory defects have been identified in animal models of hydrocephalus; however, the relationship between HB-EGF and hydrocephalus is unclear. We show that mice overexpressing human HB-EGF with β-galactosidase reporter exhibit an elevated VEGF, localization of β-galactosidase outside the subventricular zone (SVZ), subarachnoid hemorrhage, and ventriculomegaly. In Wistar polycystic kidney rats with hydrocephalus, alteration of migratory trajectory is detected. Furthermore, VEGF infusions into the rats result in ventriculomegaly with an increase of SVZ neuroblast in rostral migratory stream, whereas VEGF ligand inhibition prevents it. Our results support the idea that excess HB-EGF leads to a significant elevation of VEGF and ventricular dilatation. These data suggest a potential pathophysiological mechanism that elevated HB-EGF can elicit VEGF induction and hydrocephalus.
Project description:Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer is necessary to identify biomarkers/targets specific to individual airway molecular profiles and to identify options for targeted chemoprevention. Herein, we identify mechanisms by which loss of microRNA (miRNA)125a-3p (miR125a) contributes to the malignant potential of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) harboring an activating point mutation of the K-ras proto-oncogene (HBEC K-ras). Among other miRNAs, we identified significant miR125a loss in HBEC K-ras lines and determined that miR125a is regulated by the PEA3 transcription factor. PEA3 is upregulated in HBEC K-ras cells, and genetic knockdown of PEA3 restores miR125a expression. From a panel of inflammatory/angiogenic factors, we identified increased CXCL1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by HBEC K-ras cells and determined that miR125a overexpression significantly reduces K-ras-mediated production of these tumorigenic factors. miR125a overexpression also abrogates increased proliferation of HBEC K-ras cells and suppresses anchorage-independent growth (AIG) of HBEC K-ras/P53 cells, the latter of which is CXCL1-dependent. Finally, pioglitazone increases levels of miR125a in HBEC K-ras cells via PEA3 downregulation. In addition, pioglitazone and miR125a overexpression elicit similar phenotypic responses, including suppression of both proliferation and VEGF production. Our findings implicate miR125a loss in lung carcinogenesis and lay the groundwork for future studies to determine whether miR125a is a possible biomarker for lung carcinogenesis and/or a chemoprevention target. Moreover, our studies illustrate that pharmacologic augmentation of miR125a in K-ras-mutated pulmonary epithelium effectively abrogates several deleterious downstream events associated with the mutation.
Project description:The interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment is a vicious cycle that enhances the survival and progression of cancer, resulting in metastasis. This study is the first to indicate that lung cancer-derived galectin-1 secretion is responsible for stimulating tumor-associated dendritic cells (TADCs) production of mature heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), which, in turn, increases cancer progression. Treatment of galectin-1, present in large amounts in lung cancer conditioned medium and lung cancer patient sera, mimicked the inductive effect of lung cancer conditioned medium on the expression and ectodomain shedding of HB-EGF by TNF?-converting enzyme/a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 9 (ADAM9) and ADAM17. Significant up-regulation of HB-EGF has been seen in tumor-infiltrating CD11c(+) dendritic cells in human lung cancer samples. Active cleavage of HB-EGF in TADCs by ADAM9 and ADAM17 is associated with increased protein kinase C ? and Lyn signaling. Enhancement of HB-EGF production in TADCs increased the proliferation, migration, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition abilities of lung cancer. In contrast, inhibiting HB-EGF by siRNA suppressed TADC-mediated cancer progression. Moreover, mice injected with galectin-1 knockdown Lewis lung carcinoma showed decreased expression and ectodomain shedding of HB-EGF and reduced incidence of cancer development, resulting in increased survival rates. We demonstrate here for the first time that human and mouse DCs are a source of HB-EGF, an EGFR ligand with tumorigenic properties. Antagonists of the effect of lung cancer-derived galectin-1 on DCs and anti-HB-EGF blocking antibodies could, therefore, have therapeutic potential as antitumor agents.
Project description:Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a cytoprotective agent in several organ systems but its roles in liver fibrosis are unclear. We studied the roles of HB-EGF in experimental liver fibrosis in mice and during hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. Thioacetamide (TAA; 100 mg/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal injection three times a week for 4 weeks to wild-type HB-EGF(+/+) or HB-EGF-null (HB-EGF(-/-)) male mice. Livers were examined for histology and expression of key fibrotic markers. Primary cultured HSCs isolated from untreated HB-EGF(+/+) or HB-EGF(-/-) mice were examined for fibrotic markers and/or cell migration either during culture-induced activation or after exogenous HB-EGF (100 ng/ml) treatment. TAA induced liver fibrosis in both HB-EGF(+/+) and HB-EGF(-/-) mice. Hepatic HB-EGF expression was decreased in TAA-treated HB-EGF(+/+) mice by 37.6% (P<0.05) as compared with animals receiving saline alone. HB-EGF(-/-) mice treated with TAA showed increased hepatic ?-smooth muscle actin-positive cells and collagen deposition, and, as compared with HB-EGF(+/+) mice, TAA-stimulated hepatic mRNA levels in HB-EGF(-/-) mice were, respectively, 2.1-, 1.7-, 1.8-, 2.2-, 1.2- or 3.3-fold greater for ?-smooth muscle actin, ?1 chain of collagen I or III (COL1A1 or COL3A1), transforming growth factor-?1, connective tissue growth factor or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (P<0.05). HB-EGF expression was detectable in primary cultured HSCs from HB-EGF(+/+) mice. Both endogenous and exogenous HB-EGF inhibited HSC activation in primary culture, and HB-EGF enhanced HSC migration. These findings suggest that HB-EGF gene knockout in mice increases susceptibility to chronic TAA-induced hepatic fibrosis and that HB-EGF expression or action is associated with suppression of fibrogenic pathways in HSCs.
Project description:In pulmonary hypertension, induced in rats breathing high oxygen at normobaric pressure, vascular cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia thicken the walls of lung microvessels (15-100 microns in diameter). Over a 28-day time course, new contractile cells develop from intimal precursor smooth muscle cells, which include intermediate cells and interstitial fibroblasts. Cell labeling studies in vivo have shown that these cells proliferate more than other vascular cells and that most of this activity occurs between 4 and 7 days of hyperoxia. The growth factors responsible for this proliferation are unknown. In the present study, we investigate the expression of mRNA for the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related protein, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), a newly discovered mitogen for fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Northern analysis shows HB-EGF mRNA levels to be low in normal lung but increased 100-fold by day 7 of hyperoxia. In situ hybridization identifies a select group of cells expressing HB-EGF mRNA. In normal lung, hybridizing cells are randomly distributed in the alveolar wall and space. By day 7, they increase in number and cluster around the microvessels. Histochemical techniques identify cells expressing HB-EGF mRNA as eosinophils.
Project description:The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of deoxyshikonin on lymphangiogenesis. Deoxyshikonin enhanced the ability of human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-dLy) to undergo time-dependent in vitro cord formation. Interestingly, an opposite result was observed in cells treated with shikonin. The increased cord formation ability following deoxyshikonin treatment correlated with increased VEGF-C mRNA expression to higher levels than seen for VEGF-A and VEGF-D mRNA expression. We also found that deoxyshikonin regulated cord formation of HMVEC-dLy by increasing the HIF-1 ? mRNA level, HIF-1 ? protein level, and the accumulation of HIF-1 ? in the nucleus. Knockdown of the HIF-1 ? gene by transfection with siHIF-1 ? decreased VEGF-C mRNA expression and cord formation ability in HMVEC-dLy. Deoxyshikonin treatment could not recover VEGF-C mRNA expression and cord formation ability in HIF-1 ? knockdown cells. This indicated that deoxyshikonin induction of VEGF-C mRNA expression and cord formation in HMVEC-dLy on Matrigel occurred mainly via HIF-1 ? regulation. We also found that deoxyshikonin promoted wound healing in vitro by the induction of HMVEC-dLy migration into the wound gap. This study describes a new effect of deoxyshikonin, namely, the promotion of cord formation by human endothelial cells via the regulation of HIF-1 ? . The findings suggest that deoxyshikonin may be a new drug candidate for wound healing and treatment of lymphatic diseases.
Project description:Lung cancer is the most lethal neoplasia, and an early diagnosis is the best way for improving survival. Symptomatic patients attending Pulmonary Services could be diagnosed with lung cancer earlier if high-risk individuals are promptly separated from healthy individuals and patients with benign respiratory pathologies. We searched for a convenient non-invasive serum test to define which patients should have more immediate clinical tests. Six cancer-associated molecules (HB-EGF, EGF, EGFR, sCD26, VEGF, and Calprotectin) were investigated in this study. Markers were measured in serum by specific ELISAs, in an unselected population that included 72 lung cancer patients of different histological types and 56 control subjects (healthy individuals and patients with benign pulmonary pathologies). Boosted regression and random forests analysis were conducted for the selection of the best candidate biomarkers. A remarkable discriminatory capacity was observed for EGF, sCD26, and especially for Calprotectin, these three molecules constituting a marker panel boasting a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 87%, resulting in an associated misclassification rate of 15%. Finally, an algorithm derived by logistic regression and a nomogram allowed generating classification scores in terms of the risk of a patient of suffering lung cancer. In conclusion, we propose a non-invasive test to identify patients at high-risk for lung cancer from a non-selected population attending a Pulmonary Service. The efficacy of this three-marker panel must be tested in a larger population for lung cancer.
Project description:This study aimed to explore the efficacy and mechanism of Chanling Gao (CLG), a compound Chinese medicine, on colorectal cancer (CRC). A model of transplanted CRC was established in nude mice. The mice were treated 7 days after CRC transplantation with either Capecitabine or CLG for 3 weeks. On the 28th day after the operation, CRC growth and liver metastasis were assessed by morphology, the changes in the expression of HIF-1? (hypoxia inducible factor-1?), stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1?), CXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4), PI3K, and Akt in the transplanted tumor and SDF-1? and CXCR4 in the liver were detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The protein contents of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and collagen IV in the serum and transplanted tumor and SDF-1? and CXCR4 in liver tissues were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the Capecitabine and high dose CLG groups, the growth and liver metastasis of CRC were significantly inhibited, the protein levels of HIF-1?, SDF-1?, CXCR4, MMP-2, VEGF, PI3K, Akt, P-PI3K and P-Akt in the transplanted tumor were lower, while the content of collagen IV in the transplanted tumor was higher, than in Model group. A high dose of CLG inhibited the growth of transplanted tumor and liver metastasis of CRC in nude mice, probably by inhibiting the HIF-1?/SDF-1?-CXCR4/PI3K-Akt signaling pathway reducing the synthesis and release of VEGF and degradation of collagen IV.
Project description:Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) is an option for emphysematous patients who are awaiting lung transplantation. LVRS reduces nonfunctional portions of lung tissues and favors the compensatory lung growth (CLG) of the remaining lobes. This phenomenon diminishes dyspnea and improves both the respiratory mechanics and quality of life for the patients. An animal model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema was used to investigate the structural and functional lung response after LVRS. Bilobectomy was performed six weeks after elastase instillation. Two weeks after bilobectomy, CLG effects were evaluated by lung mechanics and histomorphometric analysis. After bilobectomy, the emphysematous animals presented decreased mean linear intercepts, increased elastic fiber proportion, and increased alveolar surface density, total volumes of airspace, tissue and respiratory region and absolute surface area. We conclude that bilobectomy promoted CLG in emphysematous animals, resulting in alveolar architecture repair.