Low night temperature at veraison enhances the accumulation of anthocyanins in Corvina grapes (Vitis Vinifera L.).
ABSTRACT: Climate change is a major concern in grape production worldwide. Nights have been warming much faster than the days, raising attention on the effect of night temperatures on grape and wine composition. In this study we evaluated the effect of night temperatures on grape coloration in the cv. Corvina (Vitis vinifera L.). In 2015 and 2016 potted plants were cooled overnight (10-11?°C) during two berry ripening phases, veraison (TV) or post-veraison (TPV), and compared to control vines (C) grown at ambient night temperature (15-20?°C on average). Cooling treatment around veraison (TV) hastened berry anthocyanin accumulation, while the same treatment applied after veraison (TPV) was ineffective. Molecular analysis revealed an increased transcription of four key genes in anthocyanin biosynthesis (CHS3, F3H1, MYBA1 and UFGT) in TV treatment. These results suggest that the anthocyanin biosynthesis capacity was enhanced by cool nights during veraison. However, since the gene expression was not always temporally correlated to the increase in anthocyanin concentration, we speculate on the presence of mechanisms, such as enzymatic regulation or anthocyanin transport, which may contribute in determining the anthocyanin accumulation under low night temperatures.
Project description:Resveratrols are polyphenolic secondary metabolites that can benefit human health, and only occur in a few plant families including Vitaceae. It has been reported that abscisic acid (ABA) can induce veraison (the onset of grape berry ripening) and may induce the accumulation of resveratrol in berry skin. However, the relationships between ABA, veraison, the accumulation of anthocyanins and the accumulation of resveratrol in the berry are poorly understood. This study attempted to answer this question through an investigation of the effect of applied ABA and fluridone (a synthetic inhibitor of ABA) on the biosynthesis and accumulation of ABA, anthocyanin, and resveratrol in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis) berry skin. Under natural conditions, resveratrol concentration was very low before 91 DAA (days after anthesis), i.e., 2 weeks after veraison, however, it increased sharply from this point to 126 DAA (maturity). Exogenous ABA applications all resulted in an increase in berry skin ABA and anthocyanin concentration, irrespective of the developmental stage at which the treatment occurred (20 and 10 days pre-veraison, veraison or 7 days post-veraison), thereby advancing veraison. In contrast, resveratrol concentration increased only when ABA was applied at 10 days pre-veraison or at veraison. As a result, the accumulation of resveratrol was associated with veraison in grape berry skin and this accumulation, together with that of anthocyanins, was associated with ABA concentration. The response of resveratrol biosynthesis in the berry skin to manipulation of ABA varied during berry development and was less sensitive to ABA than the response of anthocyanin biosynthesis.
Project description:The process of grape berry ripening follows three phases with distinct metabolic processes and complex regulations via phytohormones. The physiological ripening disorder berry shrivel (BS) is characterized by reduced sugar accumulation, low anthocyanin contents, and high acidity in affected berries. The processes leading to BS induction are unknown, but recent transcriptional data on reduced expression of switch genes hint towards a disturbed ripening onset. Herein we investigated the phytohormone composition throughout grape berry ripening in healthy and BS berries in Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Blauer Zweigelt. Thereby we hypothesize that phytohormones are key players for BS induction and suppress the expression of switch genes at veraison. The presented metabolomics and RNAseq data describe two distinct phytohormone profiles in BS berries, differing between pre- and post-veraison with a clear ethylene precursor (aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ACC) peak before veraison. Exogenous application of ACC led to BS symptoms, while ethephone application led to berry abscission. During post-veraison, we observed high ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) and low indole-3-acetate aspartate (IAA-Asp) and isopentenyladenine (iP) contents in BS berries and the transcriptional induction of several phytohormone pathways. The presented descriptive data provide valuable knowledge to further decipher the role of phytohormones in BS induction and BS symptom development.
Project description:Reproductive development of grapevine and berry composition are both strongly influenced by temperature. To date, the molecular mechanisms involved in grapevine berries response to high temperatures are poorly understood. Unlike recent data that addressed the effects on berry development of elevated temperatures applied at the whole plant level, the present work particularly focuses on the fruit responses triggered by direct exposure to heat treatment (HT). In the context of climate change, this work focusing on temperature effect at the microclimate level is of particular interest as it can help to better understand the consequences of leaf removal (a common viticultural practice) on berry development. HT (+ 8°C) was locally applied to clusters from Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings at three different developmental stages (middle green, veraison and middle ripening). Samples were collected 1, 7, and 14 days after treatment and used for metabolic and transcriptomic analyses. The results showed dramatic and specific biochemical and transcriptomic changes in heat exposed berries, depending on the developmental stage and the stress duration. When applied at the herbaceous stage, HT delayed the onset of veraison. Heating also strongly altered the berry concentration of amino acids and organic acids (e.g., phenylalanine, ?-aminobutyric acid and malate) and decreased the anthocyanin content at maturity. These physiological alterations could be partly explained by the deep remodeling of transcriptome in heated berries. More than 7000 genes were deregulated in at least one of the nine experimental conditions. The most affected processes belong to the categories "stress responses," "protein metabolism" and "secondary metabolism," highlighting the intrinsic capacity of grape berries to perceive HT and to build adaptive responses. Additionally, important changes in processes related to "transport," "hormone" and "cell wall" might contribute to the postponing of veraison. Finally, opposite effects depending on heating duration were observed for genes encoding enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, suggesting that the HT-induced decrease in anthocyanin content may result from a combination of transcript abundance and product degradation.
Project description:Grapevine is a fruit crop with worldwide economic importance. The grape berry undergoes complex biochemical changes from fruit set until ripening. This ripening process and production processes define the wine quality. Thus, a thorough understanding of berry ripening is crucial for the prediction of wine quality. For a systemic analysis of grape berry development we applied mass spectrometry based platforms to analyse the metabolome and proteome of Early Campbell at 12 stages covering major developmental phases. Primary metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, such as sugars, organic acids and amino acids together with various bioactive secondary metabolites like flavonols, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were annotated and quantified. At the same time, the proteomic analysis revealed the protein dynamics of the developing grape berries. Multivariate statistical analysis of the integrated metabolomic and proteomic dataset revealed the growth trajectory and corresponding metabolites and proteins contributing most to the specific developmental process. K-means clustering analysis revealed 12 highly specific clusters of co-regulated metabolites and proteins. Granger causality network analysis allowed for the identification of time-shift correlations between metabolite-metabolite, protein- protein and protein-metabolite pairs which is especially interesting for the understanding of developmental processes. The integration of metabolite and protein dynamics with their corresponding biochemical pathways revealed an energy-linked metabolism before veraison with high abundances of amino acids and accumulation of organic acids, followed by protein and secondary metabolite synthesis. Anthocyanins were strongly accumulated after veraison whereas other flavonoids were in higher abundance at early developmental stages and decreased during the grape berry developmental processes. A comparison of the anthocyanin profile of Early Campbell to other cultivars revealed similarities to Concord grape and indicates the strong effect of genetic background on metabolic partitioning in primary and secondary metabolism.
Project description:Anthocyanin is an important parameter for evaluating the quality of wine grapes. However, the effects of different light intensities on anthocyanin synthesis in grape berry skin and its regulation mechanisms are still unclear. In this experiment, clusters of wine grape cv. 'Marselan' were bagged using fruit bags with different light transmittance of 50%, 15%, 5%, and 0, designated as treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. Fruits that were not bagged were used as the control, designated as CK. The anthocyanin composition and concentration, as well as gene expression profiles in the berry skin were determined. The results showed that the degree of coloration of the berry skin reduced with the decrease of the light transmittance, and the veraison was postponed for 10 days in D when compared with the CK. Total anthocyanin concentration in the berry skin treated with D decreased by 51.50% compared with CK at the harvest stage. A total of 24 and 21 anthocyanins were detected in CK and D, respectively. Among them, Malvidin-3-O-coumaroylglucoside (trans), which showed a significant positive correlation with the total concentration of anthocyanins at the harvest stage (r = 0.775) and was not detected in D, was presumed to be light-induced anthocyanin. Other anthocyanins which were both synthesized in CK and D were considered to be light-independent anthocyanins. Among them, Malvidin-3-O-coumaroylglucoside (cis) and Malvidin-3-O-acetylglucoside were typical representatives. Remarkably, the synthesis of light-inducible anthocyanins and light-independent anthocyanins were regulated by different candidate structural genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway and members of MYB and bHLH transcription factors.
Project description:Yan73, a teinturier (dyer) grape variety in China, is one of the few Vitis vinifera cultivars with red-coloured berry flesh. To examine the tissue-specific expression of genes associated with berry colour in Yan73, we analysed the differential accumulation of anthocyanins in the skin and flesh tissues of two red-skinned grape varieties with either red (Yan73) or white flesh (Muscat Hamburg) based on HPLC-MS analysis, as well as the differential expression of 18 anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in both varieties by quantitative RT-PCR. The results revealed that the transcripts of GST, OMT, AM3, CHS3, UFGT, MYBA1, F3'5'H, F3H1 and LDOX were barely detectable in the white flesh of Muscat Hamburg. In particular, GST, OMT, AM3, CHS3 and F3H1 showed approximately 50-fold downregulation in the white flesh of Muscat Hamburg compared to the red flesh of Yan73. A correlation analysis between the accumulation of different types of anthocyanins and gene expression indicated that the cumulative expression of GST, F3'5'H, LDOX and MYBA1 was more closely associated with the acylated anthocyanins and the 3'5'-OH anthocyanins, while OMT and AM3 were more closely associated with the total anthocyanins and methoxylated anthocyanins. Therefore, the transcripts of OMT, AM3, GST, F3'5'H, LDOX and MYBA1 explained most of the variation in the amount and composition of anthocyanins in skin and flesh of Yan73. The data suggest that the specific localization of anthocyanins in the flesh tissue of Yan73 is most likely due to the tissue-specific expression of OMT, AM3, GST, F3'5'H, LDOX and MYBA1 in the flesh.
Project description:Changes in carbohydrate metabolism during grape berry development play a central role in shaping the final composition of the fruit. The present work aimed to identify metabolic switches during grape development and to provide insights into the timing of developmental regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Metabolites from central carbon metabolism were measured using high-pressure anion-exchange chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and enzymatic assays during the development of grape berries from either field-grown vines or fruiting cuttings grown in the greenhouse. Principal component analysis readily discriminated the various stages of berry development, with similar trajectories for field-grown and greenhouse samples. This showed that each stage of fruit development had a characteristic metabolic profile and provided compelling evidence that the fruit-bearing cuttings are a useful model system to investigate regulation of central carbon metabolism in grape berry. The metabolites measured showed tight coordination within their respective pathways, clustering into sugars and sugar-phosphate metabolism, glycolysis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition, there was a pronounced shift in metabolism around veraison, characterized by rapidly increasing sugar levels and decreasing organic acids. In contrast, glycolytic intermediates and sugar phosphates declined before veraison but remained fairly stable post-veraison. In summary, these detailed and comprehensive metabolite analyses revealed the timing of important switches in primary carbohydrate metabolism, which could be related to transcriptional and developmental changes within the berry to achieve an integrated understanding of grape berry development. The results are discussed in a meta-analysis comparing metabolic changes in climacteric versus non-climacteric fleshy fruits.
Project description:KEY MESSAGE:The lower expression at veraison of several ripening master regulators "switch genes" can play a central role in the induction of the berry shrivel ripening physiological disorder in grapevine. Berry shrivel (BS) is a ripening physiological disorder affecting grape berry with visible symptoms appearing after veraison. Berry shrivel leads to shrinking berries with a reduced weight and a lower content of sugars and anthocyanins. In this study, for the first time a transcriptomic analysis coupled with selected metabolites quantification was undertaken to understand the metabolic modifications induced by the disorder. Different stages of berry development were considered including pre- and symptomatic berries. No metabolic alterations in the berry transcriptome and in the metabolite content was observed in pre-symptomatic and pre-veraison samples. Interestingly, at veraison, with still not visible symptoms appearing on the berry, a subset of genes, called switch genes previously suggested as master regulators of the ripening onset in grape berries, were strongly lower expressed in BS. Later during the ripening phase and with visible symptoms of the disorder, more than 3000 genes were differentially expressed. The genes up-regulated were related to hormone biosynthesis, response to stress and the phenylpropanoid pathway, while the genes down-regulated during ripening belonged mainly to the flavonoid pathway, and the sugar metabolism. In agreement, BS berries showed lower content of sugars and anthocyanins from the onset of veraison onward, while the amount of acids was not significantly affected. In conclusion, these results highlight a pivotal role of the switch genes in grapevine ripening, as well as their possible contribution to induce the ripening disorder berry shrivel, although it remains unclear whether this is part of the cause or consequences of the BS disorder.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The selective removal of grapevine leaves around berry clusters can improve the quality of ripening fruits by influencing parameters such as the berry sugar and anthocyanin content at harvest. The outcome depends strongly on the timing of defoliation, which influences the source-sink balance and the modified microclimate surrounding the berries. We removed the basal leaves from Vitis vinifera L. cv Sangiovese shoots at the pre-bloom and veraison stages, and investigated responses such as shoot growth, fruit morphology and composition compared to untreated controls. Moreover, we performed a genome-wide expression analysis to explore the impact of these defoliation treatments on berry transcriptome. RESULTS: We found that pre-bloom defoliation improved berry quality traits such as sugar and anthocyanin content, whereas defoliation at veraison had a detrimental effect, e.g. less anthocyanin and higher incidence of sunburn damage. Genome-wide expression analysis during berry ripening revealed that defoliation at either stage resulted in major transcriptome reprogramming, which slightly delayed the onset of ripening. However, a closer investigation of individual gene expression profiles identified genes that were specifically modulated by defoliation at each stage, reflecting the uncoupling of metabolic processes such as flavonoid biosynthesis, cell wall and stress metabolism, from the general ripening program. CONCLUSIONS: The specific transcriptional modifications we observed following defoliation at different time points allow the identification of the developmental or metabolic processes affected in berries thus deepening the knowledge of the mechanisms by which these agronomical practices impact the final berry ripening traits.
Project description:Anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols are the three major classes of flavonoid compounds found in grape berry tissues. Several viticultural practices increase flavonoid content in the fruit, but the underlying genetic mechanisms responsible for these changes have not been completely deciphered. The impact of post-veraison sunlight exposure on anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation in grape berry skin and its relation to the expression of different transcriptional regulators known to be involved in flavonoid synthesis was studied. Treatments consisting of removing or moving aside the basal leaves which shade berry clusters were applied. Shading did not affect sugar accumulation or gene expression of HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 1, although in the leaf removal treatment, these events were retarded during the first weeks of ripening. Flavonols were the most drastically reduced flavonoids following shading and leaf removal treatments, related to the reduced expression of FLAVONOL SYNTHASE 4 and its putative transcriptional regulator MYB12. Anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of CHS2, LDOX, OMT, UFGT, MYBA1, and MYB5a genes were also affected. Other regulatory genes were less affected or not affected at all by these treatments. Non-transcriptional control mechanisms for flavonoid synthesis are also suggested, especially during the initial stages of ripening. Although berries from the leaf removal treatment received more light than shaded fruits, malvidin-3-glucoside and total flavonol content was reduced compared with the treatment without leaf removal. This work reveals that flavonol-related gene expression responds rapidly to field changes in light levels, as shown by the treatment in which shaded fruits were exposed to light in the late stages of ripening. Taken together, this study establishes MYB-specific responsiveness for the effect of sun exposure and sugar transport on flavonoid synthesis.