Uncovering Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 as a potential target for rheumatoid arthritis synovial hyperplasia.
ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease including synovitis and synovial hyperplasia that contribute to joint destruction. Pivotal pathogenic mechanisms in this process are the dysregulated proliferation and apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Unfortunately, the mechanisms of FLS dysregulation are not completely elucidated. Here, we explored a new hypothesis based in the potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of retinoids in some types of cancer. Specifically, we investigated the role of retinoids and of the retinoic acid binding proteins, CRABP2 and FABP5, on the proliferation and apoptosis of FLS from RA by adding all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or silencing CRABP2 and FABP5. We showed an unconventional behaviour of RA FLS, which were relatively insensitive to ATRA. In effect, ATRA increased the resistance to apoptosis despite the high CRABP2/FABP5 ratio of RA FLS; and CRABP2 suppression sensitized RA FLS to Fas-induced apoptosis. This latter effect was associated with changes in expression of kinases, ASK1 up-regulation and ERK down-regulation, and increased phosphorylation of JNK. In addition, the potentiation of FLS apoptosis by CRABP2 silencing persisted in the presence of pro-inflammatory mediators, TNF e IL1?. Therefore, the results point to CRABP2 as a potential target to decrease synovial hyperplasia in RA.
Project description:To identify a predictive molecular "signature" for sensitivity to retinoic acid in pancreatic cancer.Fourteen patient-derived, low-passage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) lines with varied expression of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) and cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2) were used to evaluate the response to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration/invasion assays were used to measure the in vitro response. Tumor growth was monitored in subcutaneous xenografts in athymic nude mice for 4 weeks.Response to ATRA was observed to be dependent upon differential expression of FABP5 versus CRABP2. Thus, elevated FABP5 expression was associated with minimal cytotoxicity and tumor growth inhibition and a paradoxical increase in migration and invasion. Conversely, CRABP2 expression in the absence of FABP5 was associated with significant tumor growth inhibition with ATRA, even in gemcitabine-resistant tumors. The ATRA-resistant phenotype of FABP5(high)CRABP2(null) cells could be circumvented by ectopic expression of CRABP2. Alternatively, reexpression of endogenous CRABP2 could be enabled in FABP5(high)CRABP2(null) PDAC lines by exposure to decitabine and trichostatin A, thereby relieving epigenetic silencing of the CRABP2 gene promoter. Immunohistochemical staining for FABP5 in archival human tissue microarrays identifies a subset of cases (13 of 63, ~20%) which are negative for FABP5 expression and might be candidates for ATRA therapy.The widely used agent ATRA deserves a "second look" in PDAC, but needs to be targeted to patient subsets with biopsy-proven FABP5-negative tumors, or be combined with a chromatin-modifying agent to reexpress endogenous CRABP2.
Project description:Fenretinide is a synthetic retinoid analogue that promotes apoptosis but has decreased toxicity when compared to other retinoids. We have previously shown that retinoic acid (RA) production in endometriotic tissue is decreased, resulting in reduced estrogen metabolism and apoptotic resistance. We hypothesize fenretinide may induce apoptosis in endometriotic cells and tissues, thereby reducing disease burden.Primary endometriotic stromal cells were collected, isolated, cultured, and treated with fenretinide in doses from 0 to 20 µmol/L. Cell count, viability, and immunoblots were performed to examine apoptosis. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from endometriotic cells treated with fenretinide was used to examine expression of genes involved in RA signaling including stimulated by RA 6 (STRA6), cellular RA binding protein 2 (CRABP2), and fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5). Endometriotic tissue was xenografted subcutaneously into the flanks of mice which were treated with fenretinide for 2 weeks, after which the mice were killed and lesion volumes calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using t test and analysis of variance.Treatment with fenretinide significantly decreased total cell count (doses 5-20 µL) and viability (doses 10-20 µmol/L). Fenretinide increased protein levels of the apoptotic marker poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (starting at 10 µmol/L) and decreased proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (10 µmol/L, starting at 8-day treatment). Examination of genes involved in retinoid uptake and action showed that treatment induced STRA6 expression while expression of CRABP2 and FABP5 remained unchanged. Fenretinide also significantly decreased the endometriotic lesion xenograft volume.Fenretinide increases STRA6 expression thereby potentially reversing the pathological loss of retinoid availability. Treatment with this compound induces apoptosis. In vivo treatments decrease lesion volume. Targeting the RA signaling pathway may be a promising novel treatment for women with endometriosis.
Project description:The transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) displays anticarcinogenic activities but the mechanism that underlies this activity is unknown. We show here that KLF2 is markedly downregulated in human breast cancers and that its expression positively correlates with breast cancer patient survival. We show further that KLF2 suppresses tumor development by controlling the transcriptional activity of the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA). RA regulates gene transcription by activating two types of nuclear receptors: RA receptors (RARs), which inhibit tumor development, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?), which promotes tumorigenesis. The partitioning of RA between these receptors is regulated by two carrier proteins: cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2), which delivers RA to RARs, and fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5), which shuttles ligands to PPAR?/?. We show that KLF2 induces the expression of CRABP2 and RAR? and inhibits the expression FABP5 and PPAR?/? thereby shifting RA signaling from the pro-carcinogenic FABP5/PPAR?/? to the growth-suppressing CRABP2/RAR path. The data thus reveal that KLF2 suppresses tumor growth by controlling the transcriptional activities of RA.
Project description:Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a hereditary tumor syndrome characterized by an increased risk of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Chemotherapy of MPNST is still insufficient. In this study, we investigated whether human tumor Schwann cells derived from NF1 associated MPNST respond to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). We analyzed effects of ATRA and MEK inhibitor (MEKi) combination therapy.MPNST cell lines S462, T265, NSF1 were treated with ATRA and MEKi U0126 and PD0325901. We assessed cell viability, proliferation, migration, apoptosis and differentiation as well as mRNA expression of RAR and RXR subtypes and ATRA target genes such as CRABP2, CYP26A1, RARB and PDK1. We also analyzed CRABP2 methylation in cell lines and performed immunohistochemistry of human MPNST specimens.ATRA therapy reduced viability and proliferation in S462 and T265 cells, accompanied by differentiation, apoptosis and reduced migration. NSF1 cells which lacked RXRG expression did not respond to ATRA. We furthermore demonstrated that ATRA signaling was functional for common targets, and that mRNA expression of CRABP2 and its targets was raised by ATRA therapy, whereas alternative pathways via FABP5 were not induced. Finally, combination of ATRA and MEKi demonstrated additively reduced viability of T265 and S462 cells.We observed therapeutic effects in two of three MPNST cell lines pronounced by combination therapy. These data point to a potentially successful treatment of MPNST by combined application of ATRA and MEK inhibitors such as U0126 or PD0325901.
Project description:Survivin is an independent prognostic factor for joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the expression and function of survivin in RA synoviocytes remain unclear. We certified the expression of survivin in RA synovial tissues and performed the experiment using RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) treated with siRNA. As a result, the expression levels of wild type (WT) survivin and the 2B splice variants in RA synovial tissues were higher than those in osteoarthritis tissue samples, and, these variants were highly expressed in RA-FLS. The expression levels of survivin-WT and -2B in the RA-FLS were upregulated by PDGF. Treatment with siRNA against survivin-2B led to decreased viability of PDGF-treated RA-FLS due to cell cycle suppression and apoptosis promotion, while the siRNA against all survivin isoforms did not affect the viability. Moreover, an overexpression of survivin-2B in RA-FLS led to cell proliferation through cell cycle activation and by conferring resistance to apoptosis. In conclusion, survivin-2B has an important role in RA-FLS proliferation. These data suggest that survivin-2B might contribute to rheumatoid synovial hyperplasia, and have the potential as a novel therapeutic target for RA.
Project description:Undifferentiated cell populations may influence tumor growth in malignant glioma. We investigated potential disruptions in the retinoic acid (RA) differentiation pathway that could lead to a loss of differentiation capacity, influencing patient prognosis. Expression of key molecules belonging to the RA differentiation pathway was analyzed in 283 astrocytic gliomas and was correlated with tumor proliferation, tumor differentiation, and patient survival. In addition, in situ concentrations of retinoids were measured in tumors, and RA signaling events were studied in vitro. Unlike other tumors, in gliomas expression of most RA signaling molecules increased with malignancy and was associated with augmented intratumoral retinoid levels in high-grade gliomas. Aberrantly expressed RA signaling molecules included i) the retinol-binding protein CRBP1, which facilitates cellular retinoid uptake; ii) ALDH1A1, capable of activating RA precursors; iii) the RA-degrading enzyme CYP26B1; and iv) the RA-binding protein FABP5, which can inhibit RA-induced differentiation. In contrast, expression of the RA-binding protein CRABP2, which fosters differentiation, was decreased in high-grade tumors. Moreover, expression of CRBP1 correlated with tumor proliferation, and FABP5 expression correlated with an undifferentiated tumor phenotype. CRBP1 and ALDH1A1 were independent prognostic markers for adverse patient survival. Our data indicate a complex and clinically relevant deregulation of RA signaling, which seems to be a central event in glioma pathogenesis.
Project description:Inadequate apoptosis contributes to synovial hyperplasia in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent study shows that low expression of Puma might be partially responsible for the decreased apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Slug, a highly conserved zinc finger transcriptional repressor, is known to antagonize apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitor cells by repressing Puma transactivation. In this study, we examined the expression and function of Slug in RA FLS. Slug mRNA expression was measured in the synovial tissue (ST) and FLS obtained from RA and osteoarthritis patients. Slug and Puma mRNA expression in FLS by apoptotic stimuli were measured by real-time PCR analysis. FLS were transfected with control siRNA or Slug siRNA. Apoptosis was quantified by trypan blue exclusion, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 assay. RA ST expressed higher level of Slug mRNA compared with osteoarthritis ST. Slug was significantly induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but not by exogenous p53 in RA FLS. Puma induction by H2O2 stimulation was significantly higher in Slug siRNA-transfected FLS compared with control siRNA-transfected FLS. After H2O2 stimulation, viable cell number was significantly lower in Slug siRNA-transfected FLS compared with control siRNA-transfected FLS. Apoptosis enhancing effect of Slug siRNA was further confirmed by ELISA that detects cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments and caspase-3 assay. These data demonstrate that Slug is overexpressed in RA ST and that suppression of Slug gene facilitates apoptosis of FLS by increasing Puma transactivation. Slug may therefore represent a potential therapeutic target in RA.
Project description:The use of TNF inhibitors has been a major progress in the treatment of chronic inflammation. However, not all patients respond. In addition, response will be often lost when treatment is stopped. These clinical aspects indicate that other cytokines might be involved and we focus here on the role of IL-17. In addition, the chronic nature of joint inflammation may contribute to reduced response and enhanced chronicity. Therefore we studied the capacity of IL-17 to regulate synoviolin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase implicated in synovial hyperplasia in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) FLS and in chronic reactivated streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis.Chronic reactivated SCW-induced arthritis was examined in IL-17R deficient and wild-type mice. Synoviolin expression was analysed by real-time RT-PCR, Western Blot or immunostaining in RA FLS and tissue, and p53 assessed by Western Blot. Apoptosis was detected by annexin V/propidium iodide staining, SS DNA apoptosis ELISA kit or TUNEL staining and proliferation by PCNA staining. IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA), IL-17 receptor C (IL-17-RC) or synoviolin inhibition were achieved by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or neutralizing antibodies. IL-17 induced sustained synoviolin expression in RA FLS. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced RA FLS apoptosis was associated with reduced synoviolin expression and was rescued by IL-17 treatment with a corresponding increase in synoviolin expression. IL-17RC or IL-17RA RNA interference increased SNP-induced apoptosis, and decreased IL-17-induced synoviolin. IL-17 rescued RA FLS from apoptosis induced by synoviolin knockdown. IL-17 and TNF had additive effects on synoviolin expression and protection against apoptosis induced by synoviolin knowndown. In IL-17R deficient mice, a decrease in arthritis severity was characterized by increased synovial apoptosis, reduced proliferation and a marked reduction in synoviolin expression. A distinct absence of synoviolin expressing germinal centres in IL-17R deficient mice contrasted with synoviolin positive B cells and Th17 cells in synovial germinal centre-like structures.IL-17 induction of synoviolin may contribute at least in part to RA chronicity by prolonging the survival of RA FLS and immune cells in germinal centre reactions. These results extend the role of IL-17 to synovial hyperplasia.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are key players in the synovial pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Currently, there is no treatment that specifically targets these aggressive cells. By combining 3 different "omics" data sets, i.e., 1) risk genes in RA, 2) differentially expressed genes, and 3) differential DNA methylation in RA versus osteoarthritis (OA) FLS, we identified LBH (limb bud and heart development) as a candidate gene in RA. The present study was undertaken to define the role of this gene in FLS. METHODS:Synovial tissue specimens from RA and OA patients were collected at the time of joint replacement surgery. LBH expression was silenced using small interfering RNA or overexpressed using an LBH expression vector in primary FLS. Gene expression profiles were determined by microarray and assessed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Effects of modified LBH expression were investigated in functional assays. RESULTS:LBH was expressed in the synovial lining layer in patients with RA. Transforming growth factor ?1 significantly increased LBH expression in primary FLS, and platelet-derived growth factor BB decreased it. Pathway analysis of the transcriptome of LBH-deficient FLS compared to control FLS identified "cellular growth and proliferation" as the most significantly enriched pathway. In growth assays, LBH deficiency increased FLS proliferation. Conversely, LBH overexpression significantly inhibited cell growth. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated a marked increase in cells entering the cell cycle in LBH-deficient FLS compared to controls. LBH did not alter apoptosis. CONCLUSION:LBH is a candidate gene for synovial pathology in RA. It is regulated by growth factors and modulates cell growth in primary FLS. Our data suggest a novel mechanism for synovial intimal hyperplasia and joint damage in RA.
Project description:Nuclear receptor-mediated signaling via RARs and PPAR? is involved in the regulation of skin homeostasis. Moreover, activation of both RAR and PPAR? was shown to alter skin inflammation. Endogenous all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can activate both receptors depending on specific transport proteins: Fabp5 initiates PPAR? signaling whereas Crabp2 promotes RAR signaling. Repetitive topical applications of ovalbumin (OVA) in combination with intraperitoneal injections of OVA or only intraperitoneal OVA applications were used to induce allergic dermatitis. In our mouse model, expression of IL-4, and Hbegf increased whereas expression of involucrin, Abca12 and Spink5 decreased in inflamed skin, demonstrating altered immune response and epidermal barrier homeostasis. Comprehensive gene expression analysis showed alterations of the cutaneous retinoid metabolism and retinoid-mediated signaling in allergic skin immune response. Notably, ATRA synthesis was increased as indicated by the elevated expression of retinaldehyde dehydrogenases and increased levels of ATRA. Consequently, the expression pattern of genes downstream to RAR was altered. Furthermore, the increased ratio of Fabp5 vs. Crabp2 may indicate an up-regulation of the PPAR? pathway in allergen-induced dermatitis in addition to the altered RAR signaling. Thus, our findings suggest that ATRA levels, RAR-mediated signaling and signaling involved in PPAR? pathways are mainly increased in allergen-induced dermatitis and may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of allergic skin diseases.