Aquablation: a novel and minimally invasive surgery for benign prostate enlargement.
ABSTRACT: Aquablation is a minimally invasive surgical technology for benign prostate enlargement, which uses high-pressure saline to remove parenchymal tissue through a heat-free mechanism of hydrodissection. Early results show this to be a promising surgical strategy with a strong morbidity profile and reduced resection time. This review serves to provide an overview of the technique and evaluate its safety and efficacy.
Project description:Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) became the gold standard surgical treatment for benign prostatic obstruction without undergoing randomized controlled trials against the predecessor standard in open suprapubic prostatectomy. TURP has historically been associated with significant morbidity and this has fuelled the development of minimally invasive surgical treatment options. Improvements in perioperative morbidity for TURP has been creating an ever increasing standard that must be met by any new technologies that are to be compared to this gold standard. Over recent years, there has been the emergence of novel minimally invasive treatments such as the prostatic urethral lift (PUL; UroLift System), convective WAter Vapor Energy (WAVE; Rezum System), Aquablation (AQUABEAM System), Histotripsy (Vortx Rx System) and temporary implantable nitinol device (TIND). Intraprostatic injections (NX-1207, PRX-302, botulinum toxin A, ethanol) have mostly been used with limited efficacy, but may be suitable for selected patients. This review evaluates these novel minimally invasive surgical options with special reference to the literature published in the past 5 years.
Project description:Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents a spectrum of related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The cost of currently recommended medications and the discontinuation rate due to side effects are significant drawbacks limiting their long-term use in clinical practice. Interventional procedures, considered as the definitive treatment for BPH, carry a significant risk of treatment-related complications in frail patients. These issues have contributed to the emergence of new approaches as alternative options to standard therapies. This paper reviews the recent literature regarding the experimental treatments under investigation and presents the currently available experimental devices and techniques used under local anesthesia for the treatment of LUTS/BPH in the vast majority of cases. Devices for delivery of thermal treatment (microwaves, radiofrequency, high-intensity focused ultrasound, and the Rezum system), mechanical devices (prostatic stent and urethral lift), fractionation of prostatic tissue (histotripsy and aquablation), prostate artery embolization, and intraprostatic drugs are discussed. Evidence for the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of these "minimally invasive procedures" is analyzed.
Project description:The prevalence of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) causing bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms increases with our ageing population. Treatment of BPH traditionally begins with medical therapy and surgical intervention is then considered for those whose symptoms progress despite treatment. Minimally invasive surgical therapies have been developed as an intermediary in the treatment of BPH with the aim of decreasing the invasiveness of interventions. These therapies also aim to reduce morbidity and dysfunction related to invasive surgical procedures. Multiple treatment options exist in this group including mechanical and thermo-ablative strategies. Emerging therapies utilizing differing technologies range from the established to the experimental. We review the current literature related to these minimally invasive therapies and the evidence of their effectiveness in treating BPH. The role of minimally invasive surgical therapies in the treatment of BPH is still yet to be strongly defined. Given the experimental nature of many of the modalities, further study is required prior to their recommendation as alternatives to invasive surgical therapy. More mature evidence is required for the analysis of durability of effect of these therapies to make robust conclusions of their effectiveness.
Project description:Bone, vascular smooth muscle, and arachnoid trabeculae are composed of the same type of collagen. However, no studies have investigated the relationship between bone mineral density deterioration and cerebral atrophy, both of which occur in normal, healthy aging. Accordingly, we evaluated whether bone mineral density was associated with brain parenchymal atrophy and ventricular enlargement in healthy individuals. Intracranial cavity, brain parenchyma, and lateral ventricles volumes were measured using brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a semiautomated tool. We included 267 individuals with no history of dementia or other neurological diseases, who underwent one or more dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and brain MRIs simultaneously (within 3 years of each other) at our hospital over an 11-year period. We found that progression of brain parenchymal atrophy was positively associated with bone mineral density after full adjustment (B, 0.94; P < 0.001). In addition, individuals with osteoporosis showed more parenchymal atrophy among those younger than 80 years. In addition, we observed greater ventricular enlargement in individuals with osteoporosis among those older than 80 years. We believe that osteoporosis may play a role in the acceleration of parenchymal atrophy during the early-stages, and ventricular enlargement in the late-stages, of normal aging-related cerebral atrophy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To report a unique surgical procedure that was utilized to locate a missing vibrator in the pelvis of a patient. Emergency room admissions and surgery secondary to the malfunctioning of devices intended for sexual stimulation are extremely common. Emergency room staff of hospitals in the United States usually are skilled in the detection and removal of these devices. Occasionally, surgical intervention is warranted if the device enters a cavity that cannot safely be explored in the emergency room setting. We report a case of a vibrator that was lost during sexual activity. A flat plate X-ray showed it to be in the abdominal cavity. Careful questioning of the patient revealed that the device had an unusually small diameter. Surgical intervention showed that the device ultimately ended up in the bladder without causing traumatic injury. METHODS:We created a narrated video to demonstrate the surgical procedure (Canadian Task Force Classification III). RESULTS:Laparoscopy and cystoscopy were used to visualize and successfully remove the device. The patient recovered uneventfully. CONCLUSION:Following laparoscopic confirmation of the location of the device, it was removed via cystoscopy. This case demonstrates how background information, such as the size of the missing device in this case, can be critical to providing high quality patient care.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:To compare 2-year safety and efficacy outcomes after Aquablation or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS:One hundred eighty-one patients with BPH were assigned at random (2:1 ratio) to either Aquablation or TURP. Patients and follow-up assessors were blinded to treatment. Assessments included the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Male Sexual Health Questionnaire (MSHQ), International Index of Erectile Function and uroflow. The focus of analysis was 2-year outcomes. RESULTS:At 2 years, IPSS scores improved by 14.7 points in the Aquablation group and 14.9 points in TURP (p?=?.8304, 95% CI for difference - 2.1 to 2.6 points). Two-year improvements in maximum flow rate (Qmax) were large in both groups at 11.2 and 8.6 cc/s for Aquablation and TURP, respectively (p?=?0.1880, 95% CI for difference - 1.3 to 6.4). Sexual function as assessed by MSHQ was stable in the Aquablation group and decreased slightly in the TURP group. At 2 years, PSA was reduced significantly in both groups by 0.7 and 1.2 points, respectively; the reduction was similar across groups (p?=?0.1816). Surgical retreatment rates after 12 months for Aquablation were 1.7% and 0% for TURP. Over 2 years, surgical BPH retreatment rates were 4.3% and 1.5% (p?=?0.4219), respectively. CONCLUSION:Two-year efficacy outcomes after TURP and Aquablation were similar, and the rate of surgical retreatment was low and similar to TURP. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT02505919. FUNDING:PROCEPT BioRobotics.
Project description:iTIND is the second-generation version of the temporary nitinol implantable device (TIND), which has emerged over the past decade as one of the latest additions to the library of minimally invasive surgeries now available to treat bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostate enlargement. While the key procedural steps remain the same, it now carries specific modifications designed to improve its efficacy and safety profile further. With the option to perform implantation under local anaesthesia, it can be delivered on an ambulatory basis and in the office setting. While the formal position of iTIND in current guidelines is yet to be determined, 12-month data demonstrates that it can improve both objective and subjective outcome measures, which are sustained at short-term follow up.
Project description:Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is considered the 'gold standard' for the surgical management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). However, during recent years TURP has been challenged by several minimally invasive therapies (MITs). The reasons for the development of these MITs are the need for anesthesia and the rather unchanged morbidity of TURP, including ejaculation disorders. Mechanical MITs may represent an attractive option for treating LUTS/BPO by using mechanical forces to maintain urethral patency without cutting, ablating, heating or removing prostatic tissue. The present paper provides an update on currently available mechanical devices for the treatment of LUTS/BPO including the prostatic urethral lift (PUL), the temporary implantable nitinol device, and new intraprostatic implants. It analyzes the evidence for their safety, tolerability, and efficacy in clinical practice and aims to define those subpopulations of patients who will benefit from these MITs. It is obvious that there is a wide variation in the degree of mature of the available mechanical MITs. Time and high-quality long-term studies will decide which of these therapies will be accepted by patients and urologists. At the moment, PUL is claiming its position in the armamentarium of BPO treatment.
Project description:Most simple renal cysts rarely require therapy. When it grows to such a large size, regardless of the presence of symptomatology, surgical intervention is required. In this study, we explored a new approach called percutaneous ureteroscopy laser unroofing for treatment renal cysts and evaluated its safety and efficacy. 71 simple renal cyst patients with surgical indications were enrolled, including 6 patients with a peripelvic cyst and 5 patients coexisting ipsilateral calculi. Under ultrasound guidance, an eighteen-gauge needle was placed inside the cyst cavity, and a guidewire was introduced followed by sequential dilation up to 28?F. The extra-parenchymal portion of cyst wall was dissociated and incised using either a Thulium or Holmium laser, and a pathological examination was performed. Renal calculi were treated simultaneously. For peripelvic cyst patients, one end of a double-J stent was inserted into the cyst cavity to prevent auto-closure. Mean of 11.7 months follow-up, the results showed that the cyst was completely resolved in 53 patients, its size was reduced to less than 50% in 15 patients, and treatment failed in only 3 anterior cyst patients, suggesting that percutaneous ureteroscopy laser unroofing is an effective and less invasive alternative for treatment of renal cysts in selected patients.
Project description:Hysterectomy is one of the most commonly performed gynecologic surgeries, mainly for uterine myomas, abnormal uterine bleeding, and prolapses. It can be performed through several routes, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages. We conducted this systematic review to evaluate recent advances in surgical outcomes of benign total hysterectomies by any route: vaginal (VH), laparoscopic (LH), laparoscopically assisted vaginal (LAVH), single-port (SP), and robotic-assisted laparoscopy (RH). The search was applied to the PubMed electronic database by using keywords "hysterectomy" and "uterine benign disease", "adenomyosis", and "myoma". Prospective and randomized trials of the last 3 years were included. Nine studies were selected and showed that VH was superior to LH, LAVH, and RH in terms of hospital stay and operation time and had the same complication rate and lower costs. SP hysterectomy had no clear advantages over VH or conventional LH.