The CIA Targeting Complex Is Highly Regulated and Provides Two Distinct Binding Sites for Client Iron-Sulfur Proteins.
ABSTRACT: The cytoplasmic iron-sulfur assembly (CIA) targeting complex is required for the transfer of an iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster to cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, but how it engages with client proteins is unknown. Here, we show that the complex members MIP18 and CIAO1 associate with the C terminus of MMS19. By doing so, they form a docking site for Fe-S proteins that is disrupted in the absence of either MMS19 or MIP18. The Fe-S helicase XPD seems to be the only exception, since it can interact with MMS19 independently of MIP18 and CIAO1. We further show that the direct interaction between MMS19 and MIP18 is required to protect MIP18 from proteasomal degradation. Taken together, these data suggest a remarkably regulated interaction between the CIA targeting complex and client proteins and raise the possibility that Fe-S cluster transfer is controlled, at least in part, by the stability of the CIA targeting complex itself.
Project description:The iron-sensing protein FBXL5 is the substrate adaptor for a SKP1-CUL1-RBX1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that regulates the degradation of iron regulatory proteins (IRPs). Here, we describe a mechanism of FBXL5 regulation involving its interaction with the cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly (CIA) targeting complex composed of MMS19, FAM96B, and CIAO1. We demonstrate that the CIA-targeting complex promotes the ability of FBXL5 to degrade IRPs. In addition, the FBXL5-CIA-targeting complex interaction is regulated by oxygen (O2) tension displaying a robust association in 21% O2 that is severely diminished in 1% O2 and contributes to O2-dependent regulation of IRP degradation. Together, these data identify a novel oxygen-dependent signaling axis that links IRP-dependent iron homeostasis with the Fe-S cluster assembly machinery.
Project description:Numerous cytosolic and nuclear proteins involved in metabolism, DNA maintenance, protein translation, or iron homeostasis depend on iron-sulfur (Fe/S) cofactors, yet their assembly is poorly defined. Here, we identify and characterize human CIA2A (FAM96A), CIA2B (FAM96B), and CIA1 (CIAO1) as components of the cytosolic Fe/S protein assembly (CIA) machinery. CIA1 associates with either CIA2A or CIA2B and the CIA-targeting factor MMS19. The CIA2B-CIA1-MMS19 complex binds to and facilitates assembly of most cytosolic-nuclear Fe/S proteins. In contrast, CIA2A specifically matures iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), which is critical for cellular iron homeostasis. Surprisingly, a second layer of iron regulation involves the stabilization of IRP2 by CIA2A binding or upon depletion of CIA2B or MMS19, even though IRP2 lacks an Fe/S cluster. In summary, CIA2B-CIA1-MMS19 and CIA2A-CIA1 assist different branches of Fe/S protein assembly and intimately link this process to cellular iron regulation via IRP1 Fe/S cluster maturation and IRP2 stabilization.
Project description:Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are cofactors in hundreds of proteins involved in multiple cellular processes, including mitochondrial respiration, the maintenance of genome stability, ribosome biogenesis and translation. Fe-S cluster biogenesis is performed by multiple enzymes that are highly conserved throughout evolution, and mutations in numerous biogenesis factors are now recognized to cause a wide range of previously uncategorized rare human diseases. Recently, a complex formed of components of the cytoplasmic Fe-S cluster assembly (CIA) machinery, consisting of CIAO1, FAM96B and MMS19, was found to deliver Fe-S clusters to a subset of proteins involved in DNA metabolism, but it was unclear how this complex acquired its fully synthesized Fe-S clusters, because Fe-S clusters have been alleged to be assembled de novo solely in the mitochondrial matrix. Here, we investigated the potential role of the human cochaperone HSC20 in cytosolic Fe-S assembly and found that HSC20 assists Fe-S cluster delivery to cytosolic and nuclear Fe-S proteins. Cytosolic HSC20 (C-HSC20) mediated complex formation between components of the cytosolic Fe-S biogenesis pathway (ISC), including the primary scaffold, ISCU1, and the cysteine desulfurase, NFS1, and the CIA targeting complex, consisting of CIAO1, FAM96B and MMS19, to facilitate Fe-S cluster insertion into cytoplasmic and nuclear Fe-S recipients. Thus, C-HSC20 integrates initial Fe-S biosynthesis with the transfer activities of the CIA targeting system. Our studies demonstrate that a novel cytosolic pathway functions in parallel to the mitochondrial ISC to perform de novo Fe-S biogenesis, and to escort Fe-S clusters to cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins.
Project description:Viperin (RSAD2) is an interferon-stimulated antiviral protein that belongs to the radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzyme family. Viperin's iron-sulfur (Fe/S) cluster is critical for its antiviral activity against many different viruses. CIA1 (CIAO1), an essential component of the cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly (CIA) machinery, is crucial for Fe/S cluster insertion into viperin and hence for viperin's antiviral activity. In the CIA pathway, CIA1 cooperates with CIA2A, CIA2B, and MMS19 targeting factors to form various complexes that mediate the dedicated maturation of specific Fe/S recipient proteins. To date, however, the mechanisms of how viperin acquires its radical SAM Fe/S cluster to gain antiviral activity are poorly understood. Using co-immunoprecipitation and 55Fe-radiolabeling experiments, we therefore studied the roles of CIA2A, CIA2B, and MMS19 for Fe/S cluster insertion. CIA2B and MMS19 physically interacted with the C terminus of viperin and used CIA1 as the primary viperin-interacting protein. In contrast, CIA2A bound to viperin's N terminus in a CIA1-, CIA2B-, and MMS19-independent fashion. Of note, the observed interaction of both CIA2 isoforms with a single Fe/S target protein is unprecedented in the CIA pathway. 55Fe-radiolabeling experiments with human cells depleted of CIA1, CIA2A, CIA2B, or MMS19 revealed that CIA1, but none of the other CIA factors, is predominantly required for 55Fe/S cluster incorporation into viperin. Collectively, viperin maturation represents a novel CIA pathway with a minimal requirement of the CIA-targeting factors and represents a new paradigm for the insertion of the Fe/S cofactor into a radical SAM protein.
Project description:Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) helicase is a component of the transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) transcription complex and plays essential roles in transcription and nucleotide excision repair. Although iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster binding by XPD is required for activity, the process mediating Fe-S cluster assembly remains poorly understood. We recently identified a cytoplasmic Fe-S cluster assembly (CIA) targeting complex composed of MMS19, CIAO1, and FAM96B that is required for the biogenesis of extramitochondrial Fe-S proteins including XPD. Here, we use XPD as a prototypical Fe-S protein to further characterize how Fe-S assembly is facilitated by the CIA targeting complex. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that this process occurs in a stepwise fashion in which XPD acquires a Fe-S cluster from the CIA targeting complex before assembling into TFIIH. First, XPD was found to associate in a mutually exclusive fashion with either TFIIH or the CIA targeting complex. Second, disrupting Fe-S cluster assembly on XPD by either 1) depleting cellular iron levels or 2) utilizing XPD mutants defective in either Fe-S cluster or CIA targeting complex binding blocks Fe-S cluster assembly and prevents XPD incorporation into TFIIH. Finally, subcellular fractionation studies indicate that the association of XPD with the CIA targeting complex occurs in the cytoplasm, whereas its association with TFIIH occurs largely in the nucleus where TFIIH functions. Together, these data establish a sequential assembly process for Fe-S assembly on XPD and highlight the existence of quality control mechanisms that prevent the incorporation of immature apoproteins into their cellular complexes.
Project description:We describe a dynamic phosphorylation on serine-1940 of the catalytic subunit of human Pol ?, POLE1, following DNA damage. We also describe novel interactions between POLE1 and the iron-sulfur cluster assembly complex CIA proteins CIAO1 and MMS19. We show that serine-1940 is essential for the interaction between POLE1 and MMS19, but not POLE1 and CIAO1. No defect in either proliferation or survival was identified when POLE1 serine-1940 was mutated to alanine in human cells, even following treatment with DNA damaging agents. We conclude that serine-1940 phosphorylation and the interaction between serine-1940 and MMS19 are not essential functions in the C terminal domain of the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase ?.
Project description:Ciao1 is a component of the cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) complex along with MMS19 and MIP18. Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD), a DNA helicase involved in regulation of cell cycle and transcription, is a CIA target for iron-sulfur (Fe/S) modification. In vivo function of Ciao1 and Xpd in developing animals has been rarely studied. Here, we reveal that Ciao1 interacts with Crumbs (Crb), Galla, and Xpd to regulate organ growth in Drosophila. Abnormal growth of eye by overexpressing Crb intracellular domain (Crbintra) is suppressed by reducing the Ciao1 level. Loss of Ciao1 or Xpd causes similar impairment in organ growth. RNAi knockdown of both Ciao1 and Xpd show similar phenotypes as Ciao1 or Xpd RNAi alone, suggesting their function in a pathway. Growth defects caused by Ciao1 RNAi are suppressed by overexpression of Xpd. Ciao1 physically interacts with Crbintra, Galla, and Xpd, supporting their genetic interactions. Remarkably, Xpd RNAi defects can also be suppressed by Ciao1 overexpression, implying a mutual regulation between the two genes. Ciao1 mutant clones in imaginal discs show decreased levels of Cyclin E (CycE) and death-associated inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (Diap1). Xpd mutant clones share the similar reduction of CycE and Diap1. Consequently, knockdown of Ciao1 and Xpd by RNAi show increased apoptotic cell death. Further, CycE overexpression is sufficient to restore the growth defects from Ciao1 RNAi or Xpd RNAi. Interestingly, Diap1 overexpression in Ciao1 mutant clones induces CycE expression, suggesting that reduced CycE in Ciao1 mutant cells is secondary to loss of Diap1. Taken together, this study reveals new roles of Ciao1 and Xpd in cell survival and growth through regulating Diap1 level during organ development.
Project description:The iron sensing protein FBXL5 is the substrate adaptor for a SKP1-CUL1-RBX1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that regulates the degradation of iron regulatory proteins (IRPs). Here we describe a mechanism of FBXL5 regulation involving its interaction with the cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly (CIA) targeting complex comprised of MMS19, FAM96B, and CIAO1. We demonstrate that the CIA targeting complex promotes the ability of FBXL5 to degrade IRPs. In addition, the FBXL5-CIA targeting complex interaction is regulated by oxygen tension displaying a robust association in 21% O2 that is severely diminished in 1% O2 and contributes to O2-dependent regulation of IRP degradation. Together, these data identify a novel oxygen-dependent signaling axis that links IRP-dependent iron homeostasis with the Fe-S cluster assembly machinery.
Project description:Cytosolic and nuclear iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins are involved in many essential pathways including translation and DNA maintenance. Their maturation requires the cytosolic Fe-S protein assembly (CIA) machinery. To identify new CIA proteins we employed systematic protein interaction approaches and discovered the essential proteins Yae1 and Lto1 as binding partners of the CIA targeting complex. Depletion of Yae1 or Lto1 results in defective Fe-S maturation of the ribosome-associated ABC protein Rli1, but surprisingly no other tested targets. Yae1 and Lto1 facilitate Fe-S cluster assembly on Rli1 in a chain of binding events. Lto1 uses its conserved C-terminal tryptophan for binding the CIA targeting complex, the deca-GX3 motifs in both Yae1 and Lto1 facilitate their complex formation, and Yae1 recruits Rli1. Human YAE1D1 and the cancer-related ORAOV1 can replace their yeast counterparts demonstrating evolutionary conservation. Collectively, the Yae1-Lto1 complex functions as a target-specific adaptor that recruits apo-Rli1 to the generic CIA machinery.
Project description:The cytosolic iron/sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) machinery is responsible for the assembly of cytosolic and nuclear iron/sulfur clusters, cofactors that are vital for all living cells. This machinery is uniquely found in eukaryotes and consists of at least eight proteins in opisthokont lineages, such as animals and fungi. We sought to identify and characterize homologues of the CIA system proteins in the anaerobic stramenopile parasite Blastocystis sp. strain NandII. We identified transcripts encoding six of the components-Cia1, Cia2, MMS19, Nbp35, Nar1, and a putative Tah18-and showed using immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, and subcellular fractionation that the last three of them localized to the cytoplasm of the cell. We then used comparative genomic and phylogenetic approaches to investigate the evolutionary history of these proteins. While most Blastocystis homologues branch with their eukaryotic counterparts, the putative Blastocystis Tah18 seems to have a separate evolutionary origin and therefore possibly a different function. Furthermore, our phylogenomic analyses revealed that all eight CIA components described in opisthokonts originated before the diversification of extant eukaryotic lineages and were likely already present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). The Nbp35, Nar1 Cia1, and Cia2 proteins have been conserved during the subsequent evolutionary diversification of eukaryotes and are present in virtually all extant lineages, whereas the other CIA proteins have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Cia2 appears to be homologous to SufT, a component of the prokaryotic sulfur utilization factors (SUF) system, making this the first reported evolutionary link between the CIA and any other Fe/S biogenesis pathway. All of our results suggest that the CIA machinery is an ubiquitous biosynthetic pathway in eukaryotes, but its apparent plasticity in composition raises questions regarding how it functions in nonmodel organisms and how it interfaces with various iron/sulfur cluster systems (i.e., the iron/sulfur cluster, nitrogen fixation, and/or SUF system) found in eukaryotic cells.