Perioperative corticosteroid administration: a systematic review and descriptive analysis.
ABSTRACT: Perioperative administration of corticosteroid is common and variable. Guidelines for perioperative corticosteroid administration before non-cardiac non-transplant surgery in patients with current or previous corticosteroid use to reduce the risk of adrenal insufficiency are lacking. Perioperative use of corticosteroid may be associated with serious adverse events, namely hyperglycemia, infection, and poor wound healing.To determine whether perioperative administration of corticosteroids, compared to placebo or no intervention, reduces the incidence of adrenal insufficiency in adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery who were or are exposed to corticosteroids.We searched MEDLINE via Ovid and PubMed, EMBASE via Ovid, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, all from 1995 to January 2017.We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, case-studies, and systematic reviews involving adults undergoing non-cardiac non-transplant surgery and reporting the incidence of postoperative adrenal insufficiency.Two authors independently assessed studies' quality and extracted data. A descriptive and bias assessment analysis was performed.Two RCTs (total of 37 patients), five cohort studies (total of 462 patients), and four systematic reviews were included. Neither RCT showed a significant difference in the outcome. This result was like that of the five cohort studies. The quality of the evidence was low.The current use of perioperative corticosteroid supplementation to prevent adrenal insufficiency is not supported by evidence. Given the significant studies' limitations, it is not possible to conclude that perioperative administration of corticosteroids, compared to placebo, reduces the incidence of adrenal insufficiency.
Project description:Background: Corticosteroids have been administered prophylactically for more than 60 years in pediatric heart surgery, however, their use remains a matter of debate. There are three main indications for corticosteroid use in pediatric heart surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB): (1) to blunt the systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) induced by the extracorporeal circuit; (2) to provide perioperative supplementation for presumed relative adrenal insufficiency; (3) for the presumed neuroprotective effect during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest operations. This review discusses the current evidence behind the use of corticosteroids in these three overlapping areas. Materials and Methods: We conducted a structured research of the literature using PubMed and MEDLINE databases to November 2017 and additional articles were identified by cross-referencing. Results: The evidence suggests that there is no correlation between the effect of corticosteroids on inflammation and their effect on clinical outcome. Due to the limitations of the available evidence, it remains unclear if corticosteroids have an impact on early post-operative outcomes or if there are any long-term effects. There is a limited understanding of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function during cardiac surgery in children. The neuroprotective effect of corticosteroids during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest surgery is controversial. Conclusions: The utility of steroid administration for pediatric heart surgery with the use of CPB remains a matter of debate. The effect on early and late outcomes requires clarification with a large multicenter randomized trial. More research into the understanding of the adrenal response to surgery in children and the effect of corticosteroids on brain injury is warranted.
Project description:Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common cause of primary adrenal insufficiency in children. Current guidelines recommend the use of perioperative stress dose (supraphysiologic) glucocorticoids for children with CAH undergoing anesthesia, although a perceived difference in practice patterns among Canadian pediatric subspecialists prompted an assessment of perioperative glucocorticoid administration.We performed a cross-sectional survey of Canadian Pediatric Anesthesia Society (CPAS) and Canadian Pediatric Endocrine Group (CPEG) members via membership email lists to assess reported practice patterns to select clinical scenarios.Responses were collected from 49 anesthesiologists and 37 pediatric endocrinologists. Less than half of anesthesiologists reported they would provide stress dose corticosteroids for patients undergoing cystoscopy while a significant majority of pediatric endocrinologists reported they would recommend stress dose corticosteroid administration (45% vs 92% respectively, p <?0.0001). Twenty-one percent of anesthesiologists reported they would not provide stress dose corticosteroids for patients undergoing laparotomy. Pediatric endocrinologists reported they were more likely to refer to guidelines for management of stress dose steroids (84% vs 51%, p <?0.001), with many Canadian pediatric endocrinologists reporting to use institution specific guidelines.Our results demonstrate a clear difference in the reported approach to perioperative stress dose steroids between pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric endocrinologists which may impact patient care. Further dialogue is required to address this apparent discrepancy in practice patterns and future research is needed to provide evidence-based practice recommendations.
Project description:Various neurological and psychiatric manifestations have been recorded in children with adrenal disorders. Based on literature review and on personal case-studies and case-series we focused on the pathophysiological and clinical implications of glucocorticoid-related, mineralcorticoid-related, and catecholamine-related paediatric nervous system involvement. Childhood Cushing syndrome can be associated with long-lasting cognitive deficits and abnormal behaviour, even after resolution of the hypercortisolism. Exposure to excessive replacement of exogenous glucocorticoids in the paediatric age group (e.g., during treatments for adrenal insufficiency) has been reported with neurological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities (e.g., delayed myelination and brain atrophy) due to potential corticosteroid-related myelin damage in the developing brain and the possible impairment of limbic system ontogenesis. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), a disorder of unclear pathophysiology characterised by increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, has been described in children with hypercortisolism, adrenal insufficiency, and hyperaldosteronism, reflecting the potential underlying involvement of the adrenal-brain axis in the regulation of CSF pressure homeostasis. Arterial hypertension caused by paediatric adenomas or tumours of the adrenal cortex or medulla has been associated with various hypertension-related neurological manifestations. The development and maturation of the central nervous system (CNS) through childhood is tightly regulated by intrinsic, paracrine, endocrine, and external modulators, and perturbations in any of these factors, including those related to adrenal hormone imbalance, could result in consequences that affect the structure and function of the paediatric brain. Animal experiments and clinical studies demonstrated that the developing (i.e., paediatric) CNS seems to be particularly vulnerable to alterations induced by adrenal disorders and/or supraphysiological doses of corticosteroids. Physicians should be aware of potential neurological manifestations in children with adrenal dysfunction to achieve better prevention and timely diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. Further studies are needed to explore the potential neurological, cognitive, and psychiatric long-term consequences of high doses of prolonged corticosteroid administration in childhood.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Postoperative administration of corticosteroids is common practice for managing catecholamine refractory low cardiac output syndrome. Since corticosteroid activity is dependent on the glucocorticoid receptor, we sought to characterize glucocorticoid receptor levels in children undergoing cardiac surgery and examined the association between glucocorticoid receptor levels and cardiovascular dysfunction. DESIGN:Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING:Large, tertiary pediatric cardiac center. SUBJECTS:Children undergoing corrective or palliative cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS:None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in 83 children with congenital heart disease. Total glucocorticoid receptor levels were measured in the peripheral WBCs using flow cytometry. In addition, blood samples were collected for total cortisol levels. The primary outcome studied was the time to being inotrope free. An increase in glucocorticoid receptor level from postoperative day 1 to postoperative day 3 was associated with a longer time to being inotrope free (hazard ratio, 0.49 [0.29-0.81]; p = 0.01) in the univariate analysis. This association remained significant after adjusting for age, weight, cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross clamp time, Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 score, and postoperative steroid use (hazard ratio, 0.53 [0.29-0.99]; p = 0.05). Postoperative day 3 glucocorticoid receptor level showed a trend to have longer time to being inotrope free (hazard ratio, 0.66 [0.42-1.02]; p = 0.0.06). The cortisol levels minimally increased during the study duration and did not correlate with glucocorticoid receptor levels. CONCLUSIONS:Increasing glucocorticoid receptor levels in peripheral WBCs of children undergoing cardiac surgery are associated with a longer time to being inotrope free. Cortisol levels minimally increased during the study duration. These results suggest that exposure to high-dose perioperative corticosteroids may suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leading to increase in glucocorticoid receptor levels in response to a low cortisol environment. Further studies are required to better delineate the interplay between glucocorticoid receptor levels, cortisol levels, corticosteroid exposure, and postoperative inotropic requirements.
Project description:Corticosteroids are a potential risk factor for mortality in patients with perforated diverticular disease, due to blinding of disease severity, hampered wound healing or adrenal insufficiency. We examined mortality in corticosteroid users and non-users among patients with perforated diverticular disease.A cohort study based on medical databases including all patients ?18?years in Denmark (source population 5?289?261 inhabitants) admitted to a hospital with incident perforated diverticular disease between 2005 and 2013. 7-day, 1-month, 3-month and 1-year mortality risks in corticosteroid users and non-users were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and compared with Cox proportional hazard regression adjusted for age, sex and comorbidities.The study included 4640 patients with perforated diverticular disease. Of these, 3743 (80.7%) had not used corticosteroids in the year before admission and 725 (15.6%) had been exposed to systemic corticosteroid treatment. The remaining 172 patients had been exposed to either inhaled or intestinal acting corticosteroid therapy. Mortality risk in non-users was 4.4% after 7?days and 15.6% after 1?year. This risk was doubled for corticosteroid users who filled their last prescription during the 90?days before admission, with mortality risks ranging from 14.2% after 7?days to 47.6% after 1?year. 1-year mortality risk was even higher for corticosteroid users with a first filled prescription ?90?days before admission: 52.5%.Corticosteroid use was associated with clearly increased mortality risk after perforated diverticular disease. Thus, use of corticosteroids should be regarded as an important clinical prognostic factor for mortality in patients with this condition.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Postoperative complications are major healthcare problems and are associated with a reduced short-term and long-term survival after surgery. An excessive postoperative inflammatory response participates to the development of postoperative infection and mortality. The aim of the Perioperative Administration of Corticotherapy on Morbidity and mortality After Non-cardiac surgery (PACMAN) study is to assess the effectiveness of perioperative administration of corticosteroid to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The PACMAN is a multicentre, randomised, controlled, double-blind, superiority, two-arm trial of 1222 high-risk patients aged 50 years or older undergoing major non-cardiac surgery at 32 acute care hospital in France. Patients are randomly assigned to dexamethasone (0.2?mg/kg at the end of the surgical procedure and at day +1, n=611) or to placebo (n=611). The primary outcome is a composite of predefined 14-day major pulmonary complications and mortality. Secondary outcomes are surgical complications, infections, organ failures, critical care-free days, length of hospital stay and all-cause mortality at 28 days. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The PACMAN trial protocol has been approved by the ethics committee of Sud Mediterranée V, and will be carried out according to the Good Clinical Practice guidelines and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The PACMAN trial is a randomised controlled trial powered to investigate whether perioperative administration of corticosteroids in patients undergoing non-cardiac major surgery reduces postoperative complications. The results of this study will be disseminated through presentation at scientific conferences and publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03218553; Pre-results.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed at comparing precursors of endogenous corticosteroid production in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and in secondary adrenal insufficiency. DESIGN:Twenty patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and matched controls and 19 patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency participated in this ancillary analysis of two different studies. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS:Patients with primary adrenal insufficiency were on stable hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone therapy. Patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency received two different doses of hydrocortisone in a randomized crossover study. Main outcome measures were concentrations of precursors of cortisol and aldosterone measured by LC-MS/MS RESULTS: Compared to controls, progressively lower concentrations of the glucocorticoid precursors 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone concentrations were found in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency on lower hydrocortisone dose, secondary adrenal insufficiency on higher hydrocortisone dose and primary adrenal insufficiency, respectively. Half of the primary adrenal insufficient patients showed evidence of residual endogenous cortisol or aldosterone synthesis, as determined by quantifiable 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone conce ntrations. In secondary adrenal insufficient patients with higher endogenous cortisol production, as indicated by 11-deoxycortisol concentrations above the median, no increased cortisol exposure was observed both by plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and 24-hour free cortisol excretion in urine. CONCLUSIONS:Adrenal corticosteroid production is likely to continue during treatment in a considerable percentage of patients with both primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency. In patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency, this synthesis appears to be sensitive to the dose of hydrocortisone. However, the residual corticosteroid concentrations were quantitatively low and its clinical significance remains therefore to be determined.
Project description:CONTEXT:Patients with adrenal insufficiency require increased hydrocortisone cover during major stress to avoid a life-threatening adrenal crisis. However, current treatment recommendations are not evidence-based. OBJECTIVE:To identify the most appropriate mode of hydrocortisone delivery in patients with adrenal insufficiency who are exposed to major stress. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS:Cross-sectional study: 122 unstressed healthy subjects and 288 subjects exposed to different stressors (major trauma [N?=?83], sepsis [N?=?100], and combat stress [N?=?105]). Longitudinal study: 22 patients with preserved adrenal function undergoing elective surgery. Pharmacokinetic study: 10 patients with primary adrenal insufficiency undergoing administration of 200 mg hydrocortisone over 24 hours in 4 different delivery modes (continuous intravenous infusion; 6-hourly oral, intramuscular or intravenous bolus administration). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:We measured total serum cortisol and cortisone, free serum cortisol, and urinary glucocorticoid metabolite excretion by mass spectrometry. Linear pharmacokinetic modeling was used to determine the most appropriate mode and dose of hydrocortisone administration in patients with adrenal insufficiency exposed to major stress. RESULTS:Serum cortisol was increased in all stress conditions, with the highest values observed in surgery and sepsis. Continuous intravenous hydrocortisone was the only administration mode persistently achieving median cortisol concentrations in the range observed during major stress. Linear pharmacokinetic modeling identified continuous intravenous infusion of 200 mg hydrocortisone over 24 hours, preceded by an initial bolus of 50-100 mg hydrocortisone, as best suited for maintaining cortisol concentrations in the required range. CONCLUSIONS:Continuous intravenous hydrocortisone infusion should be favored over intermittent bolus administration in the prevention and treatment of adrenal crisis during major stress.
Project description:Corticosteroids are extensively used in pediatrics, yet the burden of side effects is significant. Availability of a simple, fast, and reliable biochemical read out of steroidal drug pharmacodynamics could enable a rapid and objective assessment of safety and efficacy of corticosteroids and aid development of corticosteroid replacement drugs. To identify potential corticosteroid responsive biomarkers we performed proteome profiling of serum samples from DMD and IBD patients with and without corticosteroid treatment using SOMAscan aptamer panel testing 1,129 proteins in <0.1 cc of sera. Ten pro-inflammatory proteins were elevated in untreated patients and suppressed by corticosteroids (MMP12, IL22RA2, CCL22, IGFBP2, FCER2, LY9, ITGa1/b1, LTa1/b2, ANGPT2 and FGG). These are candidate biomarkers for anti-inflammatory efficacy of corticosteroids. Known safety concerns were validated, including elevated non-fasting insulin (insulin resistance), and elevated angiotensinogen (salt retention). These were extended by new candidates for metabolism disturbances (leptin, afamin), stunting of growth (growth hormone binding protein), and connective tissue remodeling (MMP3). Significant suppression of multiple adrenal steroid hormones was also seen in treated children (reductions of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol and testosterone). A panel of new pharmacodynamic biomarkers for corticosteroids in children was defined. Future studies will need to bridge specific biomarkers to mechanism of drug action, and specific clinical outcomes.
Project description:Background: With new randomised pieces of evidence and the latest clinical practice guideline from the BMJ emerging in 2018, an updated analysis of best available evidence on the controversial effects of corticosteroids in sepsis is warranted. Objectives: To comprehensively evaluate whether corticosteroids are beneficial in reducing mortality and what cumulative dosage, daily dosage, and duration of corticosteroid treatment would enable adult patients with sepsis to reach the critical point of benefits. Methods: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMbase, Cochrane Library, and LILACS database were searched until March 22, 2019. Results: Thirty RCTs with 8,836 participants were identified. Long course low-dose corticosteroid therapy could improve 28-day mortality (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.84-0.97; high quality), intensive care unit mortality (RR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.79-0.95; moderate quality), and in-hospital mortality (RR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.79-0.997; high quality). However, we found no benefits for 90-day, 180-day, and 1-year mortality. Subgroup results of long course corticosteroid treatment in a population with septic shock and vasopressor-dependent septic shock, corticosteroid regimen with hydrocortisone plus fludrocortisone, corticosteroid dosing strategies including bolus dosing and infusion dosing, the strategies of abrupt discontinuation, timing of randomisation ?24 h, impact factor of ?10, and sample size ?500 were associated with a marginally reduction in 28-day mortality. Conclusions: This meta-analysis found that the long course low-dose and not short course high-dose corticosteroid treatment could marginally improve short-term 28-day mortality with high quality, especially septic shock and vasopressor-dependent septic shock, and it is recommended that long course (about 7 days) low-dose (about 200-300mg per day) hydrocortisone (or equivalent) with cumulative dose (at least about 1,000mg) may be a viable management option for overall patients with sepsis, and it can be also adapted to patient with septic shock alone. Early hydrocortisone plus fludrocortisone administration, via continuous infusion or bolus dosing, is also particularly important for the prognosis. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids, as opposed to the conventional tapered discontinuation, may be considered as a desirable option in 28-day mortality. The safety profile of long course low-dose corticosteroid treatment, including adverse hyperglycaemia and hypernatraemia events, remains a concern, although these events could be easily treated. Clinical Trial Registration: PROSPERO, identifier CRD 42018092849.