Exhaustion of mitochondrial and autophagic reserve may contribute to the development of LRRK2 G2019S -Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondrial and autophagic dysfunction has been described as etiologic factors in different experimental models of PD. We aimed to study the role of mitochondria and autophagy in LRRK2 G2019S -mutation, and its relationship with the presence of PD-symptoms.Fibroblasts from six non-manifesting LRRK2 G2019S -carriers (NM-LRRK2 G2019S ) and seven patients with LRRK2 G2019S -associated PD (PD-LRRK2 G2019S ) were compared to eight healthy controls (C). An exhaustive assessment of mitochondrial performance and autophagy was performed after 24-h exposure to standard (glucose) or mitochondrial-challenging environment (galactose), where mitochondrial and autophagy impairment may be heightened.A similar mitochondrial phenotype of NM-LRRK2 G2019S and controls, except for an early mitochondrial depolarization (54.14% increased, p?=?0.04), was shown in glucose. In response to galactose, mitochondrial dynamics of NM-LRRK2 G2019S improved (-?17.54% circularity, p?=?0.002 and +?42.53% form factor, p?=?0.051), probably to maintain ATP levels over controls. A compromised bioenergetic function was suggested in PD-LRRK2 G2019S when compared to controls in glucose media. An inefficient response to galactose and worsened mitochondrial dynamics (-?37.7% mitochondrial elongation, p?=?0.053) was shown, leading to increased oxidative stress. Autophagy initiation (SQTSM/P62) was upregulated in NM-LRRK2 G2019S when compared to controls (glucose +?118.4%, p?=?0.014; galactose +?114.44%, p?=?0.009,) and autophagosome formation increased in glucose media. Despite of elevated SQSTM1/P62 levels of PD-NM G2019S when compared to controls (glucose +?226.14%, p?=?0.04; galactose +?78.5%, p?=?0.02), autophagosome formation was deficient in PD-LRRK2 G2019S when compared to NM-LRRK2 G2019S (-?71.26%, p?=?0.022).Enhanced mitochondrial performance of NM-LRRK2 G2019S in mitochondrial-challenging conditions and upregulation of autophagy suggests that an exhaustion of mitochondrial bioenergetic and autophagic reserve, may contribute to the development of PD in LRRK2 G2019S mutation carriers.
Project description:To further characterize mitochondrial dysfunction in LRRK2(G2019S) mutant Parkinson disease (PD) patient tissue (M-LRRK2(G2019S)), determine whether ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) also exerts a beneficial effect on mitochondrial dysfunction in nonmanifesting LRRK2(G2019S) mutation carriers (NM-LRRK2(G2019S)), and assess UDCA for its beneficial effect on neuronal dysfunction in vivo.Intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels, oxygen consumption, and activity of the individual complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain as well as mitochondrial morphology were measured in M-LRRK2(G2019S), NM-LRRK2(G2019S), and controls. UDCA was assessed for its rescue effect on intracellular ATP levels in NM-LRRK2(G2019S) and in a LRRK2 transgenic fly model with dopaminergic expression of LRRK2(G2019S).Crucial parameters of mitochondrial function were similarly reduced in both M-LRRK2(G2019S) and NM-LRRK2(G2019S) with a specific decrease in respiratory chain complex IV activity. Mitochondrial dysfunction precedes changes in mitochondrial morphology but is normalized after siRNA-mediated knockdown of LRRK2. UDCA improved mitochondrial function in NM-LRRK2(G2019) and rescued the loss of visual function in LRRK2(G2019S) flies.There is clear preclinical impairment of mitochondrial function in NM-LRRK2(G2019S) that is distinct from the mitochondrial impairment observed in parkin-related PD. The beneficial effect of UDCA on mitochondrial function in both NM-LRRK2(G2019S) and M-LRRK2(G2019S) as well as on the function of dopaminergic neurons expressing LRRK2(G2019S) suggests that UDCA is a promising drug for future neuroprotective trials.
Project description:Mitochondrial changes have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The glycine to serine mutation (G2019S) in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the most common genetic cause for PD and has been shown to impair mitochondrial function and morphology in multiple model systems. We analyzed mitochondrial function in LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons to determine whether the G2019S mutation elicits similar mitochondrial deficits among central and peripheral nervous system neuron subtypes. LRRK2 G2019S iPSC-derived dopaminergic neuron cultures displayed unique abnormalities in mitochondrial distribution and trafficking, which corresponded to reduced sirtuin deacetylase activity and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels despite increased sirtuin levels. These data indicate that mitochondrial deficits in the context of LRRK2 G2019S are not a global phenomenon and point to distinct sirtuin and bioenergetic deficiencies intrinsic to dopaminergic neurons, which may underlie dopaminergic neuron loss in PD.
Project description:The human LRRK2 gene has been identified as the most common causative gene of autosomal-dominantly inherited and idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD). The G2019S substitution is the most common mutation in LRRK2. The R1441C mutation also occurs in cases of familial PD, but is not as prevalent. Some cases of LRRK2-based PD exhibit Tau pathology, which suggests that alterations on LRRK2 activity affect the pathophysiology of Tau. To investigate how LRRK2 might affect Tau and the pathophysiology of PD, we generated lines of C. elegans expressing human LRRK2 [wild-type (WT) or mutated (G2019S or R1441C)] with and without V337M Tau. Expression and redox proteomics were used to identify the effects of LRRK2 (WT and mutant) on protein expression and oxidative modifications.Co-expression of WT LRRK2 and Tau led to increased expression of numerous proteins, including several 60S ribosomal proteins, mitochondrial proteins, and the V-type proton ATPase, which is associated with autophagy. C. elegans expressing mutant LRRK2 showed similar changes, but also showed increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, the latter indexed as increased protein-bound 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE).Our study brings new knowledge about the possible alterations induced by LRRK2 (WT and mutated) and Tau interactions, suggesting the involvement of G2019S and R1441C in Tau-dependent neurodegenerative processes.These results suggest that changes in LRRK2 expression or activity lead to corresponding changes in mitochondrial function, autophagy, and protein translation. These findings are discussed with reference to the pathophysiology of PD.
Project description:Emerging evidence suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD), besides being an age-associated disorder, might also have a neurodevelopment component. Disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis has been highlighted as a crucial cofactor in its etiology. Here, we show that PD patient-specific human neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs), carrying the LRRK2-G2019S mutation, recapitulate key mitochondrial defects previously described only in differentiated dopaminergic neurons. By combining high-content imaging approaches, 3D image analysis, and functional mitochondrial readouts we show that LRRK2-G2019S mutation causes aberrations in mitochondrial morphology and functionality compared with isogenic controls. LRRK2-G2019S NESCs display an increased number of mitochondria compared with isogenic control lines. However, these mitochondria are more fragmented and exhibit decreased membrane potential. Functional alterations in LRRK2-G2019S cultures are also accompanied by a reduced mitophagic clearance via lysosomes. These findings support the hypothesis that preceding mitochondrial developmental defects contribute to the manifestation of the PD pathology later in life.
Project description:Emerging evidence suggest that Parkinson's disease (PD), besides being an age-associated disorder, might also have a neurodevelopment component. Disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis has been highlighted as a crucial cofactor in its etiology. Here, we show that PD patient-specific human neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs) carrying the LRRK2-G2019S mutation recapitulate key mitochondrial defects previously described only in differentiated dopaminergic neurons. By combining high-content imaging approaches, 3D image analysis, and functional mitochondrial readouts we show that LRRK2-G2019S mutation caused aberrations in mitochondrial morphology and functionality compared to isogenic controls. LRRK2-G2019S NESCs displayed an increased number of mitochondria compared to isogenic control lines. However, these mitochondria were more fragmented and exhibited decreased membrane potential. Coherently, the release of total and mitochondrial redox oxidative species increased in LRRK2-G2019S NESC compared to controls. Functional alterations in LRRK2-G2019S cultures were also accompanied by a reduced mitophagic clearance via lysosomes. These findings support the hypothesis that preceding mitochondrial developmental defects contribute to the manifestation of the PD pathology later in life. Overall design: Single-cell RNA-Sequencing experiments were performed on a total of 8 samples. These correspond to 4 time-points (Day 0, 10, 14 and 42). The time-point at 0 days refers to NESCs. The other time-points refer to Dopaminergic differentiation. Two cell-lines were analysed for each time-point: LRRK2-WT and LRRK2-G2019S.
Project description:Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) G2019S is a relatively common mutation, associated with 1-3% of Parkinson's disease (PD) cases worldwide. G2019S is hypothesized to increase LRRK2 kinase activity. Dopaminergic neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of PD patients carrying LRRK2 G2019S are reported to have several phenotypes compared to wild type controls, including increased activated caspase-3 and reactive oxygen species (ROS), autophagy dysfunction, and simplification of neurites. The common marmoset is envisioned as a candidate nonhuman primate species for comprehensive modeling of genetic mutations. Here, we report our successful use of CRISPR/Cas9 with repair template-mediated homology directed repair to introduce the LRRK2 G2019S mutation, as well as a truncation of the LRRK2 kinase domain, into marmoset embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. We found that, similar to humans, marmoset LRRK2 G2019S resulted in elevated kinase activity. Phenotypic evaluation after dopaminergic differentiation demonstrated LRRK2 G2019S-mediated increased intracellular ROS, decreased neuronal viability, and reduced neurite complexity. Importantly, these phenotypes were not observed in clones with LRRK2 truncation. These results demonstrate the feasibility of inducing monogenic mutations in common marmosets and support the use of this species for generating a novel genetic-based model of PD that expresses physiological levels of LRRK2 G2019S.
Project description:This study utilized human fibroblasts as a preclinical discovery and diagnostic platform for identification of cell biological signatures specific for the LRRK2 G2019S mutation producing Parkinson's disease (PD). Using live cell imaging with a pH-sensitive Rosella biosensor probe reflecting lysosomal breakdown of mitochondria, mitophagy rates were found to be decreased in fibroblasts carrying the LRRK2 G2019S mutation compared to cells isolated from healthy subject (HS) controls. The mutant LRRK2 increased kinase activity was reduced by pharmacological inhibition and targeted antisense oligonucleotide treatment, which normalized mitophagy rates in the G2019S cells and also increased mitophagy levels in HS cells. Detailed mechanistic analysis showed a reduction of mature autophagosomes in LRRK2 G2019S fibroblasts, which was rescued by LRRK2 specific kinase inhibition. These findings demonstrate an important role for LRRK2 protein in regulation of mitochondrial clearance by the lysosomes, which is hampered in PD with the G2019S mutation. The current results are relevant for cell phenotypic diagnostic approaches and potentially for stratification of PD patients for targeted therapy.
Project description:Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are associated with increased risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Previously, we found that LRRK2 G2019S mutation carriers have increased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and after zinc finger nuclease-mediated gene mutation correction, mtDNA damage was no longer detectable. While the mtDNA damage phenotype can be unambiguously attributed to the LRRK2 G2019S mutation, the underlying mechanism(s) is unknown. Here, we examine the role of LRRK2 kinase function in LRRK2 G2019S-mediated mtDNA damage, using both genetic and pharmacological approaches in cultured neurons and PD patient-derived cells. Expression of LRRK2 G2019S induced mtDNA damage in primary rat midbrain neurons, but not in cortical neuronal cultures. In contrast, the expression of LRRK2 wild type or LRRK2 D1994A mutant (kinase dead) had no effect on mtDNA damage in either midbrain or cortical neuronal cultures. In addition, human LRRK2 G2019S patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) demonstrated increased mtDNA damage relative to age-matched controls. Importantly, treatment of LRRK2 G2019S expressing midbrain neurons or patient-derived LRRK2 G2019S LCLs with the LRRK2 kinase inhibitor GNE-7915, either prevented or restored mtDNA damage to control levels. These findings support the hypothesis that LRRK2 G2019S-induced mtDNA damage is LRRK2 kinase activity dependent, uncovering a novel pathological role for this kinase. Blocking or reversing mtDNA damage via LRRK2 kinase inhibition or other therapeutic approaches may be useful to slow PD-associated pathology.
Project description:The G2019S leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutation is the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), clinically and pathologically indistinguishable from idiopathic PD. Mitochondrial abnormalities are a common feature in PD pathogenesis and we have investigated the impact of G2019S mutant LRRK2 expression on mitochondrial bioenergetics. LRRK2 protein expression was detected in fibroblasts and lymphoblasts at levels higher than those observed in the mouse brain. The presence of G2019S LRRK2 mutation did not influence LRRK2 expression in fibroblasts. However, the expression of the G2019S LRRK2 mutation in both fibroblast and neuroblastoma cells was associated with mitochondrial uncoupling. This was characterized by decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased oxygen utilization under basal and oligomycin-inhibited conditions. This resulted in a decrease in cellular ATP levels consistent with compromised cellular function. This uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was associated with a cell-specific increase in uncoupling protein (UCP) 2 and 4 expression. Restoration of mitochondrial membrane potential by the UCP inhibitor genipin confirmed the role of UCPs in this mechanism. The G2019S LRRK2-induced mitochondrial uncoupling and UCP4 mRNA up-regulation were LRRK2 kinase-dependent, whereas endogenous LRRK2 levels were required for constitutive UCP expression. We propose that normal mitochondrial function was deregulated by the expression of G2019S LRRK2 in a kinase-dependent mechanism that is a modification of the normal LRRK2 function, and this leads to the vulnerability of selected neuronal populations in PD.
Project description:Both JNK and LRRK2 are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we report a reasonably selective and potent kinase inhibitor (compound 6) that bound to both JNK and LRRK2 (a dual inhibitor). A bidentate-binding strategy that simultaneously utilized the ATP hinge binding and a unique protein surface site outside of the ATP pocket was applied to the design and identification of this kind of inhibitor. Compound 6 was a potent JNK3 and modest LRRK2 dual inhibitor with an enzyme IC50 value of 12 nM and 99 nM (LRRK2-G2019S), respectively. Compound 6 also exhibited good cell potency, inhibited LRRK2:G2019S-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in SHSY5Y cells, and was demonstrated to be reasonably selective against a panel of 116 kinases from representative kinase families. Design of such a probe molecule may help enable testing if dual JNK and LRRK2 inhibitions have added or synergistic efficacy in protecting against neurodegeneration in PD.