Analysis and Identification of 2'-Deoxyadenosine-Derived Adducts in Lung and Liver DNA of F-344 Rats Treated with the Tobacco-Specific Carcinogen 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and Enantiomers of its Metabolite 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol.
ABSTRACT: 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and its metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) are carcinogenic in animal models and are believed to play an important role in human lung carcinogenesis for cigarette smokers. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of these tobacco-specific nitrosamines produces reactive species that alkylate DNA in the form of pyridyloxobutyl (POB)- or pyridylhydroxybutyl (PHB)-DNA adducts. Understanding the formation mechanism and overall levels of these adducts can potentially enhance cancer prevention methods through the identification of particularly susceptible smokers. Previous studies have identified and measured a panel of POB- and PHB-DNA base adducts of dGuo, dCyd, and Thd; however, dAdo adducts have yet to be determined. In this study, we complete this DNA adduct panel by identifying and quantifying levels of NNK- and NNAL-derived dAdo adducts in vitro and in vivo. To accomplish this, we synthesized standards for expected dAdo-derived DNA adducts and used isotope-dilution LC-ESI+-MS/MS to identify POB adducts formed in vitro from the reaction of 4-(acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNKOAc) with calf thymus DNA. Adduct levels were then quantified in lung and liver DNA of rats chronically treated with NNK or NNAL for 50 weeks using similar LC-MS detection methods. The in vitro studies identified N6-POB-dAdo and N1-POB-dIno as products of the reaction of NNKOAc with DNA, which supports our proposed mechanism of formation. Though both N6-dAdo and N1-dIno adducts were found in vitro, only N6-dAdo adducts were found in vivo, implying possible intervention by DNA repair mechanisms. Analogous to previous studies, levels of N6-POB-dAdo and N6-PHB-dAdo varied both with tissue and treatment type. Despite the adduct levels being relatively modest compared to most other POB- and PHB-DNA adducts, they may play a biological role and could be used in future studies as NNK- and NNAL-specific DNA damage biomarkers.
Project description:The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and its metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) are potent pulmonary carcinogens in rats. NNK and NNAL require metabolic activation to express their carcinogenicity. Cytochrome P450-catalyzed alpha-hydroxylation at the methyl position of NNK or NNAL generates reactive intermediates, which alkylate DNA to form pyridyloxobutyl (POB)-DNA adducts or pyridylhydroxybutyl (PHB)-DNA adducts. NNK is metabolized to NNAL in a reversible and stereoselective manner, and the tissue-specific retention of (S)-NNAL is believed to be important to the carcinogenicity of NNK. In the present study, we investigated the formation of POB- and PHB-DNA adducts in extrahepatic tissues of F344 rats treated chronically with NNK and (R)- and (S)-NNAL (10 ppm in the drinking water, 1-20 weeks). POB- and PHB-DNA adducts were quantified in nasal olfactory mucosa, nasal respiratory mucosa, oral mucosa, and pancreas of treated rats. Adduct formation in the nasal respiratory mucosa exceeded that in the other tissues. O(2)-[4-(3-Pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O(2)-POB-dThd) or O(2)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-hydroxybut-1-yl]thymidine (O(2)-PHB-dThd) was the major adduct, followed by 7-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]guanine (7-POB-Gua) or 7-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-hydroxybut-1-yl]guanine (7-PHB-Gua). There was a remarkable similarity in adduct formation between the NNK and the (S)-NNAL groups, both of which were distinctively different from that in the (R)-NNAL group. For example, in the nasal olfactory mucosa, POB-DNA adduct levels in the NNK and (S)-NNAL groups were not significantly different from each other, while (R)-NNAL treatment generated 6-33 times lower amounts of POB-DNA adducts than did NNK treatment. In contrast, (R)-NNAL treatment produced significantly higher levels of PHB-DNA adducts than did NNK or (S)-NNAL treatment. Similar trends were observed in the nasal respiratory mucosa, oral mucosa, and pancreas. These results suggest extensive retention of (S)-NNAL in various tissues of NNK-treated rats and support a mechanism in which the preferential metabolism of NNK to (S)-NNAL, followed by sequestration of (S)-NNAL in the target tissues and reoxidation to NNK, is important to NNK tumorigenesis.
Project description:4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is metabolized to enantiomers of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), found in the urine of virtually all people exposed to tobacco products. We assessed the carcinogenicity in male F-344 rats of (R)-NNAL (5 ppm in drinking water), (S)-NNAL (5 ppm), NNK (5 ppm) and racemic NNAL (10 ppm) and analyzed DNA adduct formation in lung and pancreas of these rats after 10, 30, 50 and 70 weeks of treatment. All test compounds induced a high incidence of lung tumors, both adenomas and carcinomas. NNK and racemic NNAL were most potent; (R)-NNAL and (S)-NNAL had equivalent activity. Metastasis was observed from primary pulmonary carcinomas to the pancreas, particularly in the racemic NNAL group. DNA adducts analyzed were O (2)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O (2)-POB-dThd), 7-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]guanine(7-POB-Gua),O (6)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]deoxyguanosine(O (6)-POB-dGuo),the 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-hydroxybut-1-yl(PHB)adductsO (2)-PHB-dThd and 7-PHB-Gua, O (6)-methylguanine (O (6)-Me-Gua) and 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB)-releasing adducts. Adduct levels significantly decreased with time in the lungs of rats treated with NNK. Pulmonary POB-DNA adducts and O (6)-Me-Gua were similar in rats treated with NNK and (S)-NNAL; both were significantly greater than in the (R)-NNAL rats. In contrast, pulmonary PHB-DNA adduct levels were greatest in the rats treated with (R)-NNAL. Total pulmonary DNA adduct levels were similar in (S)-NNAL and (R)-NNAL rats. Similar trends were observed for DNA adducts in the pancreas, but adduct levels were significantly lower than in the lung. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the potent pulmonary carcinogenicity of both enantiomers of NNAL in rats and provide important new information regarding DNA damage by these compounds in lung and pancreas.
Project description:4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK, 1) and its metabolite, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL, 2) are both potent pulmonary carcinogens in rats. The metabolism of NNK to NNAL is stereoselective and reversible, with (S)-NNAL being the major enantiomer formed from NNK. In rats, (R)-NNAL undergoes facile glucuronidation and is rapidly excreted in urine, whereas (S)-NNAL is preferentially retained in tissues and converted to NNK. We hypothesized that the lung carcinogenicity of NNK in the rat is due in part to the preferential retention of (S)-NNAL in the lung, the reconversion to NNK, and then the metabolic activation of NNK to pyridyloxobutyl (POB)-DNA adducts. We tested this hypothesis by treating male F344 rats with 10 ppm of NNK, (R)-NNAL, or (S)-NNAL in drinking water. After 1, 2, 5, 10, 16, or 20 weeks of treatment, POB-DNA adducts in liver and lung DNA were quantified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. At each time point, total adduct levels were higher in the lung than in the liver. O2-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O2-POB-dThd, 13) was the major adduct detected. Total adduct levels in the rats treated with (S)-NNAL were 0.6-1.3 times as great as those in the NNK group in the lung and 0.7-1.4 times in the liver, and 6-14 times higher than those in the (R)-NNAL group in the lung and 11-17 times in the liver. These results suggest that (S)-NNAL is stereoselectively retained in tissues. This study demonstrates for the first time the accumulation and persistence of specific POB-DNA adducts in the rat lung and liver during chronic treatment with NNK, (R)-NNAL, and (S)-NNAL and supports the hypothesis that the preferential retention of (S)-NNAL in the lung, followed by reconversion to NNK and then the metabolic activation of NNK is critical for lung carcinogenesis by NNK and NNAL.
Project description:The tobacco-specific nitrosamines N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, 1) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK, 2) are potent carcinogens in rodents. Bioactivation of NNN and NNK by cytochrome P450 enzymes generates a pyridyloxobutylating agent 6, which alkylates DNA to produce pyridyloxobutyl (POB)-DNA adducts. POB-DNA adduct formation plays a critical role in NNN and NNK carcinogenicity in rodents. To further investigate the significance of this pathway, we developed a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for quantitative analysis of four POB-DNA adducts with known structures. The corresponding deuterated analogues were synthesized and used as internal standards. DNA samples, spiked with internal standards, were subjected to neutral thermal hydrolysis followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrolysates were partially purified by solid phase extraction prior to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The method was accurate and precise. Excellent sensitivity was achieved, especially for O2-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O2-POB-dThd, 11) with a detection limit of 100 amol per mg DNA. DNA samples treated with different concentrations of 4-(acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNKOAc, 3) were subjected to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. 7-[4-(3-Pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]guanine (7-POB-Gua, 12) was the most abundant adduct, followed by O6-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6-POB-dGuo, 8), O2-POB-dThd, and O2-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]cytosine (O2-POB-Cyt, 13). Lung and liver DNA isolated from NNK-treated rats were analyzed. Consistent with the in vitro data, 7-POB-Gua was the major POB-DNA adduct formed in vivo. However, levels of O6-POB-dGuo were the lowest of the four adducts analyzed, suggesting efficient repair of this adduct in vivo. In contrast to the other three adducts, O6-POB-dGuo was more abundant in lung than in liver. O2-POB-dThd appeared to be poorly repaired in vivo, and its levels were comparable to those of 7-POB-Gua. The results of this study provide a sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for comprehensive quantitation of four POB-DNA adducts, support an important role of O6-POB-dGuo in NNK lung tumorigenicity in rats, and suggest that O2-POB-dThd may be a useful tobacco-specific DNA biomarker for future tobacco carcinogenesis studies.
Project description:The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a powerful lung carcinogen in animal models and is considered a causative factor for lung cancer in tobacco users. NNK is stereoselectively and reversibly metabolized to 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), which is also a lung carcinogen. Both NNK and NNAL undergo metabolic activation by ?-hydroxylation on their methyl groups to form pyridyloxobutyl and pyridylhydroxybutyl DNA base and phosphate adducts, respectively. ?-Hydroxylation also occurs on the ?-methylene carbons of NNK and NNAL to produce methane diazohydroxide, which reacts with DNA to form methyl DNA base adducts. DNA adducts of NNK and NNAL are important in their mechanisms of carcinogenesis. In this study, we characterized and quantified methyl DNA phosphate adducts in the lung of rats treated with 5 ppm of NNK, (S)-NNAL, or (R)-NNAL in drinking water for 10, 30, 50, and 70 weeks, by using a novel liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry method. A total of 23, 21, and 22 out of 32 possible methyl DNA phosphate adducts were detected in the lung tissues of rats treated with NNK, (S)-NNAL, and (R)-NNAL, respectively. Levels of the methyl DNA phosphate adducts were 2290-4510, 872-1120, and 763-1430 fmol/mg DNA, accounting for 15-38%, 8%, and 5-9% of the total measured DNA adducts in rats treated with NNK, (S)-NNAL, and (R)-NNAL, respectively. The methyl DNA phosphate adducts characterized in this study further enriched the diversity of DNA adducts formed by NNK and NNAL. These results provide important new data regarding NNK- and NNAL-derived DNA damage and new insights pertinent to future mechanistic and biomonitoring studies of NNK, NNAL, and other chemical methylating agents.
Project description:Metabolic activation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) results in formation of reactive electrophiles that modify DNA to produce a variety of products including methyl, 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl (POB)-, and 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-hydroxybutyl adducts. Among these are adducts such as 7-POB-deoxyguanosine (N7POBdG) which can lead to apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites by facile hydrolysis of the base-deoxyribonucleoside bond. In this study, we used a recently developed highly sensitive mass spectrometric method to quantitate AP sites by derivatization with O-(pyridin-3-yl-methyl)hydroxylamine (PMOA) (detection limit, 2 AP sites per 108 nucleotides). AP sites were quantified in DNA isolated from tissues of rats treated with NNN and NNK and from human lung tissue and leukocytes of cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Rats treated with 5 or 21 mg/kg bw NNK for 4 days by s.c. injection had 2-6 and 2-17 times more AP sites than controls in liver and lung DNA (p < 0.05). Increases in AP sites were also found in liver DNA of rats exposed for 10 and 30 weeks (p < 0.05) but not for 50 and 70 weeks to 5 ppm of NNK in their drinking water. Levels of N7POBG were significantly correlated with AP sites in rats treated with NNK. In rats treated with 14 ppm (S)-NNN in their drinking water for 10 weeks, increased AP site formation compared to controls was observed in oral and nasal respiratory mucosa DNA (p < 0.05). No significant increase in AP sites was found in human lung and leukocyte DNA of cigarette smokers compared to nonsmokers, although AP sites in leukocyte DNA were significantly correlated with urinary levels of the NNK metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL). This is the first study to use mass spectrometry based methods to examine AP site formation by carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in laboratory animals and to evaluate AP sites in DNA of smokers and nonsmokers.
Project description:The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK, 1) is a potent lung carcinogen in laboratory animals and is believed to play a key role in the development of lung cancer in smokers. Metabolic activation of NNK leads to the formation of pyridyloxobutyl DNA adducts, a critical step in its mechanism of carcinogenesis. In addition to DNA nucleobase adducts, DNA phosphate adducts can be formed by pyridyloxobutylation of the oxygen atoms of the internucleotidic phosphodiester linkages. We report the use of a liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry technique to characterize 30 novel pyridyloxobutyl DNA phosphate adducts in calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) treated with 4-(acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNKOAc, 2), a regiochemically activated form of NNK. A (15)N3-labeled internal standard was synthesized for one of the most abundant phosphate adducts, dCp[4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)butyl]dC (CpopC), and this standard was used to quantify CpopC and to estimate the levels of other adducts in the NNKOAc-treated CT-DNA. Formation of DNA phosphate adducts by NNK in vivo was further investigated in rats treated with NNK acutely (0.1 mmol/kg once daily for 4 days by subcutaneous injection) and chronically (5 ppm in drinking water for 10, 30, 50, and 70 weeks). This study provides the first comprehensive structural identification and quantitation of a panel of DNA phosphate adducts of a structurally complex carcinogen and chemical support for future mechanistic studies of tobacco carcinogenesis in humans.
Project description:The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a powerful lung carcinogen in animal models and is considered a causative factor for lung cancer in people who use tobacco products. NNK undergoes metabolic activation-a critical step in its mechanism of carcinogenesis-to an intermediate which reacts with DNA to form pyridyloxobutyl DNA base and phosphate adducts. Another important metabolic pathway of NNK is its conversion to 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), which similarly forms pyridylhydroxybutyl DNA base adducts that have been characterized previously. In this study, we investigated the potential formation of pyridylhydroxybutyl DNA phosphate adducts. We report the characterization and quantitation of 107 structurally unique pyridylhydroxybutyl DNA phosphate adducts in the lungs of rats treated chronically with a carcinogenic dose of 5 ppm of NNK in their drinking water for up to 70 weeks, by using a novel liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry method. Our findings demonstrate that pyridylhydroxybutyl phosphate adducts account for 38-55 and 34-40% of all the measured pyridine-containing DNA adducts in rat lung and liver, respectively, upon treatment with NNK. Some of the pyridylhydroxybutyl DNA phosphate adducts persisted in both tissues for over 70 weeks, suggesting that they could be potential biomarkers of chronic exposure to NNK and NNAL. This study provides comprehensive characterization and relative quantitation of a panel of NNK/NNAL-derived DNA phosphate adducts, thus identifying NNK as the source of the most structurally diverse set of DNA adducts identified to date from any carcinogen.
Project description:The tobacco-derived nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are known human carcinogens. Following metabolic activation, NNK and NNN can induce a number of DNA lesions, including several 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl (POB) adducts. However, it remains unclear to what extent these lesions affect the efficiency and accuracy of DNA replication and how their replicative bypass is influenced by translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases. In this study, we investigated the effects of three stable POB DNA adducts (O2-POB-dT, O4-POB-dT, and O6-POB-dG) on the efficiency and fidelity of DNA replication in HEK293T human cells. We found that, when situated in a double-stranded plasmid, O2-POB-dT and O4-POB-dT moderately blocked DNA replication and induced exclusively T?A (?14.9%) and T?C (?35.2%) mutations, respectively. On the other hand, O6-POB-dG slightly impeded DNA replication, and this lesion elicited primarily the G?A transition (?75%) together with a low frequency of the G?T transversion (?3%). By conducting replication studies in isogenic cells in which specific TLS DNA polymerases (Pols) were deleted by CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, we observed that multiple TLS Pols, especially Pol ? and Pol ?, are involved in bypassing these lesions. Our findings reveal the cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of specific POB DNA adducts and unravel the roles of several TLS polymerases in the replicative bypass of these adducts in human cells. Together, these results provide important new knowledge about the biological consequences of POB adducts.
Project description:4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are important human carcinogens in tobacco products. They are metabolized to produce a variety 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl (POB) DNA adducts including O(2)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O(2)-POB-dT), the most abundant POB adduct in NNK- and NNN-treated rodents. To evaluate the mutagenic properties of O(2)-POB-dT, we measured the rate of insertion of dNTPs opposite and extension past O(2)-POB-dT and O(2)-Me-dT by purified human DNA polymerases ?, ?, ?, and yeast polymerase ? in vitro. Under conditions of polymerase in excess, polymerase ? was most effective at the insertion of dNTPs opposite O(2)-alkyl-dTs. The time courses were biphasic suggesting the formation of inactive DNA-polymerase complexes. The kpol parameter was reduced approximately 100-fold in the presence of the adduct for pol ?, ?, and ?. Pol ? was the most reactive polymerase for the adducts due to a higher burst amplitude. For all three polymerases, the nucleotide preference was dATP > dTTP ? dGTP and dCTP. Yeast pol ? was most effective in bypassing the adducts; the kcat/Km values were reduced only 3-fold in the presence of the adducts. The identity of the nucleotide opposite the O(2)-alkyl-dT did not significantly affect the ability of pol ? to bypass the adducts. The data support a model in which pol ? inserts ATP or dTTP opposite O(2)-POB-dT, and then, pol ? extends past the adduct.