Agreement between self-reported and objectively measured sleep duration among white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese adults in the United States: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
ABSTRACT: Study Objectives:To identify systematic biases across groups in objectively and subjectively measured sleep duration. Methods:We investigated concordance of self-reported habitual sleep duration compared with actigraphy- and single-night in-home polysomnography (PSG) across white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Results:Among 1910 adults, self-reported sleep duration, determined by differences between bed and wake times, was overestimated in all racial groups compared with PSG and actigraphy. Compared with whites (ρ = 0.45), correlations were significantly lower only in blacks (ρ = 0.28). Self-reporting bias for total sleep time compared with wrist actigraphy was 66 min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 61-71) for whites, 58 min (95% CI: 48-69) for blacks, 66 min (95% CI: 57-74) for Hispanics, and 60 min (95% CI: 49-70) for Chinese adults. Compared with PSG, self-reporting bias in whites at 73 min (95% CI: 67-79) was higher than in blacks (54 min [95% CI: 42-65]) and Chinese (49 min [95% CI: 37-61]) but not different from Hispanics (67 min [95% CI: 56-78]). Slight agreement/concordance was observed between self-reported and actigraphy-based total sleep time (kw = 0.14 for whites, 0.10 for blacks, 0.17 for Hispanics, and 0.11 for Chinese) and PSG (kw = 0.08 for whites, 0.04 for blacks, 0.05 for Hispanics, and 0.01 for Chinese) across race/ethnicity. Conclusions:Self-reported sleep duration overestimated objectively measured sleep across all races, and compared with PSG, overestimation is significantly greater in whites compared with blacks. Larger reporting bias reduces the ability to identify significant associations between sleep duration and health among blacks compared with whites. Sleep measurement property differences should be considered when comparing sleep indices across racial/ethnic groups.
Project description:There is limited research on racial/ethnic variation in sleep disturbances. This study aimed to quantify the distributions of objectively measured sleep disordered breathing (SDB), short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and self-reported sleep disturbances (e.g., insomnia) across racial/ethnic groups.Cross-sectional study.Six US communities.Racially/ethnically diverse men and women aged 54-93 y in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Sleep Cohort (n = 2,230).N/A.Information from polysomnography-measured SDB, actigraphy-measured sleep duration and quality, and self-reported daytime sleepiness were obtained between 2010 and 2013. Overall, 15.0% of individuals had severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ? 30); 30.9% short sleep duration (< 6 h); 6.5% poor sleep quality (sleep efficiency < 85%); and 13.9% had daytime sleepiness. Compared with Whites, Blacks had higher odds of sleep apnea syndrome (AHI ? 5 plus sleepiness) (sex-, age-, and study site-adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20, 2.63), short sleep (OR = 4.95, 95% CI: 3.56, 6.90), poor sleep quality (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.00, 2.48), and daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.60). Hispanics and Chinese had higher odds of SDB and short sleep than Whites. Among non-obese individuals, Chinese had the highest odds of SDB compared to Whites. Only 7.4% to 16.2% of individuals with an AHI ? 15 reported a prior diagnosis of sleep apnea.Sleep disturbances are prevalent among middle-aged and older adults, and vary by race/ethnicity, sex, and obesity status. The high prevalence of sleep disturbances and undiagnosed sleep apnea among racial/ethnic minorities may contribute to health disparities.
Project description:Wrist actigraphy (ACT) may overestimate sleep and underestimate wake, and the agreement may be lower in people with chronic conditions who often have poor sleep and low activity levels. The purpose of this systematic review is to compare the agreement between ACT and polysomnographic (PSG) measures of sleep in adults without chronic conditions and sleep complaints (healthy) and with chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using PRISMA guidelines. We searched PubMed, OVIDEMBASE, OVIDMEDLINE, OVIDPsycINFO, CENTRAL, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry, and Open Grey. We included 96 studies with a total of 4134 participants, of whom 762 (18.4) were healthy adults and 724 (17.5%) were adults with chronic conditions. Among adults with chronic conditions, ACT overestimated TST, compared to PSG [M = 22.42 min (CI 95%: 11.92, 32.91 min)] and SE [M = 5.21% (CI 95%: 1.41%-9.00%)]. ACT underestimated SOL [M = -7.70 min (CI 95%: -15.22, -0.18 min)], and WASO [M = -10.90 min (CI 95%: -26.01, 4.22 min)]. These differences were consistently larger between ACT and PSG sleep measures compared to healthy adults. Research is needed to better understand factors that influence the agreement between ACT and PSG among people with chronic conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Evidence exists for racial/ethnic differences in left ventricular mass index (LVMI). How this translates to future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is unknown. HYPOTHESIS:The impact of racial/ethnic differences in LVMI on incident cardiovascular outcomes could have potential implications for the optimization of risk stratification strategies. METHODS:Using the prospectively collected database of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) involving 4 racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic Whites, Chinese, Blacks, and Hispanics) free of CVD at baseline, we assessed for racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between LVMI and incident CVD using a Cox model. RESULTS:5004 participants (mean age, 62?±?10?years; 48% male) were included in this study. After an average follow-up of 10.2?years, 369 (7.4%) CVD events occurred. Significant racial/ethnic differences existed in the relationship between LVMI and incident CVD (P for interaction?=?0.04). Notably, the relationship was strongest for Chinese (HR per 10-unit increase in LVMI: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.8) and Hispanics (HR per 10-unit increase in LVMI: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.5-2.2). Non-Hispanic Whites demonstrated the lowest relationship (HR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5). LVMI values of 36.9?g/m2.7 , 31.8?g/m2.7 , 39.9?g/m2.7 , and 41.7?g/m2.7 were identified as optimal cutpoints for defining left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) for non-Hispanic Whites, Chinese, Blacks, and Hispanics, respectively. In secondary analysis of LVH (vs no LVH) using these optimal cutpoints, we found a similar pattern of association as above (P for interaction?=?0.04). For example, compared with those without LVH, Chinese with LVH had HR: 5.3, 95% CI: 1.6-17, whereas non-Hispanic Whites with LVH had HR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1 for CVD events. CONCLUSIONS:Among 4 races/ethnicities studied, LVMI has more prognostic utility predicting future CVD events for Chinese and Hispanics and is least significant for non-Hispanic Whites.
Project description:We validated actigraphy for detecting sleep and wakefulness versus polysomnography (PSG).Actigraphy and polysomnography were simultaneously collected during sleep laboratory admissions. All studies involved 8.5 h time in bed, except for sleep restriction studies. Epochs (30-sec; n = 232,849) were characterized for sensitivity (actigraphy = sleep when PSG = sleep), specificity (actigraphy = wake when PSG = wake), and accuracy (total proportion correct); the amount of wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) was also assessed. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model included age, gender, insomnia diagnosis, and daytime/nighttime sleep timing factors.Controlled sleep laboratory conditions.Young and older adults, healthy or chronic primary insomniac (PI) patients, and daytime sleep of 23 night-workers (n = 77, age 35.0 ± 12.5, 30F, mean nights = 3.2).N/A.Overall, sensitivity (0.965) and accuracy (0.863) were high, whereas specificity (0.329) was low; each was only slightly modified by gender, insomnia, day/night sleep timing (magnitude of change < 0.04). Increasing age slightly reduced specificity. Mean WASO/night was 49.1 min by PSG compared to 36.8 min/night by actigraphy (? = 0.81; CI = 0.42, 1.21), unbiased when WASO < 30 min/night, and overestimated when WASO > 30 min/night.This validation quantifies strengths and weaknesses of actigraphy as a tool measuring sleep in clinical and population studies. Overall, the participant-specific accuracy is relatively high, and for most participants, above 80%. We validate this finding across multiple nights and a variety of adults across much of the young to midlife years, in both men and women, in those with and without insomnia, and in 77 participants. We conclude that actigraphy is overall a useful and valid means for estimating total sleep time and wakefulness after sleep onset in field and workplace studies, with some limitations in specificity.
Project description:Actigraphy is increasingly used in the assessment and treatment of various clinical conditions, being a convenient and cost-effective method of capturing bodily movements over long periods of time. This study examined the use of actigraphy in the measurement of sleep of patients with depression and insomnia. Fifty-four patients diagnosed with a current major depressive episode and chronic insomnia underwent a baseline overnight study with concurrent actigraphic and polysomnography (PSG) monitoring, as well as subjective sleep diaries. Agreement between PSG, actigraphy and sleep diary measurements was evaluated using two-tailed t-tests, Pearson's correlations and the Bland-Altman concordance technique. The only significant difference found between actigraphy and PSG was in latency to persistent sleep, in which actigraphy underestimated sleep latency relative to PSG (P?<?0.05). There were moderate positive correlations between actigraphy and PSG for all variables. In contrast, significant differences were observed between sleep diaries and PSG for all sleep variables. Bland-Altman concordance diagrams also demonstrated that, while bias was limited between PSG and the other two measurement types, there were somewhat broad 95% limits of agreement for all sleep variables with both sleep diaries and actigraphy. In summary, actigraphic measurements of sleep more closely approximated those of PSG than did sleep diaries in this sample of depressed insomniacs.
Project description:The "first-night effect" of polysomnography (PSG) has been previously studied; however, the ability to quantify the sleep disruption level has been confounded with the use of PSG on all nights. We used actigraphy to quantify disruption level and examined characteristics associated with disruption.Totally, 778 older men (76.2 ± 5.4 years) from a population-based study at six US centers underwent one night of in-home PSG. Actigraphy was performed on the PSG night and three subsequent nights. Actigraphically measured total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency (SOL) from the PSG night and subsequent nights were compared. Linear regression models were used to examine the association of characteristics and sleep disruption.On average, sleep on the PSG night was worse than the following night (p < 0.05, TST 21 ± 85 min less, SE 2.3 ± 11.3% less, WASO 4.9 ± 51.8 min more, SOL 6.6 ± 56.2 min more). Sleep on the PSG night was significantly worse than that two and three nights later. Characteristics associated with greater sleep disruption on the PSG night included older age, higher apnea-hypopnea index, worse neuromuscular function, and more depressive symptoms. Minorities and men with excessive daytime sleepiness slept somewhat better on the PSG night.Among older men, there was sleep disruption on the PSG night, which may lead to sleep time underestimation. The increase of sleep on the night after the PSG suggests that data from the second monitoring may overestimate sleep.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is more prevalent and results in more severe outcomes among blacks, Asians, and Hispanics than among whites. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among SLE patients. We undertook this study to examine racial/ethnic variations in risk of CVD events among SLE patients. METHODS:Within the Medicaid Analytic eXtract from 2000 to 2010, we identified patients ages 18-65 years with SLE (?3 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision 710.0 codes, ?30 days apart) and with ?12 months of continuous enrollment. Subjects were followed up from the index date to the first CVD event (myocardial infarction [MI] or stroke), death, disenrollment, loss to follow-up, or end of follow-up period. Race/ethnicity-specific annual CVD event rates were calculated. Cox regression models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), accounting for competing risk of death and adjusting for baseline demographics and comorbidities. RESULTS:Of 65,788 SLE patients, 93.1% were women and ?42% were black, 38% were white, 16% were Hispanic, 3% were Asian, and 1% were American Indian/Alaska Native. Mean?±?SD follow-up was 3.8?±?3.1 years. CVD event rates were highest among blacks (incidence rate [IR] 10.57 [95% CI 9.96-11.22]) and lowest among Asians (IR 6.63 [95% CI 4.97-8.85]). After multivariable adjustment, risk of CVD events was increased among blacks (HR 1.14 [95% CI 1.03-1.26]) compared to whites. Hispanics and Asians had a lower risk of MI (HR 0.61 [95% CI 0.48-0.77] and HR 0.57 [95% CI 0.34-0.96], respectively), while blacks and Hispanics had a higher risk of stroke (HR 1.31 [95% CI 1.15-1.49] and HR 1.22 [95% CI 1.03-1.44], respectively). CONCLUSION:Among SLE patients enrolled in Medicaid, the risk of MI was lower among Hispanics and Asians compared to whites, while the risk of stroke was elevated among blacks and Hispanics compared to whites.
Project description:Although patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis have exceptionally high hospitalization rates, the risk factors for hospitalizations are unclear. This study sought to examine hospitalization rates among hemodialysis patients in the United States according to both race/ethnicity and age.US Renal Data System data on 563,281 patients beginning maintenance hemodialysis between 1995 and 2009 were analyzed. Rates of hospital admission and number of hospital days for all-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations during the first year of dialysis were compared among blacks, whites, and Hispanics in the entire cohort and subgroups stratified by age.After multiple adjustments, compared with whites, Hispanics overall had lower rates of both all-cause hospital days (adjusted rate ratio [aRR], 0.91; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.90 to 0.93; P<0.001) and hospital admissions (aRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.88 to 0.90; P<0.001), whereas blacks had a lower rate of all-cause admissions (aRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.94 to 0.96; P<0.001). The racial/ethnic differences, however, varied by age. Hispanics exhibited the lowest rates of hospital days and admissions for all age groups?70 years, but those >80 years had higher rates than their white counterparts. The adjusted black-to-white rate ratios exhibited a U-shaped pattern with age, with higher rates for blacks in the younger and older age groups. Hospitalization rates for dialysis-related infections were markedly higher in blacks and Hispanics than whites, which were consistent in all age groups for blacks (aRRs for hospital days ranged from 1.09 to 1.36) and all ages>60 years for Hispanics (aRRs ranged from 1.20 to 1.38).There are significant racial/ethnic differences in hospitalization rates within first year of dialysis, which are not consistent across the age groups and also differ by causes of hospitalization. Overall, blacks and Hispanics had lower rates of all-cause hospital admissions than whites. However, younger and older blacks and older Hispanics were at greatest risk.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In studies of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), whites makeup the vast majority of subjects. Whether ethnic/racial differences in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis occur in the general population is unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>To compare the presence of IPF between ethnic/racial groups of U.S. decedents from 1989 to 2007 by using the National Center for Health Statistics database.<h4>Results</h4>There were 251,058 U.S. decedents with IPF; 87.2% were non-Hispanic whites (White), 5.1% were non-Hispanic African American (black), 5.4% were Hispanic, and 2.2% were from other ethnic/racial groups (other). Whites coded with IPF died older than those in the other groups (77.9 years vs. 72.1 years for blacks, 75.3 years for Hispanics, and 75.6 years for others; p < 0.0001 for all pairwise comparisons). When controlling for age and for sex, compared with whites, both Hispanics and Others were more likely to be coded with IPF (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.44-1.49, p < 0.0001 and OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.36, p < 0.0001 respectively), while blacks were significantly less likely to be coded with IPF (OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.47-0.49, p < 0.0001). Among decedents with IPF, Hispanics were more likely, and blacks were less likely, than whites to die from IPF (OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.20-1.29, p < 0.0001 and OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.87-0.94, p < 0.0001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>From 1989 to 2007, black decedents were less-and Hispanics were more-likely than whites to die of/with IPF. Research is needed to determine if genetic differences between ethnic/racial groups explain these findings.