Whole genome sequence and comparative analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi MM1.
ABSTRACT: Lyme disease is caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies. Complete genome assemblies are available for fewer than ten strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the primary cause of Lyme disease in North America. MM1 is a sensu stricto strain originally isolated in the midwestern United States. Aside from a small number of genes, the complete genome sequence of this strain has not been reported. Here we present the complete genome sequence of MM1 in relation to other sensu stricto strains and in terms of its Multi Locus Sequence Typing. Our results indicate that MM1 is a new sequence type which contains a conserved main chromosome and 15 plasmids. Our results include the first contiguous 28.5 kb assembly of lp28-8, a linear plasmid carrying the vls antigenic variation system, from a Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain.
Project description:Out of 20 spirochete species from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex recognized to date some are considered to have a limited distribution, while others are worldwide dispersed. Among those are Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) and Borrelia bissettii which are distributed both in North America and in Europe. While B. burgdorferi s.s. is recognized as a cause of Lyme borreliosis worldwide, involvement of B. bissettii in human Lyme disease was not so definite yet.Multilocus sequence typing of spirochete isolates originating from residents of Georgia and Florida, USA, revealed the presence of two Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains highly similar to those from endemic Lyme borreliosis regions of the northeastern United States, and an unusual strain that differed from any previously described in Europe or North America. Based on phylogenetic analysis of eight chromosomally located housekeeping genes divergent strain clustered between Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia carolinensis, two species from the B.burgdorferi s.l. complex, widely distributed among the multiple hosts and vector ticks in the southeastern United States. The genetic distance analysis showed a close relationship of the diverged strain to B. bissettii.Here, we present the analysis of the first North American human originated live spirochete strain that revealed close relatedness to B. bissettii. The potential of B. bissettii to cause human disease, even if it is infrequent, is of importance for clinicians due to the extensive range of its geographic distribution.
Project description:Human Lyme disease is caused by a number of related Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. We report here the complete genome sequence of Borrelia sp. isolate SV1 from Finland. This isolate is to date the closest known relative of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, but it is sufficiently genetically distinct from that species that it and its close relatives warrant its candidacy for new-species status. We suggest that this isolate should be named "Borrelia finlandensis."
Project description:The similarity of Lyme borreliosis to other diseases and the complex pathogenesis cause diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. Changes at the cellular and molecular level after Borrelia sp. infection remain still poorly understood. Therefore, the present study focused on the gene expression in human dermal fibroblasts in differentiation of infection with Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto spirochetes. For microarray analysis 10 samples were used: 3 control samples - K, 2 samples of NHDF cells infected with Borrelia garinii - G, 2 samples of NHDF cells infected with Borrelia afzelii - A and 3 samples of NHDF cells infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto - SS.
Project description:Since Lyme arthritis was first described in the United States, it has now been reported in many countries of Europe. However, very few strains of the causative bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, have been isolated from synovial samples. For this reason, different molecular direct typing methods were developed recently to assess which species could be involved in Lyme arthritis in Europe. We developed a simple oligonucleotide typing method with PCR fragments from the flagellin gene of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, which is able to differentiate seven different Borrelia species. Among 10 consecutive PCR-positive patients with Lyme arthritis from the northeastern France, two species were identified in synovial samples: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto in 9 cases and B. garinii in 1 case. Conversely, all B. burgdorferi sensu lato species detected in 10 consecutive PCR-positive biopsies from a second set of patients with erythema migrans from the same geographical area were identified as either B. afzelii or B. garinii (P < 0.001). These results indicate that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is the principal but not the only Borrelia species involved in Lyme arthritis in northeastern France.
Project description:Lyme disease spirochetes demonstrate strain- and species-specific differences in tissue tropism. For example, the three major Lyme disease spirochete species, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii, are each most commonly associated with overlapping but distinct spectra of clinical manifestations. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the most common Lyme spirochete in the U.S., is closely associated with arthritis. The attachment of microbial pathogens to cells or to the extracellular matrix of target tissues may promote colonization and disease, and the Lyme disease spirochete encodes several surface proteins, including the decorin- and dermatan sulfate-binding adhesin DbpA, which vary among strains and have been postulated to contribute to strain-specific differences in tissue tropism. DbpA variants differ in their ability to bind to its host ligands and to cultured mammalian cells. To directly test whether variation in dbpA influences tissue tropism, we analyzed murine infection by isogenic B. burgdorferi strains that encode different dbpA alleles. Compared to dbpA alleles of B. afzelii strain VS461 or B. burgdorferi strain N40-D10/E9, dbpA of B. garinii strain PBr conferred the greatest decorin- and dermatan sulfate-binding activity, promoted the greatest colonization at the inoculation site and heart, and caused the most severe carditis. The dbpA of strain N40-D10/E9 conferred the weakest decorin- and GAG-binding activity, but the most robust joint colonization and was the only dbpA allele capable of conferring significant joint disease. Thus, dbpA mediates colonization and disease by the Lyme disease spirochete in an allele-dependent manner and may contribute to the etiology of distinct clinical manifestations associated with different Lyme disease strains. This study provides important support for the long-postulated model that strain-specific variations of Borrelia surface proteins influence tissue tropism.
Project description:Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the spirochete that causes human Lyme borreliosis (LB), is a genetically and phenotypically divergent species. In the past several years, various molecular approaches have been developed and used to determine the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity within the LB-related spirochetes and their potential association with distinct clinical syndromes. These methods include serotyping, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, DNA-DNA reassociation analysis, rRNA gene restriction analysis (ribotyping), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, plasmid fingerprinting, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting analysis, species-specific PCR and PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and other conserved genes. On the basis of DNA-DNA reassociation analysis, 10 different Borrelia species have been described within the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia japonica, Borrelia andersonii, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia lusitaniae, Borrelia tanukii, Borrelia turdi, and Borrelia bissettii sp. nov. To date, only B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii are well known to be responsible for causing human disease. Different Borrelia species have been associated with distinct clinical manifestations of LB. In addition, Borrelia species are differentially distributed worldwide and may be maintained through different transmission cycles in nature. In this paper, the molecular methods used for typing of B. burgdorferi sensu lato are reviewed. The current taxonomic status of B. burgdorferi sensu lato and its epidemiological and clinical implications, especiallly correlation between the variable clinical presentations and the infecting Borrelia species, are discussed in detail.
Project description:The ospC genes of 20 southern Borrelia strains were sequenced. The strains consisted of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. andersonii, B. bissettii, one undescribed genospecies, MI-8, and one probably new Borrelia species, TXW-1. A high degree of similarity exists between B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. bissettii and between B. bissettii and B. andersonii. Lateral transfers of the ospC gene probably occurred between B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. bissettii and between B. bissettii and B. andersonii. Internal gene recombination appears to occur among them. The highest degree of genetic diversity among them was observed in the two variable domains (V1 and V2), semivariable domain (SV), and the species-specific epitopes (between amino acids 28 and 31). Differences in ospC sequences among southern strains reflect diversity at the strain and genospecies levels. MI-8, which was recognized as an undescribed genospecies in our previous reports, remains distinguishable in our current analysis of ospC genes and is distinct from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Interestingly, another undescribed southern isolate, TXW-1, was not amplified under various PCR conditions. Compared to European B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains, American B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains show greater genetic heterogeneity. Southern B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. andersonii, and B. bissettii isolates were intermixed with each other in the phylogenetic trees. In the derived trees in our work, at least one southeastern strain of B. burgdorferi, MI-2, most closely aligns with a so-called invasive cluster that possesses many proven human-invasive strains. Transmission experiments show that MI-2 and the strains in this group of southern spirochetes are able to infect mice and hamsters and that the typical vector of Lyme disease, Ixodes scapularis, can acquire the spirochetes from infected mammals. Currently, strain MI-2 appears to be the only southern isolate among the 20 we analyzed that clusters with an OspC invasive group and thus might be invasive for humans.
Project description:The molecular and antigenic variabilities of BmpA (P39) among European isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi were analyzed. The bmpA sequences of 12 isolates representing all three species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato pathogenic for humans were amplified by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. The BmpA protein of Borrelia garinii is heterogeneous, with an amino acid sequence identity ranging from 91 to 97%, whereas the BmpA proteins of Borrelia afzelii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains appear to be highly conserved (>98.5% intraspecies identity). The interspecies identities ranged from 86 to 92%. Cluster analysis of BmpA reflected the subdivision of B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolates into the three species as well as a considerable heterogeneity among B. garinii strains. The BmpA protein of each species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and used to generate monoclonal antibodies. Seven BmpA-specific antibodies were identified; six of them recognized conserved epitopes of all three species, whereas one was specific for BmpA of B. afzelii and B. garinii. A monoclonal antibody (H1141) recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for use in the standardization of immunoblots showed strong reactivity with BmpA of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto but no or only weak reactivity with BmpA of B. garinii and B. afzelii, respectively. Sera from 86 European patients with Lyme borreliosis in different stages and 73 controls were tested in immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM immunoblots with the recombinant BmpA proteins of the three species, revealing specificities of 98.6 to 100%. IgM antibodies against recombinant BmpA were only rarely detected (1.1 to 8.1%). With the BmpA proteins of B. afzelii and B. garinii, sensitivities for the IgG test (sera from stages I to III) were 36.0 and 34.9%, respectively, in contrast to 13.9% with BmpA of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Therefore, we recommend that recombinant BmpA of B. afzelii or B. garinii should be used solely, or in addition to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto BmpA, in serodiagnostic tests for Lyme borreliosis in Europe.
Project description:The ability of vaccination with recombinant OspA from six seroprotective groups of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato to induce protection against infection with homologous and other Lyme spirochetes was examined in hamsters. Antisera generated against the OspA proteins of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto S-1-10 and C-1-11 (seroprotective groups 1 and 2, respectively), Borrelia afzelii BV1 (seroprotective group 4), and Borrelia garinii LV4 (seroprotective group 5) were able to kill the homologous spirochete in vitro but not other isolates. Surprisingly, antisera against B. afzelii PKo (seroprotective group 6) and B. burgdorferi sensu lato LV5 (seroprotective group 3) OspA proteins were unable to kill the homologous organism, although LV5 OspA antisera killed the heterologous isolates S-1-10 and LV4. In vivo vaccination studies supported the in vitro findings, confirming that vaccination with a single OspA protein does not provide complete protection against challenge with all Lyme disease spirochetes. In addition, OspA antibodies from some isolates may not protect against the homologous isolate. The induction of protective antibodies against other B. burgdorferi proteins may be necessary to insure a comprehensive Lyme disease vaccine.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of NHDF Cells comparing control untreated fibroblasts with fibroblasts coincubated with three different species of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group. Overall design: Four-conditions experiment (unstimulated NHDF; NHDF stimulated by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain IBS19; NHDF stimulated by Borrelia garinii strain IBS6; NHDF stimulated by Borrelia garinii strain IBS17). There is 6 Biological replicates for each condition (i.e. 6 different batches of NHDF cells from 6 independent human donor), independently grown and harvested.