Meta-analysis of GABRB2 polymorphisms and the risk of schizophrenia combined with GWAS data of the Han Chinese population and psychiatric genomics consortium.
ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe psychiatric disorder with evidence of a strong genetic component in the complex etiologies. Some studies indicated that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor ?2 subunit gene (GABRB2) was associated with SCZ. Other studies reported a negative association. Moreover, the results of two previous meta-analyses of GABRB2 with SCZ were inconsistent and the sample sizes were limited. Therefore, an updated meta-analysis combined with genome-wide association study (GWAS) data of the Han Chinese population and Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) was performed. Available case-control and family-based genetic data were extracted from association studies, and the GWAS data were included. The findings showed no association between six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of GABRB2 (rs6556547, rs1816071, rs1816072, rs194072, rs252944, and rs187269) and SCZ in a total of 51,491 patients and 74,667 controls. The ethnic subgroup analysis revealed no significant association in Asian populations. Since the PGC data of SCZ (SCZ-PGC, 2014) contained 3 studies of Asian populations (1866 patients and 3418 controls), only the data of European samples in SCZ-PGC were used for the meta-analysis of the Caucasian population in the present study. The result still showed no association in the Caucasian population. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis on combined data from GWASs of the Han Chinese population and PGC suggested that GABRB2 polymorphisms might not be associated with SCZ.
Project description:The occurrence of positive selection in schizophrenia-associated GABRB2 suggests a broader impact of the gene product on population fitness. The present study considered the possibility of cognition-related GABRB2 involvement by examining the association of GABRB2 with psychosis and altruism, respectively representing psychiatric and psychological facets of social cognition. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped for quantitative trait analyses and population-based association studies. Psychosis was measured by either the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) or antipsychotics dosage, and altruism was based on a self-report altruism scale. The minor alleles of SNPs rs6556547, rs1816071 and rs187269 in GABRB2 were correlated with high PANSS score for positive symptoms in a Han Chinese schizophrenic cohort, whereas those of rs1816071 and rs1816072 were associated with high antipsychotics dosage in a US Caucasian schizophrenic cohort. Moreover, strongly significant GABRB2-disease associations were found among schizophrenics with severe psychosis based on high PANSS positive score, but no significant association was observed for schizophrenics with only mild psychosis. Interestingly, in addition to association with psychosis in schizophrenics, rs187269 was also associated with altruism in healthy Han Chinese. Furthermore, parallel to correlation with severe psychosis, its minor allele was correlated with high altruism scores. These findings revealed that GABRB2 is associated with psychosis, the core symptom and an endophenotype of schizophrenia. Importantly, the association was found across the breadth of the psychiatric (psychosis) to psychological (altruism) spectrum of social cognition suggesting GABRB2 involvement in human cognition.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GABRB2, the gene for beta(2)-subunit of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor, have been associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and quantitatively correlated to mRNA expression and alternative splicing. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Expression of the Exon 10 region of GABRB2 from minigene constructs revealed this region to be an "alternative splicing hotspot" that readily gave rise to differently spliced isoforms depending on intron sequences. This led to a search in human brain cDNA libraries, and the discovery of two novel isoforms, beta(2S1) and beta(2S2), bearing variations in the neighborhood of Exon-10. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of postmortem brain samples showed increased beta(2S1) expression and decreased beta(2S2) expression in both SCZ and bipolar disorder (BPD) compared to controls. Disease-control differences were significantly correlated with SNP rs187269 in BPD males for both beta(2S1) and beta(2S2) expressions, and significantly correlated with SNPs rs2546620 and rs187269 in SCZ males for beta(2S2) expression. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis indicated that Thr(365), a potential phosphorylation site in Exon-10, played a key role in determining the time profile of the ATP-dependent electrophysiological current run-down. CONCLUSION: This study therefore provided experimental evidence for the importance of non-coding sequences in the Exon-10 region in GABRB2 with respect to beta(2)-subunit splicing diversity and the etiologies of SCZ and BPD.
Project description:Substance dependence is a frequently observed comorbid disorder in schizophrenia, but little is known about genetic factors possibly shared between the two psychotic disorders. GABRB2, a schizophrenia candidate gene coding for GABAA receptor ?2 subunit, is examined for possible association with heroin dependence in Han Chinese population. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GABRB2, namely rs6556547 (S1), rs1816071 (S3), rs18016072 (S5), and rs187269 (S29), previously associated with schizophrenia, were examined for their association with heroin dependence. Two additional SNPs, rs10051667 (S31) and rs967771 (S32), previously associated with alcohol dependence and bipolar disorder respectively, were also analyzed. The six SNPs were genotyped by direct sequencing of PCR amplicons of target regions for 564 heroin dependent individuals and 498 controls of Han Chinese origin. Interestingly, it was found that recombination between the haplotypes of all-derived-allele (H1; OR = 1.00) and all-ancestral-allele (H2; OR = 0.74) at S5-S29 junction generated two recombinants H3 (OR = 8.51) and H4 (OR = 5.58), both conferring high susceptibility to heroin dependence. Additional recombination between H2 and H3 haplotypes at S1-S3 junction resulted in a risk-conferring haplotype H5 (OR = 1.94x109). In contrast, recombination between H1 and H2 haplotypes at S3-S5 junction rescued the risk-conferring effect of recombination at S5-S29 junction, giving rise to the protective haplotype H6 (OR = 0.68). Risk-conferring effects of S1-S3 and S5-S29 crossovers and protective effects of S3-S5 crossover were seen in both pure heroin dependent and multiple substance dependence subgroups. In conclusion, significant association was found with haplotypes of the S1-S29 segment in GABRB2 for heroin dependence in Han Chinese population. Local recombination was an important determining factor for switching haplotypes between risk-conferring and protective statuses. The present study provide evidence for the schizophrenia candidate gene GABRB2 to play a role in heroin dependence, but replication of these findings is required.
Project description:Voltage-gated L-type calcium channels (VLCC) are distributed widely throughout the brain. Among the genes involved in schizophrenia (SCZ), genes encoding VLCC subunits have attracted widespread attention. Among the four subunits comprising the VLCC (??-?1, ? -2/?, ?, and ?), the ? subunit that comprises an eight-member protein family is the least well understood. In our study, to further investigate the risk susceptibility by the ? subunit gene family to SCZ, we conducted a large-scale association study in Han Chinese individuals. The SNP rs17645023 located in the intergenic region of CACNG4 and CACNG5 was identified to be significantly associated with SCZ (OR?=?0.856, P?=?5.43?×?10(-5)). Similar results were obtained in the meta-analysis with the current SCZ PGC data (OR?=?0.8853). We also identified a two-SNP haplotype (rs10420331-rs11084307, P?=?1.4?×?10(-6)) covering the intronic region of CACNG8 to be significantly associated with SCZ. Epistasis analyses were conducted, and significant statistical interaction (OR?=?0.622, P?=?2.93?×?10(-6), Pperm?<?0.001) was observed between rs192808 (CACNG6) and rs2048137 (CACNG5). Our results indicate that CACNG4, CACNG5, CACNG6 and CACNG8 may contribute to the risk of SCZ. The statistical epistasis identified between CACNG5 and CACNG6 suggests that there may be an underlying biological interaction between the two genes.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified >100 susceptibility loci for schizophrenia (SCZ) and demonstrated that SCZ is a polygenic disorder determined by numerous genetic variants but with small effect size. We conducted a GWAS in the Japanese (JPN) population (a) to detect novel SCZ-susceptibility genes and (b) to examine the shared genetic risk of SCZ across (East Asian [EAS] and European [EUR]) populations and/or that of trans-diseases (SCZ, bipolar disorder [BD], and major depressive disorder [MDD]) within EAS and between EAS and EUR (trans-diseases/populations). Among the discovery GWAS subjects (JPN-SCZ GWAS: 1940 SCZ cases and 7408 controls) and replication dataset (4071 SCZ cases and 54479 controls), both comprising JPN populations, 3 novel susceptibility loci for SCZ were identified: SPHKAP (Pbest = 4.1 × 10-10), SLC38A3 (Pbest = 5.7 × 10-10), and CABP1-ACADS (Pbest = 9.8 × 10-9). Subsequent meta-analysis between our samples and those of the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC; EUR samples) and another study detected 12 additional susceptibility loci. Polygenic risk score (PRS) prediction revealed a shared genetic risk of SCZ across populations (Pbest = 4.0 × 10-11) and between SCZ and BD in the JPN population (P ~ 10-40); however, a lower variance-explained was noted between JPN-SCZ GWAS and PGC-BD or MDD within/across populations. Genetic correlation analysis supported the PRS results; the genetic correlation between JPN-SCZ and PGC-SCZ was ? = 0.58, whereas a similar/lower correlation was observed between the trans-diseases (JPN-SCZ vs JPN-BD/EAS-MDD, rg = 0.56/0.29) or trans-diseases/populations (JPN-SCZ vs PGC-BD/MDD, ? = 0.38/0.12). In conclusion, (a) Fifteen novel loci are possible susceptibility genes for SCZ and (b) SCZ "risk" effect is shared with other psychiatric disorders even across populations.
Project description:Objective::Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a significant relationship between the NT5C2 variant rs11191580 and schizophrenia (SCZ) in European populations. This study aimed to validate the association of rs11191580 polymorphism with SCZ risk in a South Chinese Han population. The relationship of this polymorphism with the severity of SCZ clinical symptoms was also explored. Methods::A case-control study was performed in 462 patients with SCZ and 598 healthy controls. Rs11191580 was genotyped by the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX platform. A total of 459 SCZ patients completed the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) evaluation. Data were analyzed by PLINK software. Results::We confirmed an association of the rs11191580 polymorphism with SCZ risk in South Chinese Han under a dominant genetic model (ORadj = 0.769; 95%CIadj = 0.600-0.984; padj = 0.037). PANSS scores showed a significant association between variant rs11191580 and total score (padj = 0.032), lack of response scale score (padj = 0.022), and negative scale score (additive: padj = 0.004; dominant: padj = 0.016; recessive: padj = 0.021) after data were adjusted for age and sex. Conclusion::NT5C2 variant rs11191580 conferred susceptibility to SCZ and affected the clinical symptoms of SCZ in a South Chinese Han population.
Project description:Tetraspanin-18 (TSPAN18) potentially plays a role in the calcium signaling that is associated with dopamine-induced cortical neuron apoptosis and is considered to be an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SCZ). Furthermore, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified TSPAN18 as a possible susceptibility gene for SCZ. To validate these findings and reveal the effects of different inheritance models, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TSPAN18 gene were analyzed in 443 patients with SCZ and 628 controls of Han Chinese descent via the SNPscan method. Single SNP, genotype, and association analyses with different models (i.e., additive, dominant, and recessive models) were performed, and the published datasets (2062 cases and 2053 controls) were combined with our results to determine the inheritance effects of the SNPs on SCZ. We observed genotypes and allele distributions of TSPAN18 gene did not show any significant associations in the Han Chinese population based on our experimental and meta-analytical results. Our findings indicate that the TSPAN18 gene is unlikely to be a major susceptibility gene for schizophrenia in Han Chinese.
Project description:The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor 4 (TCF4) had been identified as a susceptibility gene associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) by GWAS, but inconsistent results have been found in other studies. To validate these findings and to reveal the effects of different inheritance models, rs2958182, rs1261085, rs8766, and rs12966547 of the TCF4 gene were genotyped in the Northwest Han Chinese population (448 cases and 628 controls) via a multiplex polymerase chain reaction SNPscan assay. Single SNP, genotype, and association analyses with three different models were performed. We observed genotype and allele distributions of four SNPs that showed nonsignificant associations in the Northwest Han Chinese population. However, published datasets (51,892 cases and 68,498 controls) were collected and combined with our experimental results to ascertain the association of the TCF4 gene SNPs and SCZ, which demonstrated that rs2958182 (P=0.003) was a significant signal based on a systematic meta-analysis. To clarify the biological role of rs2958182, it is important to improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of SCZ.
Project description:Genetic association studies on schizophrenia (SZ) have been repeatedly performed over the last two decades, resulting in a consensus that results are generally inconsistent. This consensus has begun to change as a result of meta-analyses (e.g., [Glatt, S.J. and Jonsson, E.G., 2006. The Cys allele of the DRD2 Ser311Cys polymorphism has a dominant effect on risk for schizophrenia: evidence from fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses. Am. J. Med. Genet. B. Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 141, 149-154.]). The SchizophreniaGene database (http://www.schizophreniaforum.org/res/sczgene/default.asp) has been a leader in meta-analyses of SZ association data, by dynamically and comprehensively cataloging all public genetic association studies, and preparing meta-analyses of case-control data. There are 19 "top" candidate genes from these analyses (access on December 20, 2007), showing the highest effect sizes and nominally significant associations of at least one variant in the meta-analyses of all ethnic samples or of samples of Caucasian ancestry. We selected 40 polymorphisms in 12 selected "top" genes for additional meta-analyses, which had at least one familial association data. We found gene-wide (correction for the number of meta-analyses for each gene) significant allelic association evidence for seven genes in the combined samples. The odds ratios (ORs) of the associated minor risk alleles range from 1.072 to 1.121, for DRD4, MTHFR, PPP3CC and TP53. For protective allele associations, the ORs are between 0.842 and 0.886, for DAO, IL1B, and SLC6A4. In population-based sub-analyses, we found significant results in four genes in Asians (ORs between 1.084 and 1.309 for DRD4, GABRB2, PPP3CC, and TP53), and one gene in European (OR of 0.888 for SLC6A4). The association of rs1816072 of GABRB2 with SZ in Asians was significant (adjusted P=0.048 after correction for 80 tests). No significant heterogeneity between case-control and family-based study designs was detected in 35 out of 40 polymorphisms. Our results further support eight potential SZ candidate genes and suggest that family data can reasonably be included in the meta-analysis of genetic associations.
Project description:Recent large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have showed that the neuronal calcium signaling has pivotal roles in schizophrenia (SCZ) in populations of European of ancestry. However, it is not known if calcium signaling pathway genes are also associated with SCZ in Han Chinese population.Here we investigated the association between genetic variants in three calcium signaling pathway genes (CACNB2, CACNA1C and CACNA1I) and SCZ in 1615 SCZ cases and 1597 controls.A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs4522708) in CACNA1I is significantly associated with SCZ in our Chinese sample (ORA allele?=?1.19, corrected P?=?0.042), suggesting that CACNA1I may also be a risk gene for SCZ in Chinese population. Of note, the risk allele (A allele) of SNP rs4522708 is same in European and Chinese populations. Meta-analysis of Chinese and European samples further strengthened the association of rs4522708 with SCZ (ORA allele?=?1.074, P?=?6.26?×?10-11). Expression analysis showed that CACNA1I was significantly up-regulated in hippocampus of SCZ cases compared with controls, implying that dysregulation of CACNA1I may have a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis.Our study suggests that CACNA1I is a risk gene for SCZ in Chinese population and provides further evidence that supports the potential role of neuronal calcium signaling in schizophrenia.