Preference-based measures to obtain health state utility values for use in economic evaluations with child-based populations: a review and UK-based focus group assessment of patient and parent choices.
ABSTRACT: No current guidance is available in the UK on the choice of preference-based measure (PBM) that should be used in obtaining health-related quality of life from children. The aim of this study is to review the current usage of PBMs for obtaining health state utility values in child and adolescent populations, and to obtain information on patient and parent-proxy respondent preferences in completing PBMs in the UK.A literature review was conducted to determine which instrument is most frequently used for child-based economic evaluations and whether child or proxy responses are used. Instruments were compared on dimensions, severity levels, elicitation and valuation methods, availability of value sets and validation studies, and the range of utility values generated. Additionally, a series of focus groups of parents and young people (11-20 years) were convened to determine patient and proxy preferences.Five PBMs suitable for child populations were identified, although only the Health Utilities Index 2 (HUI2) and Child Heath Utility 9D (CHU-9D) have UK value sets. 45 papers used PBMs in this population, but many used non-child-specific PBMs. Most respondents were parent proxies, even in adolescent populations. Reported missing data ranged from 0.5 to 49.3%. The focus groups reported their experiences with the EQ-5D-Y and CHU-9D. Both the young persons' group and parent/proxy groups felt that the CHU-9D was more comprehensive but may be harder for a proxy to complete. Some younger children had difficulty understanding the CHU-9D questions, but the young persons' group nonetheless preferred responding directly.The use of PBMs in child populations is increasing, but many studies use PBMs that do not have appropriate value sets. Parent proxies are the most common respondents, but the focus group responses suggest it would be preferred, and may be more informative, for older children to self-report or for child-parent dyads to respond.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To compare the performance of the EuroQol 5D youth (EQ-5D-Y) and child health utility 9D (CHU-9D) for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and young people (CYP) with cerebral palsy (CP). DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:England. PARTICIPANTS:Sixty-four CYP with CP aged 10-19 years in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-III. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Missing data were examined to assess feasibility. Associations between utility values and individual dimensions on each instrument were examined to assess convergent validity. Associations between utility values and GMFCS level were examined to assess known-group differences. RESULTS:Missing data were <5% for both instruments. Twenty participants (32.3%) and 11 participants (18.0%) reported full health for the EQ-5D-Y and CHU-9D, respectively. There was poor agreement between utilities from the two instruments (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.62; 95% limits of agreement -0.58 to 0.29). Correlations between EQ-5D-Y and CHU-9D dimensions were weak to moderate (r=0.25?to 0.59). GMFCS level was associated with EQ-5D-Y utility values but not CHU-9D utility values. CONCLUSION:The EQ-5D-Y and CHU-9D are feasible measures of HRQoL in CYP with CP. However, the two instruments demonstrate poor agreement and should not be used to measure and value HRQoL in CYP with CP interchangeably. We propose that the CHU-9D may be preferable to use in this population as it assesses concepts that influence HRQoL among CYP with CP and provides less extreme utility values than the EQ-5D-Y.
Project description:The limited literature examining weight status and preference-based health-related quality of life (HRQL) in young children is equivocal. This study aims to examine how the association between weight status and preference-based HRQL changes as children develop between the ages of 6 and 10 years old.The Child Health Utility 9D (CHU-9D) was used to determine preference-based HRQL. Height and weight data were also collected and used to calculate z-BMI adjusted for age and gender. 1467 children were recruited from 54 schools across the West Midlands. Data were collected at four time points over 5 years. Impact of weight on dimensions of HRQL was assessed via the distribution of responses to CHU-9D dimensions by weight status. Multi-level regression analysis controlling for ethnicity, deprivation and other relevant co-variates was conducted to examine the relationship between weight and HRQL.There was no evidence to suggest that the weight status impacted upon the distribution of responses to CHU-9D dimensions. Correspondingly, the multi-level regression analysis found no statistically significant differences in CHU-9D scores between underweight, healthy weight, overweight and obese children.The evidence surrounding the link between preference-based HRQL and weight status in children is limited. This study found no association between weight status and HRQL as measured by the CHU-9D in children between the ages of 5 and 10 years in the UK. Given this, it is recommended that future studies aiming to prevent obesity in children in their middle years do not rely solely on preference-based measures for economic evaluation, and instead focus on capturing clinical or wellbeing outcomes.
Project description:Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with reduced health and well-being of patients and their families. The authors undertook a large UK survey-based observational study of the burden associated with childhood ADHD. The impact of ADHD on both the patient (N = 476) and their siblings (N = 337) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and happiness was quantified using multiple standard measures [e.g. child health utility-9D (CHU-9D), EuroQol-5D-Youth]. In the analysis, careful statistical adjustments were made to ensure a like-for-like comparison of ADHD families with two different control groups. We controlled for carers' ADHD symptoms, their employment and relationship status and siblings' ADHD symptoms. ADHD was associated with a significant deficit in the patient's HRQoL (with a CHU-9D score of around 6 % lower). Children with ADHD also have less sleep and were less happy with their family and their lives overall. No consistent decrement to the HRQoL of the siblings was identified across the models, except that related to their own conduct problems. The siblings do, however, report lower happiness with life overall and with their family, even when controlling for the siblings own ADHD symptoms. We also find evidence of elevated bullying between siblings in families with a child with ADHD. Overall, the current results suggest that the reduction in quality of life caused by ADHD is experienced both by the child with ADHD and their siblings.
Project description:The objective of this research project was to evaluate the validity of proxy health-related quality of life measures in the context of paediatric mobility impairment. Accurate health-related quality of life data is essential for quality-adjusted life year calculation; a key outcome in economic evaluation. Thirteen child-parent dyads (13 children with mobility impairments, 13 parent proxies) were asked to complete a range of outcome measures (EQ-5D-Y, VAS and HUI2/3) relating to the child's health. The relationship between respondent outcomes was examined using tests of respondent type effect (Wilcoxon signed-rank), correlation (Spearman's rank-order) and agreement (Bland-Altman plots).Parent proxies significantly undervalued the health-related quality of life of their mobility-impaired children: children rated their health-related quality of life higher than their parents by proxy on all measures. The VAS had the highest overall mean score for children and proxies (79.50 [SD = 15.01] and 75.77 [SD = 14.70] respectively). Child and proxy results were significantly different (p < 0.05) for all measures besides the VAS (p = 0.138). Strong correlation and acceptable agreement were observed for equivalent child/proxy VAS and HUI measures. The EQ-5D-Y exhibited the least agreement between children and proxies. Sufficient association between child/proxy VAS and HUI measures indicated a degree of interchangeability.
Project description:Physical inactivity has been identified as a leading risk factor for premature mortality globally, and adolescents, in particular, have low physical activity levels. Schools have been identified as a setting to tackle physical inactivity. Economic evidence of school-based physical activity programmes is limited, and the costs of these programmes are not always collected in full. This paper describes a micro-costing and cost-consequence analysis of the 'Girls Active' secondary school-based programme as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT). Micro-costing and cost-consequence analyses were conducted using bespoke cost diaries and questionnaires to collect programme delivery information. Outcomes for the cost-consequence analysis included health-related quality of life measured by the Child Health Utility-9D (CHU-9D), primary care General Practitioner (GP) and school-based (school nurse and school counsellor) service use as part of a cluster RCT of the 'Girls Active' programme. Overall, 1,752 secondary pupils were recruited and a complete case sample of 997 participants (Intervention n = 570, Control n = 427) was used for the cost-consequence analysis. The micro-costing analysis demonstrated that, depending upon how the programme was delivered, 'Girls Active' costs ranged from £1,054 (£2 per pupil, per school year) to £3,489 (£7 per pupil, per school year). The least costly option was to absorb 'Girls Active' strictly within curriculum hours. The analysis demonstrated no effect for the programme for the three main outcomes of interest (health-related quality of life, physical activity and service use).Micro-costing analyses demonstrated the costs of delivering the 'Girls Active' programme, addressing a gap in the United Kingdom (UK) literature regarding economic evidence from school-based physical activity programmes. This paper provides recommendations for those gathering cost and service use data in school settings to supplement validated and objective measures, furthering economic research in this field. Trial registration: -ISRCTN, ISRCTN10688342.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Morbidity associated with child maltreatment can reduce health-related quality of life. Accurately measuring the reduction in quality of life associated with child maltreatment is essential to the economic evaluation of educational programs and interventions to reduce the incidence of child maltreatment. The objective of this study was to review the literature for existing approaches and instruments for measuring quality-of-life for child maltreatment outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed the current literature to identify current approaches to valuing child maltreatment outcomes for economic evaluations. We also reviewed available preference-based generic QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D) for appropriateness in measuring change in quality of life due to child maltreatment. RESULTS: We did not identify any studies that directly evaluated quality-of-life in maltreated children. We identified 4 studies that evaluated quality of life for adult survivors of child maltreatment and 8 studies that measured quality-of-life for pediatric injury not related to child maltreatment. No study reported quality-of-life values for children younger than age 3. Currently available preference-based QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D) have been developed primarily for adults with the exception of the Health Utilities Index. These instruments do not include many of the domains identified as being important in capturing changes in quality of life for child maltreatment, such as potential for growth and development or psychological sequelae specific to maltreatment. CONCLUSION: Recommendations for valuing preference-based quality-of-life for child maltreatment will vary by developmental level and type of maltreatment. In the short-term, available multi-attribute utility instruments should be considered in the context of the type of child maltreatment being measured. However, if relevant domains are not included in existing instruments or if valuing health for children less than 6 years of age, direct valuation with a proxy respondent is recommended. The choice of a proxy respondent is not clear in the case of child maltreatment since the parent may not be a suitable proxy. Adult survivors should be considered as appropriate proxies. Longer-term research should focus on identifying the key domains for measuring child health and the development of preference-based quality-of-life instruments that are appropriate for valuing child maltreatment outcomes.
Project description:Background:Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute surgical emergencies in children and accounts for an annual cost of approximately £50 million to the National Health Service. Investigating alternative treatment options offers the best prospect of enhancing the quality of care for patients and potential opportunities for cost savings through better allocative efficiency. A feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing a non-operative treatment pathway with appendicectomy for children with acute uncomplicated appendicitis is underway (CONTRACT feasibility RCT). Aims:The prime objective of this economic substudy conducted alongside the CONTRACT feasibility RCT is to better understand and assess: (1) cost data collection tools and cost drivers by identifying patients' pathways and (2) patient quality of life by assessing alternative paediatric health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments. Outcomes from this study will inform a future efficacy RCT assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of non-operative treatment pathway for the treatment of acute uncomplicated appendicitis in children. Methods:The economic substudy will use individual-level data and will be conducted from the health system perspective over the study's 6-month follow-up period. Microcosting will include health resource and service use, while potential benefits acquired will be measured using the HRQoL measures, Child Health Utility 9D (CHU-9D) and Euroqol-5 dimensions and 5 levels (EQ-5D-5L). We will assess the appropriateness of using the cost per quality-adjusted life year framework in the future RCT, as well as testing and identifying the most suitable HRQoL instrument. Conclusions:The outcomes of the investigational economic substudy will be used to inform the design of our future definitive RCT. However, the result from this economic study will also provide a detailed description and account of the issues inherent in paediatric Economic Evaluations Alongside Clinical Trials with an emphasis on costing methods of interventions taking place in secondary care settings. Trial registration number:ISRCTN1583043.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the association of proxy-specific covariates with proxy-reported patient cancer care experience, quality rating, and quality of life. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING:Secondary analysis of data from the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) study. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional observational study. The respondents were proxies for patients with incident colorectal or lung cancer. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS:Analyses used linear regression models and adjusted for patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Outcomes included patients' experiences with medical care, nursing care, and care coordination, overall quality ratings, and physical and mental health, all scored on 0-100 scales (0 = worst, 100 = best). Independent variables included the proxy's relationship with the patient and engagement in patient care. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Of 1,011 proxies, most were the patient's spouse (50 percent) or child (36 percent). Although most proxies (66 percent) always attended medical visits, 3 percent reported never attending. After adjustment, on average children reported worse experiences and poorer quality care than spouses (4-9 points lower across outcomes). Proxies who never attended medical visits reported significantly worse medical care (-11 points, 95 percent CI = -18 to -3) and care coordination (-13 points, 95 percent CI = -20 to -6). CONCLUSIONS:Collecting data on proxy engagement in care is warranted if proxy responses are used.
Project description:assessment of baseline functional status of older patients during and after intensive care unit (ICU) admission is often hampered by challenges related to the critical illness such as cognitive dysfunction, neuropsychological morbidity and pain. To explore the reliability of assessments by carefully chosen proxies, we designed a discriminating selection of proxies and evaluated agreement between patient and proxy responses by assessing activities of daily living (ADLs) at 1 month post-ICU discharge.patients ?60 years old admitted to the medical ICU were enrolled in a prospective parent cohort studying delirium. Proxies were carefully screened at ICU admission to choose the best available respondent. Follow-up interviews, including instruments for ADLs, were conducted 1 month after ICU discharge. We examined 179 paired patient-proxy follow-up interviews. Kappa statistics assessed inter-observer agreement, and McNemar's exact test assessed response differences.patients averaged 73.3 ± 8.1 years old with 29% having evidence of cognitive impairment. Proxies were most commonly spouses (38%) or children (39%). Overall, there was substantial (? ? 0.6) to excellent agreement (? ? 0.8) between patients and proxies on assessment of all but one basic and one instrumental ADL.proxies carefully chosen at ICU admission show high levels of inter-observer agreement with older patients when assessing current functional status at 1 month post-ICU discharge. This motivates further study of proxy assessments that could be used earlier in critical illness to assess premorbid functional status.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare differences in health utilities (HUs) assessed by self and proxy respondents in children, as well as to evaluate the effects of health conditions, valuation methods, and proxy types on the differences.<h4>Methods</h4>Eligible studies published in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library up to December 2019 were identified according to PRISMA guidelines. Meta-analyses were performed to calculate the weighted mean differences (WMDs) in HUs between proxy- versus self-reports. Mixed-effects meta-regressions were applied to explore differences in WMDs among each health condition, valuation method and proxy type.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 30 studies were finally included, comprising 211 pairs of HUs assessed by 15,294 children and 16,103 proxies. This study identified 34 health conditions, 10 valuation methods, and 3 proxy types. In general, proxy-reported HUs were significantly different from those assessed by children themselves, while the direction and magnitude of these differences were inconsistent regarding health conditions, valuation methods, and proxy types. Meta-regression demonstrated that WMDs were significantly different in patients with ear diseases relative to the general population; in those measured by EQ-5D, Health utility index 2 (HUI2), and Pediatric asthma health outcome measure relative to Visual analogue scale method; while were not significantly different in individuals adopting clinician-proxy and caregiver-proxy relative to parent-proxy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Divergence existed in HUs between self and proxy-reports. Our findings highlight the importance of selecting appropriate self and/or proxy-reported HUs in health-related quality of life measurement and economic evaluations.