Innovation in Systems of Care in Acute Phase of Ischemic Stroke. The Experience of the Catalan Stroke Programme.
ABSTRACT: Stroke, and mainly ischemic stroke, is the second cause of death and disability. To confront the huge burden of this disease, innovative stroke systems of care are mandatory. This requires the development of national stroke plans to offer the best treatment to all patients eligible for reperfusion therapies. Key elements for success include a high level of organization, close cooperation with emergency medical services for prehospital assessment, an understanding of stroke singularity, the development of preassessment tools, a high level of commitment of all stroke teams at Stroke Centres, the availability of a disease-specific registry, and local government involvement to establish stroke care as a priority. In this mini review, we discuss recent evidence concerning different aspects of stroke systems of care and describe the success of the Catalan Stroke Programme as an example of innovation. In Catalonia, reperfusion treatment rates have increased in recent years and currently are among the highest in Europe (17.3% overall, 14.3% for IVT, and 6% for EVT in 2016).
Project description:The impact of reperfusion therapies on cognition has been poorly explored and little knowledge exists. We explored the influence of endovascular treatment (EVT) on cognitive outcome in patients with anterior circulation ischemic stroke. Patients presenting with ischemic stroke due to anterior large vessel occlusion who underwent intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) alone or EVT plus IVT were recruited. Cognitive abilities were evaluated at 6 months from stroke through a neuropsychological test battery. A total of 88 patients with a mean age of 66.3?±?12.9 years were included, of which 38 treated with IVT alone and 50 with IVT plus EVT. Compared to patients treated with IVT alone, patients who received EVT plus IVT performed significantly better at the neuropsychological tests exploring executive functions, attention, abstract reasoning, visuospatial ability, visual and verbal and memory. At multivariable regression analysis, the EVT was independently associated with the 6-month cognitive performance after the adjustment for age, sex, admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, systolic blood pressure, glucose level, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score, side of stroke, site of occlusion, and Back Depression Inventory score [Stroop Test Word Reading: adj??=?13.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.47-19.50, p?<?0.001; Stroop Test Colour Naming: adj??=?6.63, 95% CI 2.46-10.81, p?=?0.002; Trail Making Test-A: adj??=?- 92.98, 95% CI - 153.76 to - 32.20, p?=?0.003; Trail Making Test-B: adj??=?- 181.12, 95% CI - 266.09 to - 96.15; p?<?0.001; Digit Span Test Forward: adj??=?1.44, 95% CI 0.77-2.10, p?<?0.001; Digit Span Test Backward: adj??=?1.10, 95% CI 0.42-1.77, p?=?0.002; Coloured Progressive Matrices: adj??=?5.82, 95% CI 2.71-8.93, p?<?0.001; Rey Complex Figure Test-Copy: adj??=?6.02, 95% CI 2.74-9.30, p?<?0.001; Rey Complex Figure Test-Immediate recall: adj??=?6.00, 95% CI 2.34-9.66, p?=?0.002; Rey Complex Figure Test-Delayed recall: adj??=?5.73, 95% CI 1.95-9.51, p?=?0.003; Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test-Immediate recall: adj??=?12.60, 95% CI 6.69-18.52, p?<?0.001; Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test-Delayed recall: adj??=?1.85, 95% CI 0.24-3.45, p?=?0.025]. Patients treated with EVT plus IVT had better cognitive performance than patients treated with IVT alone at 6 months from anterior circulation ischemic stroke.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the only approved pharmacological reperfusion therapy for acute ischaemic stroke. Despite population benefit, IVT is not equally effective in all patients, nor is it without significant risk. Uncertain treatment outcome prediction complicates patient treatment selection. This study will develop and validate predictive algorithms for IVT response, using clinical, radiological and blood-based biomarker measures. A secondary objective is to develop predictive algorithms for endovascular thrombectomy (EVT), which has been proven as an effective reperfusion therapy since study inception. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The Targeting Optimal Thrombolysis Outcomes Study is a multicenter prospective cohort study of ischaemic stroke patients treated at participating Australian Stroke Centres with IVT and/or EVT. Patients undergo neuroimaging using multimodal CT or MRI at baseline with repeat neuroimaging 24?hours post-treatment. Baseline and follow-up blood samples are provided for research use. The primary outcome is good functional outcome at 90 days poststroke, defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) Score of 0-2. Secondary outcomes are reperfusion, recanalisation, infarct core growth, change in stroke severity, poor functional outcome, excellent functional outcome and ordinal mRS at 90 days. Primary predictive models will be developed and validated in patients treated only with rt-PA. Models will be built using regression methods and include clinical variables, radiological measures from multimodal neuroimaging and blood-based biomarkers measured by mass spectrometry. Predictive accuracy will be quantified using c-statistics and R2. In secondary analyses, models will be developed in patients treated using EVT, with or without prior IVT, reflecting practice changes since original study design. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Patients, or relatives when patients could not consent, provide written informed consent to participate. This study received approval from the Hunter New England Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee (reference 14/10/15/4.02). Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to describe the current status of acute stroke care in Korea and explore disparities among hospitals and regions. METHODS:The 2013 and 2014 national stroke audit data and the national health insurance claims data were linked and used for this study. Stroke patients hospitalized via emergency rooms within 7 days of stroke onset were selected. RESULTS:A total of 19,608 patients treated in 216 hospitals were analyzed. Among them 76% had ischemic stroke; 15%, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); and 9%, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Of the hospitals, 31% provided inpatient stroke unit care. Ambulances were used in 56% of cases, and the median interval from onset to arrival was 4.5 hours. One-quarter of patients were referred from other hospitals. Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and endovascular treatment (EVT) rates were 11% and 4%, respectively. Three-quarters of the analyzed hospitals provided IVT and/or EVT, whereas 47% of hospitals providing IVT and 67% of hospitals providing EVT had less than one case per month. Decompressive surgery was performed on 28% of ICH patients, and clipping and coiling were performed in 17.2% and 14.3% of SAH patients, respectively. There were noticeable regional disparities between the various interventions, ambulance use, arrival time, and stroke unit availability. CONCLUSION:This study describes the current status of acute stroke care in Korea. Despite quite acceptable quality of stroke care, it suggests regional and hospital disparities. Expansion of stroke units, stroke center certification or accreditation, and connections between stroke centers and emergency medical services are highly recommended.
Project description:Standard operating procedures (SOP) incorporating plasma levels of rivaroxaban might be helpful in selecting patients with acute ischemic stroke taking rivaroxaban suitable for IVthrombolysis (IVT) or endovascular treatment (EVT).This was a single-center explorative analysis using data from the Novel-Oral-Anticoagulants-in-Stroke-Patients-registry (clinicaltrials.gov:NCT02353585) including acute stroke patients taking rivaroxaban (September 2012 to November 2016). The SOP included recommendation, consideration, and avoidance of IVT if rivaroxaban plasma levels were <20 ng/mL, 20‒100 ng/mL, and >100 ng/mL, respectively, measured with a calibrated anti-factor Xa assay. Patients with intracranial artery occlusion were recommended IVT+EVT or EVT alone if plasma levels were ≤100 ng/mL or >100 ng/mL, respectively. We evaluated the frequency of IVT/EVT, door-to-needle-time (DNT), and symptomatic intracranial or major extracranial hemorrhage.Among 114 acute stroke patients taking rivaroxaban, 68 were otherwise eligible for IVT/EVT of whom 63 had plasma levels measured (median age 81 years, median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 6). Median rivaroxaban plasma level was 96 ng/mL (inter quartile range [IQR] 18‒259 ng/mL) and time since last intake 11 hours (IQR 4.5‒18.5 hours). Twenty-two patients (35%) received IVT/EVT (IVT n=15, IVT+EVT n=3, EVT n=4) based on SOP. Median DNT was 37 (IQR 30‒60) minutes. None of the 31 patients with plasma levels >100 ng/mL received IVT. Among 14 patients with plasma levels ≤100 ng/mL, the main reason to withhold IVT was minor stroke (n=10). No symptomatic intracranial or major extracranial bleeding occurred after treatment.Determination of rivaroxaban plasma levels enabled IVT or EVT in one-third of patients taking rivaroxaban who would otherwise be ineligible for acute treatment. The absence of major bleeding in our pilot series justifies future studies of this approach.
Project description:Endovascular therapy (EVT) with stent retrievers in addition to i.v. thrombolysis (IVT) has proven effective in acute stroke patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA, M1 segment) and distal internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. Limited data exist concerning acute cervical ICA occlusion, either alone or in combination with intracranial ICA occlusion (tandem occlusion). Therefore we analyzed outcome and treatment effects in stroke associated with cervical ICA occlusion, with specific focus on the impact of intracranial ICA or M1 patency.Seventy-eight patients with cervical ICA occlusion from our local stroke unit registry were analyzed retrospectively. Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) classification, infarct size, modified Rankin scale (mRS), symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and death were assessed as outcome parameters.Forty-three patients had isolated cervical ICA occlusion whereas 35 patients presented with extra-/intracranial tandem occlusion. Patients underwent IVT alone (n = 23), combined IVT/EVT (n = 28) or no treatment (n = 27). Treated and untreated patients with tandem occlusion had a worse outcome after 90 days compared to isolated cervical occlusion (OR for moderate outcome 0.29, 0.27-0.88, p = 0.01). Additional EVT improved outcome in patients with tandem occlusion (OR for moderate outcome: 15.43, 1.60-148.90, p = 0.008) but not isolated cervical occlusion (OR 1.33, 0.38-11.60, NS).In contrast to tandem occlusion, stroke outcome in patients with isolated cervical ICA occlusion was generally more benign and not improved by combined IVT/EVT compared to IVT alone. Intracranial vessel patency may be critical for treatment decision in acute cervical ICA occlusion.
Project description:Background and Purpose- In this era of endovascular therapy (EVT) with early, complete recanalization and reperfusion, we have observed an even more rapid apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) normalization within the acute ischemic lesion compared with the natural history or IV-tPA-treated patient. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of revascularization on ADC evolution within the core lesion in the first 24 hours in acute ischemic stroke patients. Methods- This retrospective study included anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke patients treated with EVT with or without intravenous tPA (IVT) from 2015 to 2017 compared with a consecutive cohort of IVT-only patients treated before 2015. Diffusion-weighted imaging and ADC maps were used to quantify baseline core lesions. Median ADC value change and core reversal were determined at 24 hours. Diffusion-weighted imaging lesion growth was measured at 24 hours and 5 days. Good clinical outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2 at 90 days. Results- Twenty-five patients (50%) received IVT while the other 25 patients received EVT (50%) with or without IVT. Between these patient groups, there were no differences in age, sex, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, interhospital transfer, or IVT rates. Thirty-two patients (64%) revascularized with 69% receiving EVT. There was a significant increase in median ADC value of the core lesion at 24 hours in patients who revascularized compared with further ADC reduction in nonrevascularization patients. Revascularization patients had a significantly higher rate of good clinical outcome at 90 days, 63% versus 9% (P=0.003). Core reversal at 24 hours was significantly higher in revascularization patients, 69% versus 22% (P=0.002). Conclusions- ADC evolution in acute ischemic stroke patients with early, complete revascularization, now more commonly seen with EVT, is strikingly different from our historical understanding. The early ADC normalization we have observed in this setting may include a component of secondary injury and serve as a potential imaging biomarker for the development of future adjunctive therapies. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00009243.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Futile reperfusion (poor functional status despite successful reperfusion) was observed in up to 67% of patients enrolled in recent endovascular treatment (EVT) clinical trials. We investigated the impact of baseline stroke severity on both futile reperfusion and therapeutic benefit of successful EVT. METHODS:Using a prospective multicenter stroke registry, we identified consecutive ischemic stroke patients with anterior circulation large artery occlusion, who were reperfused successfully by EVT (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade 2b-3). The rate of futile reperfusion was assessed across the initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores. The frequency of poor outcomes (modified Rankin scale [mRS] 3-6) according to NIHSS scores was compared between patients revascularized successfully by EVT and those who did not receive EVT, after standardizing for age. RESULTS:Among 21,591 patients with ischemic stroke, 972 (4.5%) received EVT within 12?h of onset, including 440 who met study eligibility criteria. Futile reperfusion was observed in 226 of the 440 study-eligible patients (51.4%) and was associated with stroke severity: 20.9% in NIHSS scores ?5, 34.6% in 6-10, 58.9% in 11-20, and 63.8% in >?20 (p?<?0.001). Nonetheless, the therapeutic benefit of EVT also increased with increasing stroke severity (p for interaction <?0.001): 0.1% in NIHSS ?5, 18.6% in 6-10, 28.7% in 11-20, and 34.3% in >?20. CONCLUSIONS:EVT is more beneficial with increasing stroke severity, although futile reperfusion also increases with higher stroke severity.
Project description:Introduction: Acute stroke care delivered by interdisciplinary teams is time-sensitive. Simulation-based team training is a promising tool to improve team performance in medical operations. It has the potential to improve process times, team communication, patient safety, and staff satisfaction. We aim to assess whether a multi-level approach consisting of a stringent workflow revision based on peer-to-peer review and 2-3 one-day in situ simulation trainings can improve acute stroke care processing times in high volume neurocenters within a 6 months period. Methods and Analysis: The trial is being carried out in a pre-test-post-test design at 7 tertiary care university hospital neurocenters in Germany. The intervention is directed at the interdisciplinary multiprofessional stroke teams. Before and after the intervention, process times of all direct-to-center stroke patients receiving IV thrombolysis (IVT) and/or endovascular therapy (EVT) will be recorded. The primary outcome measure will be the "door-to-needle" time of all consecutive stroke patients directly admitted to the neurocenters who receive IVT. Secondary outcome measures will be intervention-related process times of the fraction of patients undergoing EVT and effects on team communication, perceived patient safety, and staff satisfaction via a staff questionnaire. Interventions: We are applying a multi-level intervention in cooperation with three "STREAM multipliers" from each center. First step is a central meeting of the multipliers at the sponsor's institution with the purposes of algorithm review in a peer-to-peer process that is recorded in a protocol and an introduction to the principles of simulation training and debriefing as well as crew resource management and team communication. Thereafter, the multipliers cooperate with the stroke team trainers from the sponsor's institution to plan and execute 2-3 one-day simulation courses in situ in the emergency department and CT room of the trial centers whereupon they receive teaching materials to perpetuate the trainings. Clinical Trial Registration: STREAM is a registered trial at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03228251.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The efficacy of both intravenous treatment (IVT) and endovascular treatment (EVT) for patients with acute ischaemic stroke strongly declines over time. Only a subset of patients with ischaemic stroke caused by an intracranial large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the anterior circulation can benefit from EVT. Several prehospital stroke scales were developed to identify patients that are likely to have an LVO, which could allow for direct transportation of EVT eligible patients to an endovascular-capable centre without delaying IVT for the other patients. We aim to prospectively validate these prehospital stroke scales simultaneously to assess their accuracy in predicting LVO in the prehospital setting. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Prehospital triage of patients with suspected stroke symptoms (PRESTO) is a prospective multicentre observational cohort study in the southwest of the Netherlands including adult patients with suspected stroke in the ambulance. The paramedic will assess a combination of items from five prehospital stroke scales, without changing the normal workflow. Primary outcome is the clinical diagnosis of an acute ischaemic stroke with an intracranial LVO in the anterior circulation. Additional hospital data concerning the diagnosis and provided treatment will be collected by chart review. Logistic regression analysis will be performed, and performance of the prehospital stroke scales will be expressed as sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operator curve. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The Institutional Review Board of the Erasmus MC University Medical Centre has reviewed the study protocol and confirmed that the Dutch Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO) is not applicable. The findings of this study will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. The best performing scale, or the simplest scale in case of clinical equipoise, will be integrated in a decision model with other clinical characteristics and real-life driving times to improve prehospital triage of suspected stroke patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NTR7595.
Project description:PURPOSE:Clinically successful endovascular therapy (EVT) in ischemic stroke requires reliable noninvasive pretherapeutic selection criteria. We investigated the association of imaging parameters including CT angiographic collaterals and degree of reperfusion with clinical outcome after EVT. METHODS:In our database, we identified 93 patients with large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation treated with EVT. Besides clinical data, we assessed the baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (ASPECTS) on noncontrast CT (NCCT) and CT angiography (CTA) source images, collaterals (CT-CS) and clot burden score (CBS) on CTA and the degree of reperfusion after EVT on angiography. Three readers, blinded to clinical information, evaluated the images in consensus. Data-driven multivariable ordinal regression analysis identified predictors of good outcome after 90 days as measured with the modified Rankin Scale. RESULTS:Successful angiographic reperfusion (OR 26.50; 95%-CI 9.33-83.61) and good collaterals (OR 9.69; 95%-CI 2.28-59.27) were independent predictors of favorable outcome along with female sex (OR 0.35; 95%-CI 0.14-0.85), younger age (OR 0.88; 95%-CI 0.83-0.92) and higher NCCT ASPECTS (OR 2.54; 95%-CI 1.01-6.63). Outcome was best in patients with good collaterals and successful reperfusion, but there was no statistical interaction between collaterals and reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS:CTA-collateral status was the strongest pretherapeutic predictor of favorable outcome in ischemic stroke patients treated with EVT. CTA-collaterals are thus well suited for patient selection in EVT. However, the independent effect of reperfusion on outcome tended to be stronger than that of CTA-collaterals.