Dataset of breath research manuscripts curated using PubMed search strings from 1995-2016.
ABSTRACT: The data contained in this article are PubMed search strings and search string builders used to curate breath research manuscripts published from 1995-2016 and the respective number of articles found that satisfied the search requirements for selected categories. Breath sampling represents a non-invasive technique that has gained usefulness for public health, clinical, diagnostic, and environmental exposure assessment applications over the years. This data article includes search strings that were utilized to retrieve publications through the PubMed database for different breath research-related topics that were related to the analysis of exhaled breath, exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and exhaled breath aerosol (EBA) as well as the analysis of cellular headspace. Manuscripts were curated for topics including EBC, EBA, Direct MS, GC-MS, LC-MS, alcohol, and sensors. A summary of the number of papers published per year for the data retrieved using each of the search strings is also included. These data can be utilized to discern trends in the number of breath research publications in each of the different topics over time. A supplementary Appendix A containing the titles, author lists, journal names, publication dates, PMID numbers, and EntrezUID numbers for each of the journal articles curated using the finalized search strings for the seven breath research-related topics can also be found within this article. The selected manuscripts can be used to explore the impact that breath research has had on expanding the scientific knowledge in each of the investigated topics.
Project description:Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure assessment. By using hydrophobic surface, ice, and droplet scavenging, a simple impaction and condensing based collection method is reported here. Human subjects were recruited to exhale toward the device for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min. The exhaled breath quickly formed into tiny droplets on the hydrophobic surface, which were subsequently scavenged into a 10 µL rolling deionized water droplet. The collected EBC was further analyzed using culturing, DNA stain, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colorimetry (VITEK 2) for bacteria and viruses.Experimental data revealed that bacteria and viruses in EBC can be rapidly collected using the method developed here, with an observed efficiency of 100 µL EBC within 1 min. Culturing, DNA stain, SEM, and qPCR methods all detected high bacterial concentrations up to 7000 CFU/m(3) in exhaled breath, including both viable and dead cells of various types. Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Kocuria variants were found dominant in EBC samples using VITEK 2 system. SEM images revealed that most bacteria in exhaled breath are detected in the size range of 0.5-1.0 µm, which is able to enable them to remain airborne for a longer time, thus presenting a risk for airborne transmission of potential diseases. Using qPCR, influenza A H3N2 viruses were also detected in one EBC sample. Different from other devices restricted solely to condensation, the developed method can be easily achieved both by impaction and condensation in a laboratory and could impact current practice of EBC collection. Nonetheless, the reported work is a proof-of-concept demonstration, and its performance in non-invasive disease diagnosis such as bacterimia and virus infections needs to be further validated including effects of its influencing matrix.
Project description:Background and Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) represents an independent risk factor for cardiovascular, metabolic and neurological events. Polysomnography is the gold-standard for the diagnosis, however is expensive and time-consuming and not suitable for widespread use. Breath analysis is an innovative, non-invasive technique, able to provide clinically relevant information about OSAS. This systematic review was aimed to outline available evidence on the role of exhaled breath analysis in OSAS, taking into account the techniques' level of adherence to the recently proposed technical standards. Materials and Methods: Articles reporting original data on exhaled breath analysis in OSAS were identified through a computerized and manual literature search and screened. Duplicate publications, case reports, case series, conference papers, expert opinions, comments, reviews and meta-analysis were excluded. Results: Fractional exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) is higher in OSAS patients than controls, however its absolute value is within reported normal ranges. FeNO association with AHI is controversial, as well as its change after continuous positive airway pressure (C-PAP) therapy. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is acid in OSAS, cytokines and oxidative stress markers are elevated, they positively correlate with AHI and normalize after treatment. The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by spectrometry or electronic nose is able to discriminate OSAS from healthy controls. The main technical issues regards the dilution of EBC and the lack of external validation in VOCs studies. Conclusions: Exhaled breath analysis has a promising role in the understanding of mechanisms underpinning OSAS and has demonstrated a clinical relevance in identifying individuals affected by the disease, in assessing the response to treatment and, potentially, to monitor patient's adherence to mechanical ventilation. Albeit the majority of the technical standards proposed by the ERS committee have been followed by existing papers, further work is needed to uniform the methodology.
Project description:It is generally believed that influenza outbreak is associated with breath-borne transmission of viruses, however relevant evidence is little for that of respiratory bacterial infections. On another front, point-of-care infection diagnostic methods at the bedside are significantly lacking. Here, we used a newly developed protocol of integrating an exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection device (PKU BioScreen) and Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) to investigate what bacterial pathogens can be directly exhaled out from humans. Exhaled breath condensates were collected from human subjects with respiratory infection symptoms at Peking University 3rd hospital using the BioScreen. The screened bacterial pathogens included Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Stphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma Pneumonia, Chlamydia pneumonia, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results were further compared and validated using throat swabs from the same patients by a PCR method. Here, human bacterial pathogens such as H. influenzae, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA were detected in exhaled breath using the developed protocol that integrates the EBC collection and LAMP. For the patients recruited from the hospital, seven types of pathogens were detected from 36.5% of them, and for the remaining subjects none of those screened bacterial pathogens was detected. Importantly, some super resistant bacteria such as MRSA were detected from the exhaled breath, suggesting that breathing might be also an important bacterial transmission route. Results from throat swabs showed that 36.2% of the subjects were found to be infected with H. influenzae, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. maltophilia, S. aureus and MRSA. For the EBC samples, 33.3% were found to be infected with MRSA, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Depending on the initial pathogen load in the sample, the entire protocol (EBC-LAMP) only takes 20-60 min to complete for a respiratory infection diagnosis. For different detection methods and pathogens, the agreements between the EBC and throat swabs from the same patients were found to range from 35% to 65%. Here, we have detected several bacterial pathogens including MRSA from exhaled breath, and the developed protocol could be very useful for the bedside pathogen screening particularly in remote areas where resources are significantly limited or prohibited.
Project description:The lung microbiota is commonly sampled using relatively invasive bronchoscopic procedures. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection potentially offers a less invasive alternative for lung microbiota sampling. We compared lung microbiota samples retrieved by protected specimen brushings (PSB) and exhaled breath condensate collection. We also sought to assess whether aerosolized antibiotic treatment would influence the lung microbiota and whether this change could be detected in EBC. EBC was collected from 6 conscious sheep and then from the same anesthetized sheep during mechanical ventilation. Following the latter EBC collection, PSB samples were collected from separate sites within each sheep lung. On the subsequent day, each sheep was then treated with nebulized colistimethate sodium. Two days after nebulization, EBC and PSB samples were again collected. Bacterial DNA was quantified using 16S rRNA gene quantitative PCR. The V2-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. Quality control and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) clustering were performed with mothur. The EBC samples contained significantly less bacterial DNA than the PSB samples. The EBC samples from anesthetized animals clustered separately by their bacterial community compositions in comparison to the PSB samples, and 37 bacterial OTUs were identified as differentially abundant between the two sample types. Despite only low concentrations of colistin being detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, PSB samples were found to differ by their bacterial compositions before and after colistimethate sodium treatment. Our findings indicate that microbiota in EBC samples and PSB samples are not equivalent.IMPORTANCE Sampling of the lung microbiota usually necessitates performing bronchoscopic procedures that involve a hospital visit for human participants and the use of trained staff. The inconvenience and perceived discomfort of participating in this kind of research may deter healthy volunteers and may not be a safe option for patients with advanced lung disease. This study set out to evaluate a less invasive method for collecting lung microbiota samples by comparing samples taken via protected specimen brushings (PSB) to those taken via exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection. We found that there was less bacterial DNA in EBC samples compared with that in PSB samples and that there were differences between the bacterial communities in the two sample types. We conclude that while EBC and PSB samples do not produce equivalent microbiota samples, the study of the EBC microbiota may still be of interest.
Project description:Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH is 2 log orders below normal during acute asthma exacerbations and returns to normal with antiinflammatory therapy. However, the determinants of EBC pH, particularly in stable asthma, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that patients with severe asthma would have low EBC pH and that there would be an asthma subpopulation of patients with characteristically low values.We studied the association of EBC pH with clinical characteristics in 572 stable subjects enrolled in the Severe Asthma Research Program. These included 250 subjects with severe asthma, 291 with nonsevere asthma, and 31 healthy control subjects.Overall, EBC in this population of stable, treated study subjects was not lower in severe asthma (8.02; interquartile range [IQR], 7.61-8.41) or nonsevere asthma (7.90; IQR, 7.52-8.20) than in control subjects (7.9; IQR, 7.40-8.20). However, in subjects with asthma the data clustered below and above pH 6.5. Subjects in the subpopulation with pH < 6.5 had lower fraction of exhaled NO (FeNO) values (FeNO = 22.6 ± 18.1 parts per billion) than those with pH ? 6.5 (39.9 ± 40.2 parts per billion; P < .0001). By multiple linear regression, low EBC pH was associated with high BMI, high BAL neutrophil counts, low prebronchodilator FEV(1) ratio, high allergy symptoms, race other than white, and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms.Asthma is a complex syndrome. Subjects who are not experiencing an exacerbation but have low EBC pH appear to be a unique subpopulation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) sampling has been considered an inventive and novel method for the isolation of respiratory viruses. METHODS: In our study, 102 volunteers experiencing upper airway infection were recruited over the winter and early spring of 2008/2009 and the first half of the winter of 2009/2010. Ninety-nine EBCs were successfully obtained and screened for 14 commonly circulating respiratory viruses. To investigate the efficiency of virus isolation from EBC, a nasal swab was taken in parallel from a subset of volunteers. The combined use of the ECoVent device with the RTube™ allowed the registration of the exhaled volume and breathing frequency during collection. In this way, the number of exhaled viral particles per liter air or per minute can theoretically be estimated. RESULTS: Viral screening resulted in the detection of 4 different viruses in EBC and/or nasal swabs: Rhinovirus, Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus B, Influenza A and Influenza B. Rhinovirus was detected in 6 EBCs and 1 EBC was Influenza B positive. We report a viral detection rate of 7% for the EBCs, which is much lower than the detection rate of 46.8% observed using nasal swabs. CONCLUSION: Although very promising, EBC collection using the RTube™ is not reliable for diagnosis of respiratory infections.
Project description:Although exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH has been identified as an "emerging" biomarker of interest for asthma clinical trials, the clinical determinants of EBC pH remain poorly understood. Other studies have associated acid reflux-induced respiratory symptoms, for example, cough, with transient acidification of EBC.We sought to determine the clinical and physiologic correlates of EBC acidification in a highly characterized sample of children with poorly controlled asthma. We hypothesized that (1) children with asymptomatic gastroesophageal reflux determined by 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring would have a lower EBC pH than children without gastroesophageal reflux, (2) treatment with lansoprazole would alter EBC pH in those children, and (3) EBC acidification would be associated with increased asthma symptoms, poorer asthma control and quality of life, and increased formation of breath nitrogen oxides (NOx).A total of 110 children, age range 6 to 17 years, with poor asthma control and esophageal pH data enrolled in the Study of Acid Reflux in Children with Asthma (NCT00442013) were included. Children submitted EBC samples for pH and NOx measurement at randomization and at study weeks 8, 16, and 24.Serial EBC pH measurements failed to distinguish asymptomatic gastroesophageal reflux and was not associated with breath NOx formation. EBC pH also did not discriminate asthma characteristics such as medication and health care utilization, pulmonary function, and asthma control and quality of life both at baseline and across the study period.Despite the relative ease of EBC collection, EBC pH as a biomarker does not provide useful information of children with asthma who were enrolled in asthma clinical trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The nitric oxide (NO) pathway is involved in asthma, and eosinophils participate in the regulation of the NO pool in pulmonary tissues. We investigated associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NO synthase genes (NOS) and biological NO-related phenotypes measured in two compartments (exhaled breath condensate and plasma) and blood eosinophil counts. METHODOLOGY: SNPs (N = 121) belonging to NOS1, NOS2 and NOS3 genes were genotyped in 1277 adults from the French Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA). Association analyses were conducted on four quantitative phenotypes: the exhaled fraction of NO (Fe(NO)), plasma and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) nitrite-nitrate levels (NO2-NO3) and blood eosinophils in asthmatics and non-asthmatics separately. Genetic heterogeneity of these phenotypes between asthmatics and non-asthmatics was also investigated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In non-asthmatics, after correction for multiple comparisons, we found significant associations of Fe(NO) levels with three SNPs in NOS3 and NOS2 (P ? 0.002), and of EBC NO2-NO3 level with NOS2 (P = 0.002). In asthmatics, a single significant association was detected between Fe(NO) levels and one SNP in NOS3 (P = 0.004). Moreover, there was significant heterogeneity of NOS3 SNP effect on Fe(NO) between asthmatics and non-asthmatics (P = 0.0002 to 0.005). No significant association was found between any SNP and NO2-NO3 plasma levels or blood eosinophil counts. CONCLUSIONS: Variants in NO synthase genes influence Fe(NO) and EBC NO2-NO3 levels in adults. These genetic determinants differ according to asthma status. Significant associations were only detected for exhaled phenotypes, highlighting the critical relevance to have access to specific phenotypes measured in relevant biological fluid.
Project description:Introduction. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive method to collect samples from the respiratory tract. Usually, a thermoelectric cooling module is required to collect sufficient EBC volume for analyses. In here, we assessed the feasibility of cytokine and chemokine detection in EBC collected directly from the ventilator circuit without the use of a cooling module: swivel-derived exhaled breath condensate (SEBC). Methods:SEBC was prospectively collected from the swivel adapter and stored at -80°C. The objective of this study was to detect cytokines and chemokines in SEBC with a multiplex immunoassay. Secondary outcomes were to assess the correlation between cytokine and chemokine concentrations in SEBC and mechanical ventilation parameters, systemic inflammation parameters, and hemodynamic parameters. Results:Twenty-nine SEBC samples were obtained from 13 ICU patients. IL-1?, IL-4, IL-8, and IL-17 were detected in more than 90% of SEBC samples, and significant correlations between multiple cytokines and chemokines were found. Several significant correlations were found between cytokines and chemokines in SEBC and mechanical ventilation parameters and serum lactate concentrations. Conclusion:This pilot study showed that it is feasible to detect cytokines and chemokines in SEBC samples obtained without a cooling module. Despite small sample size, correlations were found between cytokines and chemokines in SEBC and mechanical ventilation parameters, as well as serum lactate concentrations. This simple SEBC collection method provides the opportunity to collect EBC samples in large prospective ICU cohorts.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Leukotriene (LT) B4 concentrations are increased and prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations are decreased in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A study was undertaken to investigate the short term effects of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibition on exhaled LTB4 and PGE2 concentrations in patients with COPD and to identify the COX isoform responsible for exhaled PGE2 production. METHODS: Two studies were performed. A double blind, crossover, randomised, placebo controlled study with ibuprofen (400 mg qid for 2 days), a non-selective COX inhibitor, was undertaken in 14 patients with stable COPD, and an open label study with oral rofecoxib (25 mg once a day for 5 days), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, was undertaken in a different group of 16 COPD patients. EBC was collected before and after drug treatment. Exhaled LTB4 and PGE2 concentrations were measured with specific immunoassays. RESULTS: All patients complied with treatment as indicated by a reduction in ex vivo serum thromboxane B2 concentrations (ibuprofen) and a reduction in lipopolysaccharide induced increase in ex vivo plasma PGE2 values (rofecoxib) of more than 80%. Exhaled LTB4 was increased after ibuprofen (median 175.5 (interquartile range 128.8-231.5) pg/ml v 84.0 (70.0-98.5) pg/ml, p < 0.001) and exhaled PGE2 was reduced (93.5 (84.0-105-5) pg/ml v 22.0 (15.0-25.5) pg/ml, p < 0.0001). Rofecoxib had no effect on exhaled LTB4 (p = 0.53) or PGE2 (p = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS: Non-selective COX inhibition decreases PGE2 and increases LTB4 in EBC, whereas selective COX-2 inhibition has no effect on these eicosanoids. PGE2 in EBC is primarily derived from COX-1 activity, and COX inhibition may redirect arachidonic acid metabolism towards the 5-lipoxygenase pathway.