Study of the association of 17 lipid-related gene polymorphisms with coronary heart disease.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Blood lipids are well-known risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of this study was to explore the association between 17 lipid-related gene polymorphisms and CHD. METHODS:The current study examined with 784 CHD cases and 739 non-CHD controls. Genotyping was performed on the MassARRAY iPLEX® assay platform. RESULTS:Our analyses revealed a significant association of APOE rs7259620 with CHD (genotype: ?2=6.353, df=2, p=0.042; allele: ?2=5.05, df=1, p=0.025; recessive model: ?2=5.57, df=1, p=0.018). A further gender-based subgroup analysis revealed significant associations of APOE rs7259620 and PPAP2B rs72664392 with CHD in males (genotype: ?2=8.379, df=2, p=0.015; allele: ?2=5.190, df=1, p=0.023; recessive model: ?2=19.3, df=1, p<0.0001) and females (genotype: ?2=9.878, df=2, p=0.007), respectively. Subsequent breakdown analysis by age showed that CETP rs4783961, MLXIPL rs35493868, and PON2 rs12704796 were significantly associated with CHD among individuals younger than 55 years of age (CETP rs4783961: ?2=8.966, df=1, p=0.011 by genotype; MLXIPL rs35493868: ?2=4.87, df=1, p=0.027 by allele; ?2=4.88, df=1, p=0.027 by dominant model; PON2 rs12704796: ?2=6.511, df=2, p=0.039 by genotype; ?2=6.210, df=1, p=0.013 by allele; ?2=5.03, df=1, p=0.025 by dominant model). Significant allelic association was observed between LEPR rs656451 and CHD among individuals older than 65 years of age (?2=4.410, df=1, p=0.036). CONCLUSION:Our study revealed significant associations of APOE, PPAP2B, CETP, MLXIPL, PON2, and LEPR gene polymorphisms with CHD among the Han Chinese.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tissue concentrations of fatty acids (FAs) and genetic variations are well-known factors which affect the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective was to examine whether the genetic variability of 20 candidate genes and red blood cells (RBCs) percentage of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), a biomarker of dietary n-3 PUFA intake, modulate lipid related CVD risk factors in the Inuit population. METHODS:Data from the Qanuippitaa Nunavik Health Survey (n?=?553) were analysed via multivariate regression models with 40 known polymorphisms, RBCs percentage of n-3 PUFA, and the interaction term to take into account the effect on plasma lipid and apolipoporotein levels. RESULTS:Individuals being heterozygotes for CETP C-4502T (rs183130) or G-971A (rs4783961) together with higher n-3 PUFA had lower triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations compared to homozygotes for the minor allele. Further, effects of a stronger beneficial association between n-3 PUFA in RBCs and plasma lipid parameters- including lower total cholesterol (TC), lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations- were associated with AGT M235T (rs699) TT genotype, CETP G-971A (rs4783961) AG genotype, T allele carriers of CETP C-4502T (rs183130), and T allele carriers of CETP Ile405Val (rs5882). In contrast, higher n-3 PUFA in RBCs were associated with adverse lipid profiles- including increased LDL-C, increased apolipoprotein B100 or decreased HDL-C concentrations- in G allele carriers of the APOA5 -3 A/G (rs651821), C allele carriers of APOA5 T-1131C (rs662799), G carriers of APOC3 SstI (rs5128) and G carriers of APOA4 Asn147Ser (rs5104). CONCLUSION:Overall, these results suggest that percentage of total n-3 PUFA of RBCs are associated with lipids related CVD risk factors conferred by genetic variations in the Inuit population.
Project description:Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) plays an important role in lipid metabolism. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated CETP gene variants to assess the risk of T2D and specific complications of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and diabetic retinopathy. Towards this, a total of 3023 Taiwanese individuals (1383 without T2D, 1640 with T2D) were enrolled in this study. T2D mice (+Leprdb/+Leprdb, db/db) were used to determine CETP expression in tissues. The A-alleles of rs3764261, rs4783961, and rs1800775 variants were found to be independently associated with 2.86, 1.71, and 0.91 mg/dL increase in HDL-C per allele, respectively. In addition, the A-allele of rs4783961 was significantly associated with a reduced T2D risk (odds ratio (OR), 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.71?0.96)), and the A-allele of rs1800775 was significantly related to a lowered DKD risk (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64?0.96). CETP expression was significantly decreased in the T2D mice kidney compared to that in the control mice (T2D mice, 0.16 0.01 vs. control mice, 0.21 0.02; p = 0.02). These collective findings indicate that CETP variants in the promoter region may affect HDL-C levels. Taiwanese individuals possessing an allele associated with higher HDL-C levels had a lower risk of T2D and DKD.
Project description:The goal of our study was to explore the significant association between a non-protein coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4977574 of CDKN2BAS gene and coronary heart disease (CHD). A total of 590 CHD cases and 482 non-CHD controls were involved in the present association study. A strong association of rs4977574 with CHD was observed in females (genotype: p=0.002; allele: p=0.002, odd ratio (OR)=1.57, 95% confidential interval (CI)=1.18-2.08). Moreover, rs4977574 was more likely to be a risk variant of CHD under the recessive model in females (?2=10.29, p=0.003, OR=2.14, 95% CI=1.31-2.77). A breakdown analysis by age had shown that there was an 87% increased risk of CHD for females younger than 65 years (genotype: ?2=14.64, degrees of freedom (df)=2, p=0.0002; allele: ?2=11.31, df=1, p=0.0008, OR=1.87, 95% CI=1.30-2.70). Similar observation was also found in males younger than 65 years (genotype: ?2=8.63, df=2, p=0.04; allele: ?2=7.55, df=1, p=0.006, OR=1.45, 95% CI=1.11-1.90). p values were adjusted by age, sex, smoking, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Meta-analysis of 23 studies among 36,452 cases and 39,781 controls showed a strong association between rs4977574 and the risk of CHD (p<0.0001, OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.22-1.31).
Project description:Little is known about gender-related differences in the association between PPAP2B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in Chinese Han males and females. We therefore conducted a case-control study with 456 cases and 685 healthy controls divided into male and female subgroups. Five PPAP2B polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected and genotyped using Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age and gender. Allelic model analysis revealed that for PPAP2B rs1759752, allele frequency distributions differed between cases and controls in the male subgroup (p = 0.015, OR: 1.401, 95%CI: 1.066-1.481). Genetic model analysis revealed that in the male subgroup, rs1759752 was associated with increased CHD risk in the dominant model (p = 0.035) and overdominant model (p = 0.045). In the female subgroup, rs12566304 was associated with a decreased CHD risk in the codominant model (p = 0.038) and overdominant model (p = 0.031). Additionally, the "GC" haplotypes of rs1759752 and rs1930760 were protective against CHD in males. These observations shed new light on gender-related differences in the association between PPAP2B gene polymorphisms and CHD susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.
Project description:Westaway et al. have revealed a significant association between common variants of calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2) and nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal) adaptor protein (NOS1AP) and the risk of sudden death in patients of coronary heart disease (CHD). In light of the findings, we aim to explore the association between variants of the two genes and CHD risk in Han Chinese. Our results show a significant contribution of rs10918859 of the NOS1AP gene to CHD in Han Chinese (genotype: ?(2)=8.33, df=2, p=0.015; allele: ?(2)=4.00, df=1, p=0.047, odds ratio [OR]=1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00-2.05). The association of rs10918859 with CHD is seen only in men (genotype: ?(2)=7.81, df=2, p=0.02; allele: ?(2)=4.49, df=1, p=0.03, OR=1.66, 95% CI=1.03-2.66). Moreover, rs10918859 is likely to exert its effect under a dominant model in men (?(2)=7.6, df=1, p=0.005, OR=2.46, 95% CI=1.29-4.71). No association is observed between CASQ2 variants and CHD risk. The frequencies of rs12084280-C and rs10918859-A are higher in Han Chinese (36.7% and 41.6%) than those in Europeans (11% and 19.4%, respectively). These ethnic differences imply that further validation of NOS1AP in the susceptibility of CHD in other populations is warranted. We confirm that rs10918859 of the NOS1AP gene is associated with CHD in Han Chinese. In addition, here we report a gender effect in the association between rs10918859 of the NOS1AP gene and CHD.
Project description:The role of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is well studied but still controversial. More recently, genome-wide association studies and meta-analyses reported the association of a promoter variant (rs3764261) with HDL-C in Caucasians and other ethnic groups. In this study, we have examined the role of genetic variation in the promoter region of CETP with HDL-C, CETP activity, coronary artery disease (CAD), CAD risk factors, and the interaction of genetic factors with environment in a unique diabetic cohort of Asian Indian Sikhs.We genotyped four variants; three tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms from promoter (rs3764261, rs12447924, rs4783961) and one intronic variant (rs708272 Taq1B) on 2431 individuals from the Sikh Diabetes study. Two variants (rs3764261 and rs708272) exhibited a strong association with HDL-C in both normoglycemic controls (?=0.12; P=9.35×10 for rs3764261; ?=0.10, P=0.002 for rs708272) and diabetic cases (?=0.07, P=0.016 for rs3764261; ?=0.08, P=0.005 for rs708272) with increased levels among minor homozygous 'AA' carriers. In addition, the same 'A' allele carriers in rs3764261 showed a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (?=-0.08, P=0.002) in normoglycemic controls. Haplotype analysis of rs3764261, rs12447924, rs4783961, and rs708272 further revealed a significant association of 'ATAA' haplotype with an increased HDL-C (?=2.71, P=6.38×10) and 'CTAG' haplotype with decreased HDL-C levels (?=-1.78, P=2.5×10). Although there was no direct association of CETP activity and CETP polymorphisms, low CETP activity was associated with an increased risk to CAD (age, BMI, and sex-adjusted odds ratio=2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-3.4; P=0.001) in this study. Our data revealed a strong interaction of rs3764261 and rs708272 for affecting the association between CETP activity and HDL-C levels (P=2.2×10 and P=4.4×10, respectively).Our results, in conjunction with earlier reports confirm low CETP activity to be associated with higher CAD risk. Although there was no direct association of CETP activity with CETP polymorphisms, our findings revealed a significant interaction between CETP variants and CETP activity for affecting HDL-C levels. These results urge a deeper evaluation of the individual genetic variation in the CETP before implementing pharmaceutical intervention of blocking CETP for preventing CAD events.
Project description:Relationship loci (rQTL) exist when the correlation between multiple traits varies by genotype. rQTL often occur due to gene-by-gene (G × G) or gene-by-environmental interactions, making them a powerful tool for detecting G × G. Here we present an empirical analysis of apolipoprotein E (APOE) with respect to lipid traits and incident CHD leading to the discovery of loci that interact with APOE to affect these traits. We found that the relationship between total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (ln TG) varies by APOE isoform genotype in African-American (AA) and European-American (EA) populations. The e2 allele is associated with strong correlation between ln TG and TC while the e4 allele leads to little or no correlation. This led to a priori hypotheses that APOE genotypes affect the relationship of TC and/or ln TG with incident CHD. We found that APOE*TC was significant (P = 0.016) for AA but not EA while APOE*ln TG was significant for EA (P = 0.027) but not AA. In both cases, e2e2 and e2e3 had strong relationships between TC and ln TG with CHD while e2e4 and e4e4 results in little or no relationship between TC and ln TG with CHD. Using ARIC GWAS data, scans for loci that significantly interact with APOE produced four loci for African Americans (one CHD, one TC, and two HDL). These interactions contribute to the rQTL pattern. rQTL are a powerful tool to identify loci that modify the relationship between risk factors and disease and substantially increase statistical power for detecting G × G.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Little is currently known about the impact of congenital heart disease (CHD) on the organization of large-scale brain networks in relation to neurobehavioral outcome. We investigated whether CHD might impact ADHD symptoms via changes in brain structural network topology in a cohort of adolescents with d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) repaired with the arterial switch operation in early infancy and referent subjects. We also explored whether these effects might be modified by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, as the APOE ?2 allele has been associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes after repair of d-TGA in infancy. METHODS:We applied graph analysis techniques to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data obtained from 47 d-TGA adolescents and 29 healthy referents to construct measures of structural topology at the global and regional levels. We developed statistical mediation models revealing the respective contributions of d-TGA, APOE genotype, and structural network topology on ADHD outcome as measured by the Connors ADHD/DSM-IV Scales (CADS). RESULTS:Changes in overall network connectivity, integration, and segregation mediated worse ADHD outcomes in d-TGA patients compared to healthy referents; these changes were predominantly in the left and right intrahemispheric regional subnetworks. Exploratory analysis revealed that network topology also mediated detrimental effects of the APOE ?4 allele but improved neurobehavioral outcomes for the APOE ?2 allele. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that disruption of organization of large-scale networks may contribute to neurobehavioral dysfunction in adolescents with CHD and that this effect may interact with APOE genotype.
Project description:In this study, we investigated 102 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the common genetic variation in 16 genes recurrently regarded as candidates for human longevity: APOE; ACE; CETP; HFE; IL6; IL6R; MTHFR; TGFB1; APOA4; APOC3; SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. In a case-control study of 1,089 oldest-old (ages 92-93) and 736 middle-aged Danes, the minor allele frequency (MAF) of rs769449 (APOE) was significantly decreased in the oldest-old, while the MAF of rs9923854 (CETP) was significantly enriched. These effects were supported when investigating 1,613 oldest-old (ages 95-110) and 1,104 middle-aged Germans. rs769449 was in modest linkage equilibrium (R (2)=0.55) with rs429358 of the APOE-?4 haplotype and adjusting for rs429358 eliminated the association of rs769449, indicating that the association likely reflects the well-known effect of rs429358. Gene-based analysis confirmed the effects of variation in APOE and CETP and furthermore pointed to HSPA14 as a longevity gene. In a longitudinal study with 11 years of follow-up on survival in the oldest-old Danes, only one SNP, rs2069827 (IL6), was borderline significantly associated with survival from age 92 (P-corrected=0.064). This advantageous effect of the minor allele was supported when investigating a Dutch longitudinal cohort (N=563) of oldest-old (age 85+). Since rs2069827 was located in a putative transcription factor binding site, quantitative RNA expression studies were conducted. However, no difference in IL6 expression was observed between rs2069827 genotype groups. In conclusion, we here support and expand the evidence suggesting that genetic variation in APOE, CETP, and IL6, and possible HSPA14, is associated with human longevity.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). This study explored the association between CHD and the APOA5 rs662799 polymorphism.<h4>Methods</h4>We collected 1,521 samples (783 CHD patients and 738 controls) for this case-control study. Meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager Software and Stata Software.<h4>Results</h4>Significant differences were observed between CHD cases and controls at the level of both genotype (?2 = 8.964, df = 2, P = 0.011) and allele (?2 = 9.180, df = 1, P = 0.002, OR = 1.275, 95% CI = 1.089-1.492). A breakdown analysis by gender showed a significant association of APOA5 rs662799 with CHD in males (?2 = 7.770, df = 1, P = 0.005; OR = 1.331, 95% CI = 1.088-1.628). An additional meta-analysis using 21378 cases and 28428 controls established that rs662799 is significantly associated with CHD (P < 0.00001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Both our case-control study and meta-analysis confirm a significant association between APOA5 rs662799 and CHD. In addition, our results suggest a male-specific association between the APOA5 rs662799 polymorphism and CHD.