[Methodology of Establishing and Identifying NCI-H2228/Crizotinib-resistant Cell Lines In Vitro].
ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of small molecule targeting drug resistance and ways to overcome resistance are now both urgent need to improve the clinical efficacy. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using different methods to establish the crizotinib-resistant non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H2228/Crizotinib cell lines and to clarify the mechanisms of resistance to small molecule targeting drug, thus providing experimental and theoretical bases for further studies to overcome the mechanisms of Crizotinib resistance.The study utilized stepwise increase of drug concentrations and chemical mutagen to induce Crizotinib-resistant NCI-H2228 cells. The drug 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of parental and resistant cells and the population doubling time were determined by MTT assay. The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blot. Full-length sequencing method was used to compare the EML4-ALK genes in the parent and drug-resistant cells and analyze the mechanisms of drug resistance.The method of gradually increasing drug concentration to induce Crizotinib-resistant NCI-H2228 cells was time-consuming because the cell growth recovery was extremely slow. Thus, this method was considered invalid. However, chemical mutagen ENU can effectively induce NCI-H2228 cells resistant to crizotinib in a short time [IC50]= (3.810±1.100) ?mol/L, P=0.002,9 vs parental cells]. Furthermore, the gene mutation frequency of EML4-ALK in the resistant cells was significantly higher than that in the parent cells.Chemical mutagen-induced cell resistance was easily operated and had effectively shortened the experimental process. Preliminary technical methods and experimental evidence for in-depth study of drug resistance mechanisms and approaches to overcome the targeted drug resistance were also provided.?.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with reduced sensitivity to many chemotherapeutic drugs, including EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here, we investigated if this reduced sensitivity also contributes to resistance to crizotinib, an ALK inhibitor of lung cancer that exhibits the EML4-ALK translocation. We established a crizotinib-resistant subline (H2228/CR), which was derived from the parental H2228 cell line by long-term exposure to increasing concentrations of crizotinib. Characteristics associated with EMT, including morphology, EMT marker proteins, and cellular mobility, were analyzed. Compared with H2228 cells, the growth of H2228/CR cells was independent of EML4-ALK, and H2228/CR cells showed cross-resistance to TAE-684 (a second-generation ALK inhibitor). Phenotypic changes to the spindle-cell shape were noted in H2228/CR cells, which were accompanied by a decrease in E-cadherin and increase in vimentin and AXL. In addition, H2228/CR cells showed increased secretion and expression of TGF-?1. Invasion and migration capabilities were dramatically increased in H2228/CR cells. Applying TGF-?1 treatment to parental H2228 cells for 72 h induced reversible EMT, leading to crizotinib resistance, but this was reversed by the removal of TGF-?1. Suppression of vimentin in H2228/CR cells by siRNA treatment restored sensitivity to crizotinib. Furthermore, these resistant cells remained highly sensitive to the Hsp90 inhibitors, similar to the parental H2228 cells. In conclusion, we suggest EMT is possibly involved in acquired resistance to crizotinib, and that HSP90 inhibitors could be a promising option for the treatment of EMT.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study is to elucidate the mechanisms of acquired resistance to pemetrexed in echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearranged non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS:We analyzed the sensitivity to pemetrexed and the expression patterns of various proteins after pemetrexed treatment in the cell lines, A549, NCI-H460, NCI-H2228 harboring EML4-ALK variant 3, and NCI-H3122 harboring EML4-ALK variant 1. Pemetrexed-resistant cell lines were also generated through long-term exposure to pemetrexed. RESULTS:The EML4-ALK variant 1 rearranged NCI-H3122 was found to be more sensitive than the other cell lines. Cell cycle analysis after pemetrexed treatment showed that the fraction of cells in the S phase increased in A549, NCI-H460, and NCI-H2228, whereas the fraction in the apoptotic sub-G1 phase increased in NCI-H3122. The pemetrexed-resistant NCI-H3122 cell line showed increased expression of EGFR and HER2 compared to the parent cell line, whereas A549 and NCI-H460 did not show this change. The pan-HER inhibitor afatinib inhibited this alternative signaling pathway, resulting in a superior cytotoxic effect in pemetrexed-resistant NCI-H3122 cell lines compared to that in the parental cells line. CONCLUSION:The activation of EGFR-HER2 contributes to the acquisition of resistance to pemetrexed in EML4-ALK rearranged non-small cell lung cancer. However, the inhibition of this alternative survival signaling pathway with RNAi against EGFR-HER2 and with afatinib overcomes this resistance.
Project description:The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene represents a molecular target in a small subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This fusion leads to constitutive ALK activation with potent transforming activity. In a pivotal phase 1 clinical trial, the ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib (PF-02341066) demonstrated impressive antitumor activity in the majority of patients with NSCLC harboring ALK fusions. However, despite these remarkable initial responses, cancers eventually develop resistance to crizotinib, usually within 1 y, thereby limiting the potential clinical benefit. To determine how cancers acquire resistance to ALK inhibitors, we established a model of acquired resistance to crizotinib by exposing a highly sensitive EML4-ALK-positive NSCLC cell line to increasing doses of crizotinib until resistance emerged. We found that cells resistant to intermediate doses of crizotinib developed amplification of the EML4-ALK gene. Cells resistant to higher doses (1 ?M) also developed a gatekeeper mutation, L1196M, within the kinase domain, rendering EML4-ALK insensitive to crizotinib. This gatekeeper mutation was readily detected using a unique and highly sensitive allele-specific PCR assay. Although crizotinib was ineffectual against EML4-ALK harboring the gatekeeper mutation, we observed that two structurally different ALK inhibitors, NVP-TAE684 and AP26113, were highly active against the resistant cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, these resistant cells remained highly sensitive to the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG. Thus, we have developed a model of acquired resistance to ALK inhibitors and have shown that second-generation ALK TKIs or Hsp90 inhibitors are effective in treating crizotinib-resistant tumors harboring secondary gatekeeper mutations.
Project description:Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare aggresive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, of which over 50% of cases have an aberrant nucleophosmin (NPM)?anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion protein. Both mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus and ALK inhibitor crizotinib have shown promising antitumor activity in ALK-positive cancer cell lines. However, their combined effect has not yet been investigated.We evaluated the anti-proliferative effects of everolimus and/or crizotinib in ALK-positive ALCL cell lines, Karpas 299 and SU-DHL-1, and lung adenocarcinoma cell line, NCI-H2228.We found that individually, both everolimus and crizotinib potently inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner in both Karpas 299 and SU-DHL-1 cells. A combination of these agents synergistically inhibited proliferation in the two cell lines. Crizotinib down-regulated aberrant AKT and ERK phosphorylation induced by everolimus. Combination treatment also significantly increased G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest, DNA damage, and apoptosis compared with everolimus or crizotinib alone in ALK-positive ALCL cells. In the Karpas 299 xenograft model, the combination treatment exerted a stronger antitumor effect than monotherapies, without significant change in body weight. The synergistic effect of everolimus and crizotinib was also reproduced in the ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma cell line NCI-H2228. The combination treatment abrogated phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and mTOR signaling pathways with little effect on the Ras/ERK pathway in NCI-H2228 cells.Crizotinib combinedwith everolimus synergistically inhibits proliferation of ALK-positive ALCL cells. Our results suggest that this novel combination is worthy of further clinical development in patients with ALK-positive ALCL.
Project description:Programmed cell death (PD)-1/PD-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1)-targeted therapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for lung cancer. However, whether EML4-ALK regulates PD-L1 expression in lung cancer remains unknown. A total of 532 pulmonary adenocarcinomas (pADCs), including 58 ALK-translocated tumors, were immunohistochemically evaluated for PD-L1 and PD-1. H23 (EGFRWild-typeEML4-ALK-PD-L1Low) and H2228 (EGFRWild-typeEML4-ALK+PD-L1High) cells were transfected with EML4-ALK or ALK short interfering RNAs and used to investigate the alterations in PD-L1 expression. PD-L1 expression was detected in 81% of ALK-translocated pADCs; this value was significantly higher than those of pADCs with EGFR mutation, KRAS mutation or lacking ALK, EGFR or KRAS mutation (p <0.005 for all). Moreover, ALK-translocated pADC with PD-L1 expression showed significantly higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating PD-1+ cells. ALK knockdown or inhibition (crizotinib treatment) in H2228 cells downregulated PD-L1 expression. Transfection of H23 cells with EML4-ALK enhanced PD-L1 expression, which was compromised by crizotinib treatment. This ALK-dependent upregulation of PD-L1 expression was mediated by STAT3 and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? under normoxia and hypoxia. Furthermore, EML4-ALK enhanced HIF-1? expression through increasing transcription and decreasing ubiquitination of HIF-1?. In ALK-translocated pADC tissues, significant positive correlations between PD-L1 and nuclear HIF-1? (p < 0.05) or pSTAT3 expression levels (p<0.005) were observed. Among patients with ALK-translocated pADC, strong PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with shorter progression-free (p = 0.001) and overall survival (p = 0.002) after crizotinib treatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that ALK-derived pADCs increase PD-L1 expression via HIF-1? and/or STAT3, thus providing a rationale for PD-1/PD-L1 pathway-targeted therapy in ALK-translocated lung cancer.
Project description:The fusion between anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) is a causative factor in a unique subset of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Although the inhibitor crizotinib, as it blocks the kinase activity of the resulting EML4-ALK fusion protein, displays remarkable initial responses, a fraction of NSCLC cases eventually become resistant to crizotinib by acquiring mutations in the ALK domain or activating bypass pathways via EGFR, KIT, or KRAS. Cancer stem cell (CSC) theory provides a plausible explanation for acquisition of tumorigenesis and resistance. However, the question as to whether EML4-ALK-driven tumorigenesis is linked with the stem-like property and whether the stemness is an effective target in controlling EML4-ALK+ NSCLC including crizotinib-resistant NSCLC cells has not been addressed. Here, we report that stem-like properties stem from ALK activity in EML4-ALK+ NSCLC cells. Notably, treatment with rapamycin, a CSC targeting agent, attenuates stem-like phenotypes of the EML4-ALK+ cells, which increased capability of tumor formation and higher expression of stemness-associated molecules such as ALDH, NANOG, and OCT4. Importantly, combinational treatment with rapamycin and crizotinib leads to synergistic anti-tumor effects on EML4-ALK+ NSCLC cells as well as on those resistant to crizotinib. Thus, we provide a proof of principle that targeting stemness would be a novel strategy to control intractable EML4-ALK+ NSCLC.
Project description:Despite the impressive efficacy of crizotinib for the treatment of ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer, patients invariably develop therapeutic resistance. Suppression of the IGF-1R signaling pathway may abrogate this acquired mechanism of drug resistance to crizotinib. Metformin, a widely used antidiabetic agent, may reverse crizotinib resistance through inhibition of IGF-1R signaling.The present study revealed that metformin effectively increased the sensitivity of both crizotinib-sensitive and -resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells to crizotinib, as evidenced by decreased proliferation and invasion and enhanced apoptosis. Metformin reduced IGF-1R signaling activation in crizotinib-resistant cells. Furthermore, the addition of IGF-1 to crizotinib-sensitive H2228 cells induced crizotinib resistance, which was overcome by metformin.The effects of metformin to reverse crizotinib resistance were examined in vitro by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT), invasion assay, ki67 incorporation assay, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot analysis, and colony-forming assay.Metformin may be used in combination with crizotinib in ALK+ NSCLC patients to overcome crizotinib resistance and prolong survival.
Project description:Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been recognised as a promising molecular target of targeted therapy for NSCLC. We performed SAR study of pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines to override crizotinib resistance caused by ALK-L1196M mutation and identified a novel and potent L1196M inhibitor, 10g. 10g displayed exceptional enzymatic activities (<0.5?nM of IC50) against ALK-L1196M as well as against ALK-wt. In addition, 10g is an extremely potent inhibitor of ROS1 (<0.5?nM of IC50) and displays excellent selectivity over c-Met. Moreover, 10g strongly suppresses proliferation of ALK-L1196M-Ba/F3 and H2228 cells harbouring EML4-ALK via apoptosis and the ALK signalling blockade. The results of molecular docking studies reveal that, in contrast to crizotinib, 10g engages in a favourable interaction with M1196 in the kinase domain of ALK-L1196M and hydrogen bonding with K1150 and E1210. This SAR study has provided a useful insight into the design of novel and potent inhibitors against ALK gatekeeper mutant.
Project description:Crizotinib, a first-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is known to be effective against echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancers. Nonetheless, the tumors subsequently become resistant to crizotinib and recur in almost every case. The mechanism of the acquired resistance needs to be deciphered. In this study, we established crizotinib-resistant cells (A925LPE3-CR) via long-term administration of crizotinib to a mouse model of pleural carcinomatous effusions; this model involved implantation of the A925LPE3 cell line, which harbors the EML4-ALK gene rearrangement. The resistant cells did not have the secondary ALK mutations frequently occurring in crizotinib-resistant cells, and these cells were cross-resistant to alectinib and ceritinib as well. In cell clone #2, which is one of the clones of A925LPE3-CR, crizotinib sensitivity was restored via the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by means of an EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (erlotinib) or an anti-EGFR antibody (cetuximab) in vitro and in the murine xenograft model. Cell clone #2 did not have an EGFR mutation, but the expression of amphiregulin (AREG), one of EGFR ligands, was significantly increased. A knockdown of AREG with small interfering RNAs restored the sensitivity to crizotinib. These data suggest that overexpression of EGFR ligands such as AREG can cause resistance to crizotinib, and that inhibition of EGFR signaling may be a promising strategy to overcome crizotinib resistance in EML4-ALK lung cancer.
Project description:The discovery of an echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene led to improved clinical outcomes in patients with lung cancer after the development of the first ALK-targeting agent, crizotinib. Some second-generation ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which might be more potent than crizotinib or effective on crizotinib-resistant patients, have been developed. Although these ALK-TKIs show an excellent response initially, most patients eventually acquire resistance. Therefore, careful consideration of the resistance mechanisms might lead to superior therapeutic strategies. Here, we summarize the history of ALK-TKIs and their underlying resistance mechanisms in both the preclinical and clinical settings. In addition, we discuss potential future treatment strategies in ALK-TKI-naïve and -resistant patients with lung cancer harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene.