Delayed and highly specific antibody response to nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) revealed during natural human ZIKV infection by NS1-based capture ELISA.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Zika virus (ZIKV) had spread rapidly in the past few years in southern hemisphere where dengue virus (DENV) had caused epidemic problems for over half a century. The high degree of cross-reactivity of Envelope (E) protein specific antibody responses between ZIKV and DENV made it challenging to perform differential diagnosis between the two infections using standard ELISA method for E protein. METHODS:Using an IgG capture ELISA, we investigated the kinetics of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antibody response during natural ZIKV infection and the cross-reactivity to NS1 proteins using convalescent sera obtained from patients infected by either DENV or ZIKV. RESULTS:The analyses of the sequential serum samples from ZIKV infected individuals showed NS1 specific Abs appeared 2 weeks later than E specific Abs. Notably, human sera from ZIKV infected individuals did not contain cross-reactivity to NS1 proteins of any of the four DENV serotypes. Furthermore, four out of five NS1-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from ZIKV infected individuals did not bind to DENV NS1 proteins. Only limited amount of cross-reactivity to ZIKV NS1 was displayed in 108 DENV1 immune sera at 1:100 dilution. CONCLUSIONS:The high degree of NS1-specific Abs in both ZIKV and DENV infection revealed here suggest that NS1-based diagnostics would significantly improve the differential diagnosis between DENV and ZIKV infections.
Project description:The presence of dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Brazil, may result in a difficult diagnosis due to the signs and symptoms shared by those. Moreover, as DENV and ZIKV belong to the same family, serological assays may show a high rate of cross-reactivity. Here, we evaluated a Dengue NS1 capture assay for early and differential diagnosis of dengue during the Zika epidemic occurred in Brazil in 2016. Samples (n?=?227) from 218 patients included sera, plasma and urine from previously confirmed acute cases of Zika, dengue and Zika/dengue co-infections. Nine of those patients presented two specimens. The Dengue NS1 test was very specific for dengue diagnosis (99.32%), even in the co-circulation with ZIKV, and exhibited a high accuracy in not detecting acute Zika infections (92.43%). Our findings showed that the dengue NS1 capture test analyzed here was not able to recognize the ZIKV NS1 and its potential for cross-reaction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dengue virus (DENV) infection is one of the biggest challenges for human health in the world. In addition, a secondary DENV infection sometimes causes dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which frequently leads to death. For this reason, accurate diagnosis record management is useful for prediction of DHF. Therefore, the demand for DENV rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) is increasing because these tests are easy and rapid to use. However, commercially available RDTs often show low sensitivity for DENV and cross-reactivity against other flaviviruses, especially Zika virus (ZIKV). METHODS:We developed two types of novel DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) detection RDTs, designated TKK-1st and TKK-2nd kits. Specificities of the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) used in these kits were confirmed by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA), dot blot, and western blot using recombinant NS1 proteins and synthetic peptides. For evaluation of sensitivity, specificity, and cross-reactivity of the novel DENV NS1 RDTs, we first used cultured DENV and other flaviviruses, ZIKV and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). We then used clinical specimens obtained in Bangladesh in 2017 for further evaluation of kit sensitivity and specificity in comparison with commercially available RDTs. In addition, RNA extracted from sera were used for viral genome sequencing and genotyping. RESULTS:Epitopes of three out of four MAbs used in the two novel RDTs were located in amino acid positions 100 to 122 in the NS1 protein, a region that shows low levels of homology with other flaviviruses. Our new kits showed high levels of sensitivity against various serotypes and genotypes of DENV and exhibited high levels of specificity without cross-reactivity against ZIKV and JEV. In clinical specimens, our RDTs showed sensitivities of 96.0% (145/151, TKK-1st kit) and 96.7% (146/151, TKK-2nd kit), and specificities of 98.0% (98/100, TKK-1st kit and TKK-2nd kit). On the other hand, in the case of the commercially available SD Bioline RDT, sensitivity was 83.4% (126/151) and specificity was 99.0% (99/100) against the same clinical specimens. CONCLUSIONS:Our novel DENV NS1-targeting RDTs demonstrated high levels of sensitivity and lacked cross-reactivity against ZIKV and JEV compared with commercially available RDTs.
Project description:The recent spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and Asia necessitates an increased preparedness for improved maternal and perinatal health and blood safety. However, serological cross-reactions, especially to Dengue virus (DENV), complicate ZIKV antibody serodiagnosis. A novel "pan-Flavi" suspension multiplex immunoassay (PFSMIA) using 25 antigens, whole virus (WV), non-structural protein 1 (NS1), and envelope (E) proteins, from 7 zoonotic flaviviruses for specific detection of ZIKV and DENV IgM and IgG was developed. Patterns of antibody cross-reactivity, avidity, and kinetics were established in 104 sera from returning travelers with known ZIKV and DENV infections. PFSMIA gave IgM- and IgG-sensitivities for both viruses of 96-100%, compared to an immunofluorescence assay. Main IgM cross-reactions were to NS1, for IgG to the E and WV antigens. Infecting virus yielded reactivity to several antigens of the homologous virus, while cross-reactions tended to occur only to a single antigen from heterologous virus(es). A specificity-enhancing computer procedure took into account antibody isotype, number of antibody-reactive antigens per virus, avidity, average degree of cross-reactivity to heterologous flavivirus antigens, and reactivity changes in serial sera. It classified all 50 cases correctly. Applied to sera from 200 pregnant women and 173 blood donors from Sweden, one blood donor was found ZIKV NS1 IgM positive, and another as ZIKV NS1 IgG positive. These samples did not react with other ZIKV antigens and were thereby judged as false-positives. PFSMIA provided sensitive and specific ZIKV and DENV serology, warranting high-throughput serological surveillance and a minimized need for laborious and expensive virus neutralization assays.
Project description:Diagnosing Zika virus (ZIKV) infections has been challenging due to the cross-reactivity of induced antibodies with other flavivirus. The concomitant occurrence of ZIKV and Dengue virus (DENV) in endemic regions requires diagnostic tools with the ability to distinguish these two viral infections. Recent studies demonstrated that immunoassays using the C-terminal fragment of ZIKV NS1 antigen (?NS1) can be used to discriminate ZIKV from DENV infections. In order to be used in serological tests, the expression/solubility of ?NS1 and growth of recombinant E. coli strain were optimized by Response Surface Methodology. Temperature, time and IPTG concentration were evaluated. According to the model, the best condition determined in small scale cultures was 21 °C for 20 h with 0.7 mM of IPTG, which predicted 7.5 g/L of biomass and 962 mg/L of ?NS1. These conditions were validated and used in a 6-L batch in the bioreactor, which produced 6.4 g/L of biomass and 500 mg/L of ?NS1 in 12 h of induction. The serological ELISA test performed with purified ?NS1 showed low cross-reactivity with antibodies from DENV-infected human subjects. Denaturation of ?NS1 decreased the detection of anti-ZIKV antibodies, thus indicating the contribution of conformational epitopes and confirming the importance of properly folded ?NS1 for the specificity of the serological analyses. Obtaining high yields of soluble ?NS1 supports the viability of an effective serologic diagnostic test capable of differentiating ZIKV from other flavivirus infections.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are mosquito-borne pathogens that have a significant impact on human health. Immune sera, mAbs, and memory B cells (MBCs) isolated from patients infected with one DENV type can be cross-reactive with the other three DENV serotypes and even more distantly related flaviviruses such as ZIKV. Conventional ELISPOTs effectively measure Ab-secreting B cells but because they are limited to the assessment of a single Ag at a time, it is challenging to distinguish serotype-specific and cross-reactive MBCs in the same well. We developed a novel multifunction FluoroSpot assay using fluorescently labeled DENV and ZIKV (FLVs) that measures the cross-reactivity of Abs secreted by single B cells. Conjugation efficiency and recognition of FLVs by virus-specific Abs were confirmed by flow cytometry. Using a panel of DENV immune, ZIKV immune, and naive PBMC, FLVs were able to simultaneously detect DENV serotype-specific, ZIKV-specific, DENV serotype cross-reactive, and DENV/ZIKV cross-reactive Abs secreted by individual MBCs. Our findings indicate that the FLVs are sensitive and specific tools to detect specific and cross-reactive MBCs. These reagents will allow the assessment of the breadth as well as the durability of DENV/ZIKV B cell responses following vaccination or natural infection. This novel approach using FLVs in a FluoroSpot assay can be applied to other diseases such as influenza in which prior immunity with homosubtype- or heterosubtype-specific MBCs may influence subsequent infections.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV) causes rash, moderate fever, conjunctivitis, and arthralgia, and has serious connection with neurological complications; therefore, it is a major threat to public health. A rapid and supersensitive method for detecting anti-ZIKV antibodies in humans and animals is thus urgently required. Here, we report an NS1-based luciferase immunosorbent assay (LISA), developed to detect ZIKV-specific IgG. Fusion proteins including a reporter Nano-luciferase (NLuc) and various fragments of ZIKV NS1 protein were expressed in 293 T cells. LISA was performed using the above cell lysates containing the expressed fusion proteins. Sample panels of humans and animals infected with ZIKV were examined for sensitivity of LISA, relative to those of ZIKV RT-PCR, commercial NS1-based ELISA, and micro-neutralization (MN) assays. Specificity and potential cross-reactivity were also evaluated using various convalescent serum samples derived from patients infected with dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Results indicated the optimal antigenic domain for anti-ZIKV IgG detection was located within 172-352 amino acids (aa) of ZIKV NS1 protein. NS1-based LISA performs better than commercial ELISA in anti-ZIKV IgG detection. LISA was shown to be at least fourfold more sensitive than commercial ELISA, and could detect anti-ZIKV IgG in various animal hosts without the need of species-specific labeled antibody. This novel assay is potentially useful for the rapid and sensitive detection of anti-ZIKV IgG in human and animal samples.
Project description:Diagnostic testing for Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (DENV) infection can be accomplished by a nucleic acid detection method; however, a negative result does not exclude infection due to the low virus titer during infection depending on the timing of sample collection. Therefore, a ZIKV- or DENV-specific serological assay is essential for the accurate diagnosis of patients and to mitigate potential severe health outcomes. A retrospective study design with dual approaches of collecting human serum samples for testing was developed. All serum samples were extensively evaluated by using both noninfectious wild-type (wt) virus-like particles (VLPs) and soluble nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) in the standard immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Both ZIKV-derived wt-VLP- and NS1-MAC-ELISAs were found to have similar sensitivities for detecting anti-premembrane/envelope and NS1 antibodies from ZIKV-infected patient sera, although lower cross-reactivity to DENV2/3-NS1 was observed. Furthermore, group cross-reactive (GR)-antibody-ablated homologous fusion peptide-mutated (FP)-VLPs consistently showed higher positive-to-negative values than homologous wt-VLPs. Therefore, we used DENV-2/3 and ZIKV FP-VLPs to develop a novel, serological algorithm for differentiating ZIKV from DENV infection. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the FP-VLP-MAC-ELISA and the NS1-MAC-ELISA were each higher than 80%, with no statistical significance. The accuracy can reach up to 95% with the combination of FP-VLP and NS1 assays. In comparison to current guidelines using neutralization tests to measure ZIKV antibody, this approach can facilitate laboratory screening for ZIKV infection, especially in regions where DENV infection is endemic and capacity for neutralization testing does not exist.
Project description:Background:The explosive spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and associated microcephaly present an urgent need for sensitive and specific serodiagnostic tests, particularly for pregnant women in dengue virus (DENV)-endemic regions. Recent reports of enhanced ZIKV replication by dengue-immune sera have raised concerns about the role of previous DENV infection on the risk and severity of microcephaly and other ZIKV complications. Methods:Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on ZIKV and DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) were established to test acute, convalescent phase, and post-convalescent phase serum/plasma samples from reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed cases including 20 primary ZIKV, 25 ZIKV with previous DENV, 58 secondary DENV, and 16 primary DENV1 infections. Results:ZIKV-NS1 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISAs combined can detect ZIKV infection with a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 66.7%. The ZIKV-NS1 IgG cross-reactivity by samples from secondary DENV infection cases ranged from 66.7% to 28.1% (within 1 month to 1-2 years post-illness, respectively). Addition of DENV1-NS1 IgG ELISA can distinguish primary ZIKV infection; the ratio of absorbance of ZIKV-NS1 to DENV1-NS1 IgG ELISA can distinguish ZIKV with previous DENV and secondary DENV infections with a sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 81.3%. These findings were supported by analysis of sequential samples. Conclusions:An algorithm for ZIKV serodiagnosis based on 3 simple ELISAs is proposed to distinguish primary ZIKV, ZIKV with previous DENV, and secondary DENV infections; this could be applied to serodiagnosis for ZIKV, serosurveillance, and monitoring ZIKV infection during pregnancy to understand the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and complications of ZIKV in dengue-endemic regions.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged recently as a global health threat, causing a pandemic in the Americas. ZIKV infection mostly causes mild disease, but is linked to devastating congenital birth defects and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. The high level of cross-reactivity among flaviviruses and their cocirculation has complicated serological approaches to differentially detect ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV) infections, accentuating the urgent need for a specific and sensitive serological test. We previously generated a ZIKV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1)-specific human monoclonal antibody, which we used to develop an NS1-based competition ELISA. Well-characterized samples from RT-PCR-confirmed patients with Zika and individuals exposed to other flavivirus infections or vaccination were used in a comprehensive analysis to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the NS1 blockade-of-binding (BOB) assay, which was established in laboratories in five countries (Nicaragua, Brazil, Italy, United Kingdom, and Switzerland). Of 158 sera/plasma from RT-PCR-confirmed ZIKV infections, 145 (91.8%) yielded greater than 50% inhibition. Of 171 patients with primary or secondary DENV infections, 152 (88.9%) scored negative. When the control group was extended to patients infected by other flaviviruses, other viruses, or healthy donors (n = 540), the specificity was 95.9%. We also analyzed longitudinal samples from DENV-immune and DENV-naive ZIKV infections and found inhibition was achieved within 10 d postonset of illness and maintained over time. Thus, the Zika NS1 BOB assay is sensitive, specific, robust, simple, low-cost, and accessible, and can detect recent and past ZIKV infections for surveillance, seroprevalence studies, and intervention trials.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus of significant public health concern. ZIKV shares a high degree of sequence and structural homology compared with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), resulting in immunological cross-reactivity. Improving our current understanding of the extent and characteristics of this immunological cross-reactivity is important, as ZIKV is presently circulating in areas that are highly endemic for dengue. To assess the magnitude and functional quality of cross-reactive immune responses between these closely related viruses, we tested acute and convalescent sera from nine Thai patients with PCR-confirmed DENV infection against ZIKV. All of the sera tested were cross-reactive with ZIKV, both in binding and in neutralization. To deconstruct the observed serum cross-reactivity in depth, we also characterized a panel of DENV-specific plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for activity against ZIKV. Nearly half of the 47 DENV-reactive mAbs studied bound to both whole ZIKV virion and ZIKV lysate, of which a subset also neutralized ZIKV. In addition, both sera and mAbs from the dengue-infected patients enhanced ZIKV infection of Fc gamma receptor (Fc?R)-bearing cells in vitro. Taken together, these findings suggest that preexisting immunity to DENV may impact protective immune responses against ZIKV. In addition, the extensive cross-reactivity may have implications for ZIKV virulence and disease severity in DENV-experienced populations.