Genome-Wide Analysis of Barrett's Adenocarcinoma. A First Step Towards Identifying Patients at Risk and Developing Therapeutic Paths.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Barrett's esophagus metaplasia is the key precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to find a subset of markers that may allow the identification of patients at risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma, and to determine genes differentially expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS:Laser capture microdissection technique was applied to procure cells from defined regions. Genome-wide RNA profiling was performed on esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 21), Barrett's esophagus (n = 20), esophageal squamous carcinoma (n = 9) and healthy esophageal biopsies (n = 18) using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133plus 2.0 array. Microarray results were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in a second and independent cohort and by immunohistochemistry of two putative markers in a third independent cohort. RESULTS:Through unsupervised hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis, samples were separated into four distinct groups that match perfectly with histology. Many genes down-regulated in esophageal cancers belong to the epidermal differentiation complex or the related GO-group "cornified envelope" of terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Similarly, retinol metabolism was strongly down-regulated. Genes showing strong overexpression in esophageal carcinomas belong to the GO groups extracellular region /matrix such as MMP1, CTHRC1, and INHBA. According to an analysis of genes strongly up-regulated in both esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus, REG4 might be of particular interest as an early marker for esophageal adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS:Our study provides high quality data, which could serve for identification of potential biomarkers of Barrett's esophagus at risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma progression.
Project description:Barrett's esophagus is a metaplastic condition of the distal esophagus, characterized by the replacement of normal squamous epithelium by columnar epithelium. Patients with BE have an increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma. MicroRNAs have been implicated to be disease and tissue specific, however limited data of microRNA expression in the esophagus is available. Therefore we evaluated microRNA expression profiles of esophageal adenocarcinoma and compared these with Barrett's esophagus and normal squamous esophagus. Overall design: In total 12 samples were analyzed. 4 esophageal adenocarcinoma, 4 Barrett's esophagus and 4 normal squamous esophagus
Project description:Esophageal adenocarcinoma is an increasingly common disease with a dismal 5-year survival rate of 10% to 15%. In the first systematic evaluation of the PD-1 pathway in esophageal adenocarcinoma, we identify expression of PD-L2 in cancer cells in 51.7% of esophageal adenocarcinomas. Epithelial PD-L1 was expressed on only 2% of cases, although PD-L1(+) immune cells were observed in 18% of esophageal adenocarcinomas. We also evaluated expression in the precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett's esophagus, which emerges following gastric reflux-induced esophageal inflammation, and found PD-L2 expression in Barrett's esophagus but not in non-Barrett's esophagus esophagitis. Because the progression from squamous esophagitis to Barrett's esophagus is accompanied by a transition from a TH1 to TH2 immune response, we hypothesized that the TH2 cytokines IL4/IL13 could contribute to PD-L2 induction. We confirmed that these cytokines can augment PD-L2 expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines. These results suggest that the inflammatory environment in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma may contribute to the expression of PD-L2. Furthermore, the potential for PD-1 receptor blockade to be effective in esophageal adenocarcinomas with epithelial PD-L2 or immune cell PD-L1 expression should be evaluated in clinical trials.
Project description:Esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus are linked to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, respectively. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study analyzed the expression levels of and correlation between PLCE1 and PRKCA in human esophagitis, carcinogen NMBA-induced rat esophagus, PLCE1 genetic deficient mouse esophageal epithelial tissues and human esophageal cancer cell line, integrated with Online oncology data sets. We found that the expression levels of both PLCE1 and PRKCA were significantly elevated in human esophagitis, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma and in NMBA-treated rat esophageal epithelia. However, PRKCA and cytokines were significantly downregulated in PLCE1-deficient mouse esophageal epithelia, and knockdown of PLCE1 in human esophageal cancer cells led to reduction of PRKCA and cytokines. Finally, high expression of both PLCE1 and PRKCA is significantly associated with poor outcomes of the patients with esophageal cancers. In conclusion, this study defined the initiation and progression of esophageal inflammation and malignant transformation, in which the positive correlation of PLCE1 and PRKCA exhibits critical clinical significance.
Project description:The aberrant DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes occurs frequently in Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and likely affects the initiation and progression of BE to EAC. In the present study, we discovered PKP1 as a novel methylated gene in EAC and then investigated the role of loss of PKP1, a constituent of the desmosome complex found in stratified epithelial layers, on the behavior of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. By using primary esophageal tissue samples we determined that PKP1 was rarely methylated in normal squamous esophagus (5/55; 9.1%) and BE (5/39; 12.8%) and more frequently methylated in Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or EAC (20/60; 33.3%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, PKP1 levels were decreased in BE and HGD/EAC cases compared to normal squamous esophagus cases. Knockdown of PKP1 in the BE cell lines CP-A and CP-D (both normally express PKP1) resulted in increased cell motility. Thus, PKP1 loss secondary to promoter methylation, as well as other mechanisms, may promote the progression of BE to EAC in a subset of patients via decreased desmosome assembly and increased cell motility.
Project description:Barrett's esophagus is the precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma, whose progression follows sequential stages. However, the low progression rate and the inadequacy and subjective interpretation of histologic grading in predicting Barrett's esophagus progression call for more objective biomarkers that can improve risk prediction. We conducted a genome-wide profiling of 754 human microRNAs (miRNA) in 35 normal epithelium, 34 Barrett's esophagus, and 36 esophageal adenocarcinoma tissues using TaqMan real-time PCR-based profiling. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using 294 modestly to highly expressed miRNAs showed clear clustering of two groups: normal epithelium versus Barrett's esophagus/esophageal adenocarcinoma tissues. Moreover, there was an excellent clustering of Barrett's metaplasia (without dysplasia) tissues from normal epithelium tissues. However, Barrett's esophagus tissues of different stages and esophageal adenocarcinoma tissues were interspersed. There were differentially expressed miRNAs at different stages. The majority of miRNA aberrations involved upregulation of expression in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma tissues, with the most dramatic alterations occurring at the Barrett's metaplasia stage. Known oncomiRs, such as miR-21, miR-25, and miR-223, and tumor suppressor miRNAs, including miR-205, miR-203, let-7c, and miR-133a, showed progressively altered expression from Barrett's esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma. We also identified a number of novel miRNAs that showed progressively altered expression, including miR-301b, miR-618, and miR-23b. The significant miRNA alterations that were exclusive to esophageal adenocarcinoma but not Barrett's esophagus included miR-375 downregulation and upregulation of five members of the miR-17-92 and its homologue clusters, which may become promising biomarkers for esophageal adenocarcinoma development.
Project description:Esophageal adenocarcinoma is a cancer with rising incidence and poor survival. Most such cancers arise in a specialized intestinal metaplastic epithelium, which is diagnostic of Barrett's esophagus. In a genome-wide association study, we compared esophageal adenocarcinoma cases (n = 2,390) and individuals with precancerous Barrett's esophagus (n = 3,175) with 10,120 controls in 2 phases. For the combined case group, we identified three new associations. The first is at 19p13 (rs10419226: P = 3.6 × 10(-10)) in CRTC1 (encoding CREB-regulated transcription coactivator), whose aberrant activation has been associated with oncogenic activity. A second is at 9q22 (rs11789015: P = 1.0 × 10(-9)) in BARX1, which encodes a transcription factor important in esophageal specification. A third is at 3p14 (rs2687201: P = 5.5 × 10(-9)) near the transcription factor FOXP1, which regulates esophageal development. We also refine a previously reported association with Barrett's esophagus near the putative tumor suppressor gene FOXF1 at 16q24 and extend our findings to now include esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Project description:SAGE libraries made of squamous esophagus tissue, primary cell culture or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma Keywords: SAGE analysis of different tissues squamous esophagus biopsy was taken from 1 male metaplastic Barrett's esophagus patient. primary cell culture was from 1 male Barrett's esophagus patient. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was from a patient known to have ESCC
Project description:Esophageal adenocarcinoma is a highly aggressive malignancy that frequently develops from Barrett's esophagus, a premalignant pathologic change occurring in the lower end of the esophagus. Identifying Barrett's esophagus patients at high risk of malignant transformation is essential to the prevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Although microRNA (miRNA) expression signatures have been associated with the etiology and prognosis of several types of cancers, their roles in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma have not been extensively evaluated.In this study, we analyzed the expression patterns of 470 human miRNAs using Agilent miRNA microarray in 32 disease/normal-paired tissues from 16 patients diagnosed with Barrett's esophagus of either low- or high-grade dysplasia, or esophageal adenocarcinoma.Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering and class comparison analyses, we found that miRNA expression profiles in tissues of Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia were significantly different from their corresponding normal tissues. Similar findings were observed for esophageal adenocarcinoma, but not for Barrett's esophagus with low-grade dysplasia. The expression patterns of selected miRNAs were further validated using quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR in an independent set of 75 pairs of disease/normal tissues. Finally, we identified several miRNAs that were involved in the progressions from low grade-dysplasia Barrett's esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma.We showed that miRNAs were involved in the development and progression of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The identified significant miRNAs that may become potential targets for early detection, chemoprevention, and treatment of esophageal cancer.
Project description:Incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased sharply in Western Europe and United States over the past three decades. Nearly all cases of EAC in the west are thought to be associated with Barrett's esophagus (BE) at the time of diagnosis. Regions in the Henan province of China have one of world's highest incidences of esophageal cancer, yet recent temporal trends in the relative rates of EAC with respect to esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC), as well as its association with Barrett's esophagus (BE), have not been reported. In this report, we present large-scale longitudinal clinical and histological data on 5401 esophageal cancers (EC) patients diagnosed during the recent 10-year period (2002-2011) at Henan Cancer Hospital, China. All 217 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) patients from these 5401 EC patients were examined to better understand the relationship between Barrett's esophagus (BE) and EAC. We found that EAC was relatively rare and accounted for approximately 5% of all esophageal cancers each year during 2002-2011. There is no evidence of significant temporal trends in the rate of EAC relative to ESCC. Only 10 out of 217 (4.6%) EAC cases were detected to have any evidence of Barrett's esophagus. This result raises the possibility of a different etiological basis for EAC in China motivating more detailed epidemiological, clinical and molecular characterization of EAC in China in order to better understand the neoplastic development of EAC.
Project description:RNA-seq was performed on esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), Barrett's without dysplasia, Barrett's with low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and normal squamous esophagus tissue to find early alterations in the transcriptome level turning Barrett's dysplastic.