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A current structural perspective on PXR and CAR in drug metabolism.


ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are two members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that play major roles in the expression of various drug metabolism enzymes and are known for their ligand promiscuity. As with other nuclear receptors, PXR and CAR are each composed of a ligand-binding domain (LBD) and a DNA-binding domain (DBD) connected by a hinge region. Areas covered: This review focuses on the information obtained over the last 15+ years from X-ray crystallography studies of the structure of PXR and CAR. Areas of focus include the mobility of each structure, based on temperature factors (B factors); multimeric interactions; the binding of coregulators and ligands; and how the crystal structures were obtained. The first use of hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectroscopy (HDX-MS) to study compound-protein interactions in the PXR-LBD is also addressed. Expert opinion: X-ray crystallography studies have provided us with an excellent understanding of how the LBDs of each receptor function; however, many questions remain concerning the structure of these receptors. Future research should focus on determining the co-crystal structure of an antagonist bound to PXR and on studying the structural aspects of the full-length CAR and PXR proteins.

SUBMITTER: Buchman CD 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6002932 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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