Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity is suppressed by estrous-staged treatment and exogenous 17?-estradiol in female tumor-bearing spontaneously hypertensive rats.
ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline therapeutic, is widely used to treat a variety of cancer types and known to induce cardiomyopathy in a time and dose-dependent manner. Postmenopausal and hypertensive females are two high-risk groups for developing adverse effects following DOX treatment. This may suggest that endogenous reproductive hormones can in part suppress DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Here, we investigated if the endogenous fluctuations in 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) can in part suppress DOX-induced cardiomyopathy in SST-2 tumor-bearing spontaneously hypersensitive rats (SHRs) and evaluate if exogenous administration of E2 and P4 can suppress DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in tumor-bearing ovariectomized SHRs (ovaSHRs).Vaginal cytology was performed on all animals to identify the stage of the estrous cycle. Estrous-staged SHRs received a single injection of saline, DOX, dexrazoxane (DRZ), or DOX combined with DRZ. OvaSHRs were implanted with time-releasing pellets that contained a carrier matrix (control), E2, P4, Tamoxifen (Tam), and combinations of E2 with P4 and Tam. Hormone pellet-implanted ovaSHRs received a single injection of saline or DOX. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI), E2, and P4 serum concentrations were measured before and after treatment in all animals. Cardiac damage and function were further assessed by echocardiography and histopathology. Weight, tumor size, and uterine width were measured for all animals.In SHRs, estrous-staged DOX treatment altered acute estrous cycling that ultimately resulted in prolonged diestrus. Twelve days after DOX administration, all SHRs had comparable endogenous circulating E2. Thirteen days after DOX treatment, SHRs treated during proestrus had decreased cardiac output and increased cTnI as compared to animals treated during estrus and diestrus. DOX-induced tumor reduction was not affected by estrous-staged treatments. In ovaSHRs, exogenous administration of E2 suppressed DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, while P4-implanted ovaSHRs were partly resistant. However, ovaSHRs treated with E2 and P4 did not have cardioprotection against DOX-induced damage.This study demonstrates that estrous-staged treatments can alter the extent of cardiac damage caused by DOX in female SHRs. The study also supports that exogenous E2 can suppress DOX-induced myocardial damage in ovaSHRs.
Project description:The chemotherapeutic effect of doxorubicin (Dox) is limited by cumulative dose-dependent cardiotoxicity in cancer survivors. Dexrazoxane (DRZ) is approved to prevent Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. Humanin and its synthetic analog HNG have a cytoprotective effect on the heart. To investigate the cardioprotective efficacy of HNG alone or in combination with DRZ against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity, 80 adult male mice were randomly divided into 8 groups to receive the following treatments via intraperitoneal injection: saline dailym HNG (5 mg/kg) daily, DRZ (60 mg/kg) weekly, Dox (3 mg/kg) weekly, DRZ + HNG, Dox + HNG, Dox + DRZ, and Dox + HNG + DRZ. Echocardiograms were performed before and at 4, 8, and 9.5 wk after the beginning of treatment. All mice were euthanized at 10 wk. In the absence of Dox, HNG, DRZ, or DRZ + HNG had no adverse effect on the heart. Dox treatment caused decreases in ejection fraction and cardiac mass and increases in cardiomyocyte apoptosis and intracardiac fibrosis. HNG or DRZ alone blunted the Dox-induced decrease in left ventricle posterior wall thickness and modestly ameliorated the Dox-induced decrease in ejection fraction. HNG + DRZ significantly ameliorated Dox-induced decreases in ejection function, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiac mass. Using a targeted analysis for the mitochondrial gene array and protein expression in heart tissues, we demonstrated that HNG + DRZ reversed DOX-induced altered transcripts that were biomarkers of cardiac damage and uncoupling protein-2. We conclude that HNG enhances the cardiac protective effect of DRZ against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. HNG + DRZ protects mitochondria from Dox-induced cardiac damage and blunts the onset of cardiac dysfunction. Thus, HNG may be an adjuvant to DRZ in preventing Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Doxorubicin (Dox) is commonly used for treating a wide range of human cancers. However, cumulative dosage-dependent carditoxicity often limits its clinical applications. We demonstrated in this study that treating young adult male mice with synthetic humanin analog enhanced the cardiac protective effect of dexrazoxane against chemotherapeutic agent Dox-induced cardiac dysfunction. Thus, humanin analog can potentially serve as an adjuvant to dexrazoxane in more effectively preventing Dox-induced cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyopathy.
Project description:Synaptic plasticity of the female hippocampus may cyclically fluctuate across the estrous cycle. The spine density fluctuation had been explained by fluctuation of plasma estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PROG), with the assumption that these steroids penetrate into the hippocampus. Recently, however, we demonstrated that male hippocampal levels of sex steroids are much higher than those in plasma, suggesting a weak contribution of plasma steroids to the spine density. By combination of mass-spectrometric analysis with HPLC-purification and picolinoyl-derivatization of hippocampal sex steroids, we determined the accurate concentration of E2 and PROG at four stages of plasma estrous cycle including Proestrus (Pro), Estrus (Est), Diestrus 1 (D1), and Diestrus 2 (D2). Hippocampal levels of E2 and PROG showed cyclic fluctuation with a peak at Pro for E2 and at D1 for PROG, having a positive correlation with the plasma estrous cycle. All these sex steroid levels are much higher in the hippocampus than in plasma. Even after ovariectomy a significant levels of E2 and PROG were observed in the hippocampus. The total spine density showed higher values at Pro and D1, and lower values at Est and D2, having a good correlation with the peak levels of hippocampal E2 or PROG. We also examined fluctuation of the head diameter of spines. Interestingly, mRNA expression level of steroidogenic enzymes (P450arom and 17?-HSD, etc.) and sex-steroid receptors did not significantly change across the estrous cycle. Therefore, the fluctuation of total hippocampal PROG (equal to sum of hippocampus-synthesized PROG and plasma PROG) may be originated from the contribution of cyclic change in plasma PROG, which can induce the fluctuation of total hippocampal E2, since steroid conversion activity of hippocampus might be nearly the same across the estrus cycle.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The bisdioxopiperazine dexrazoxane (DRZ) prevents anthracycline-induced heart failure, but its clinical use is limited by uncertain cardioprotective mechanism and by concerns of interference with cancer response to anthracyclines and of long-term safety. METHODS: We investigated the effects of DRZ on the stability of topoisomerases II? (TOP2A) and II? (TOP2B) and on the DNA damage generated by poisoning these enzymes by the anthracycline doxorubicin (DOX). RESULTS: DRZ given i.p. transiently depleted in mice the predominant cardiac isoform Top2b. The depletion was also seen in H9C2 cardiomyocytes and it was attenuated by mutating the bisdioxopiperazine binding site of TOP2B. Consistently, the accumulation of DOX-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSB) by wild-type, although not by mutant TOP2B, was reduced by DRZ. In contrast, the DRZ analogue ICRF-161, which is capable of iron chelation but not of TOP2B binding and cardiac protection, did not deplete TOP2B and did not prevent the accumulation of DOX-induced DSB. TOP2A, re-expressed in cultured cardiomyocytes by fresh serum, was depleted by DRZ along with TOP2B. DRZ depleted TOP2A also from fibrosarcoma-derived cells, but not from lung cancer-derived and human embryo-derived cells. DRZ-mediated TOP2A depletion reduced the accumulation of DOX-induced DSB. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data support a model of anthracycline-induced heart failure caused by TOP2B-mediated DSB and of its prevention by DRZ via TOP2B degradation rather than via iron chelation. The depletion of TOP2B and TOP2A suggests an explanation for the reported DRZ interference with cancer response to anthracyclines and for DRZ side-effects.
Project description:Chemotherapy can potentially impair fertility in premenopausal cancer patients. Female fertility preservation has been mainly focused on the ovarian aspects and benefited greatly from assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). The rate-limiting step for the success of IVF is embryo implantation in the uterus. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent with ovarian toxicity. It remains unknown if the uterus is a direct target of DOX. To circumvent the indirect uterine effect from ovarian toxicity of DOX and to investigate potential long-term impact of DOX on the uterus, young adult ovariectomized CD-1 mice were given an intraperitoneal injection once with PBS or DOX (10 mg/kg, a human relevant chemotherapeutic dose), and 30 days later, each set of mice was randomly assigned into three groups and subcutaneously injected with oil, 17?-estradiol (E2, for 6 h), and progesterone (P4, for 54 h), respectively. Uterine transcriptomic profiles were determined using RNA-seq. Principal component analysis of the uterine transcriptomes revealed four clusters from the six treatment groups: PBS-oil & DOX-oil, PBS-P4 & DOX-P4, PBS-E2, and DOX-E2, indicating that DOX treatment did not affect the overall uterine transcriptomic profiles in the oil and P4-treated mice but altered uterine responses to E2 treatment. DAVID analysis indicated that the top-affected gene cluster was "Glycoprotein". These data demonstrate that DOX can directly target the uterus and has a long-term impact on uterine responses to E2.
Project description:Progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) modulate neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling in the hippocampus during the rat estrous cycle and in response to deafferenting lesions, but little is known about the steroidal regulation of hippocampal progesterone receptors associated with these processes. We examined the neuronal expression of progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (Pgrmc1) and the classical progesterone receptor (Pgr), by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Pgr, a transcription factor, has been associated with synaptic remodeling and other major actions of P4, whereas Pgrmc1 is implicated in P4-dependent proliferation of adult neuroprogenitor cells and with rapid P4 effects on membranes. Ovariectomized adult rats were given E2, P4, or E2+P4 on two schedules: a 4-d model of the rodent estrous cycle and a 30-d model of postmenopausal hormone therapy. Pgr was hormonally responsive only in CA1 pyramidal neurons, and the induction of Pgr by E2 was partly antagonized by P4 only on the 30-d schedule. In CA3 pyramidal and dentate gyrus (DG) neurons, Pgr was largely unresponsive to all hormone treatments. In contrast to Pgr, Pgrmc1 was generally induced by E2 and/or P4 throughout the hippocampus in CA1, CA3, and DG neurons. In neuroprogenitor cells of the DG (immunopositive for bromodeoxyuridine and doublecortin), both Pgrmc1 and Pgr were detected. The differential regulation of hippocampal Pgrmc1 and Pgr by E2 and P4 may guide drug development in hormonal therapy for support of neurogenesis and synaptic regeneration.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Remodeling of the extracellular matrix is one of the most striking features observed in the uterus during the estrous cycle and after hormone replacement. Versican (VER) is a hyaluronan-binding proteoglycan that undergoes RNA alternative splicing, generating four distinct isoforms. This study analyzed the synthesis and distribution of VER in mouse uterine tissues during the estrous cycle, in ovariectomized (OVX) animals and after 17beta-estradiol (E2) and medroxyprogesterone (MPA) treatments, either alone or in combination. METHODS: Uteri from mice in all phases of the estrous cycle, and animals subjected to ovariectomy and hormone replacement were collected for immunoperoxidase staining for versican, as well as PCR and quantitative Real Time PCR. RESULTS: In diestrus and proestrus, VER was exclusively expressed in the endometrial stroma. In estrus and metaestrus, VER was present in both endometrial stroma and myometrium. In OVX mice, VER immunoreaction was abolished in all uterine tissues. VER expression was restored by E2, MPA and E2+MPA treatments. Real Time PCR analysis showed that VER expression increases considerably in the MPA-treated group. Analysis of mRNA identified isoforms V0, V1 and V3 in the mouse uterus. CONCLUSION: These results show that the expression of versican in uterine tissues is modulated by ovarian steroid hormones, in a tissue-specific manner. VER is induced in the myometrium exclusively by E2, whereas MPA induces VER deposition only in the endometrial stroma.
Project description:Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), a phase III drug transporter that exports substrates out of cells, has been discovered in both cancerous and normal tissues. The over expression of MDR1 in cancer cells contributes to multiple drug resistance, whereas the MDR1 in normal tissues protects them from chemical-induced toxicity. Currently, the role of MDR1 in the ovary has not been entirely understood. Our objective is to determine the function of MDR1 in protecting against chemotherapy-induced ovarian toxicity. Using both the in vivo transgenic mouse model and in vitro follicle culture model, we investigated the expression of MDR1 in the ovary, the effect of MDR1 deficiency on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced ovarian toxicity, and the ovarian steroid hormonal regulation of MDR1. Results showed that the MDR1 was expressed in the ovarian epithelial cells, stroma cells, theca cell layers, endothelial cells, and luteal cells. The lack of MDR1 did not affect female ovarian function and fertility; however, its deficiency significantly exacerbated the DOX-induced ovarian toxicity in both in vivo and in vitro models. The MDR1 showed significantly higher expression levels in the ovaries at estrus and metestrus stages than those at proestrus and diestrus stages. However, this dynamic expression pattern was not regulated by the ovarian steroid hormones of estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) but correlated to the number and status of corpus luteum. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the lack of MDR1 promotes DOX-induced ovarian toxicity, suggesting the critical role of MDR1 in protecting female ovarian functions during chemotherapy.
Project description:Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective antitumor drugs, but its cardiotoxicity has been a major concern for its use in cancer therapy for decades. Although DOX-induced cardiotoxicity has been investigated, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this cardiotoxicity have not been completely elucidated. Here, we found that the insulin-like growth factor receptor II (IGF-IIR) apoptotic signaling pathway was responsible for DOX-induced cardiotoxicity via proteasome-mediated heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) degradation. The carboxyl-terminus of Hsp70 interacting protein (CHIP) mediated HSF1 stability and nuclear translocation through direct interactions via its tetratricopeptide repeat domain to suppress IGF-IIR expression and membrane translocation under physiological conditions. However, DOX attenuated the HSF1 inhibition of IGF-IIR expression by diminishing the CHIP-HSF1 interaction, removing active nuclear HSF1 and triggering HSF1 proteasomal degradation. Overexpression of CHIP redistributed HSF1 into the nucleus, inhibiting IGF-IIR expression and preventing DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Moreover, HSF1A, a small molecular drug that enhances HSF1 activity, stabilized HSF1 expression and minimized DOX-induced cardiac damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that the cardiotoxic effects of DOX result from the prevention of CHIP-mediated HSF1 nuclear translocation and activation, which leads to an upregulation of the IGF-IIR apoptotic signaling pathway. We believe that the administration of an HSF1 activator or agonist may further protect against the DOX-induced cell death of cardiomyocytes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Declining numbers of wild giant anteaters highlight the importance of sustainable captive populations. Unfortunately, captive reproductive management is limited by the lack of external physical indicators of female reproductive status and the aggressive behavior of males. We examined the endocrinology of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, and whether delayed implantation is a gestational strategy for giant anteaters as described for other xenarthrans. METHODS: Feces were collected from seven captive females 3-5 times weekly and mating was recorded. Concentrations of estrogen (estrone-glucuronide, E1, and estradiol-17?, E2), progestagen (20-oxo-progestagens, P4), and glucocorticoid (GC) metabolites were examined in fecal extracts by enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: Estrous cycles for nulliparous females (6 cycles, n?=?2) compared to the multiparous female (6 cycles, n?=?1) were shorter (47.3 +/- 4.3 days versus 62.5 +/- 2.6 days) with relatively lower luteal phase concentrations of P4 (49.4 +/- 2.9 ng/g versus 136.8 +/- 1.8 ng/g). The four remaining females had unclear ovarian activity: two females exhibited apparent luteal activity but unclear fluctuations in estrogens, while the other two females had parallel fecal P4 and estrogens concentrations. Pregnancy ranged 171-183 days with females returning to estrus post-partum as early as 60 days (n?=?3, 1.8-4 years of age at mating). Delayed implantation was indicated by a biphasic elevation in fecal P4 metabolites: the initial 4-fold increase occurred for 81-105 days and was followed by a 26-fold secondary rise in P4 metabolites lasting 66-94 days prior to parturition. Fecal GC was correlated with fecal estrogens and greatest during estrus, late pregnancy, and six days prior to parturition (estrous cycle GC, 14.4-62.8 ng/g; pregnancy GC, 13.6-232.7 ng/g). CONCLUSIONS: Estrous cycles of giant anteaters occurred year-round, but were shorter and more intermittent in younger nulliparous animals compared to a multiparous female. A pronounced elevation in fecal P4, estrogen, and GC occurred during late gestation after an initial post-mating delay providing evidence for delayed implantation. Adrenocorticoid activity indicated impending parturition. Differences in estrous cycle characteristics with age and the protracted but variable gestation length must be considered to improve reproductive success and neonatal survival in giant anteaters.
Project description:Cortisol (Cr), the most important glucocorticoid (GC), is well known to suppress uterine prostaglandin F2α (PGF) production. However, the details of the regulatory mechanisms controlling the cyclic changes in endometrial PGF production remain unclear. Here we investigated the expression of the GC receptor (GC-Rα), the actions of cortisol throughout the estrous cycle and the regulatory mechanism of GC-Rα in the bovine endometrium. The levels of GC-Rα protein were greater at the mid-luteal stage (Days 8-12) than at the other stages. Cr more strongly suppressed PGF production at the mid-luteal stage than at the follicular stage. GC-Rα expression was increased by progesterone (P4) but decreased by estradiol-17β (E2) in cultured endometrial stromal cells. The overall results suggest that ovarian steroid hormones control the cyclic changes in endometrial PGF production by regulating GC-Rα expression in bovine endometrial stromal cells.