Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms for Proteinuria in Minimal Change Disease.
ABSTRACT: Minimal Change Disease (MCD) is a clinical condition characterized by acute nephrotic syndrome, no evident renal lesions at histology and good response to steroids. However, frequent recurrence of the disease requires additional therapies associated with steroids. Such multi-drug dependence and frequent relapses may cause disease evolution to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) over time. The differences between the two conditions are not well defined, since molecular mechanisms may be shared by the two diseases. In some cases, genetic analysis can make it possible to distinguish MCD from FSGS; however, there are cases of overlap. Several hypotheses on mechanisms underlying MCD and potential molecular triggers have been proposed. Most studies were conducted on animal models of proteinuria that partially mimic MCD and may be useful to study glomerulosclerosis evolution; however, they do not demonstrate a clear-cut separation between MCD and FSGS. Puromycin Aminonucleoside and Adriamycin nephrosis are models of glomerular oxidative damage, characterized by loss of glomerular basement membrane polyanions resembling MCD at the onset and, at more advanced stages, by glomerulosclerosis resembling FSGS. Also Buffalo/Mna rats present initial lesions of MCD, subsequently evolving to FSGS; this mechanism of renal damage is clearer since this rat strain inherits the unique characteristic of overexpressing Th2 cytokines. In Lipopolysaccharide nephropathy, an immunological condition of renal toxicity linked to B7-1(CD80), mice develop transient proteinuria that lasts a few days. Overall, animal models are useful and necessary considering that they reproduce the evolution from MCD to FSGS that is, in part, due to persistence of proteinuria. The role of T/Treg/Bcells on human MCD has been discussed. Many cytokines, immunomodulatory mechanisms, and several molecules have been defined as a specific cause of proteinuria. However, the hypothesis of a single cell subset or molecule as cause of MCD is not supported by research and an interactive process seems more logical. The implication or interactive role of oxidants, Th2 cytokines, Th17, Tregs, B7-1(CD80), CD40/CD40L, c-Mip, TNF, uPA/suPAR, Angiopoietin-like 4 still awaits a definitive confirmation. Whole genome sequencing studies could help to define specific genetic features that justify a definition of MCD as a "clinical-pathology-genetic entity."
Project description:Abatacept (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-immunoglobulin fusion protein [CTLA-4-Ig]) is a costimulatory inhibitor that targets B7-1 (CD80). The present report describes five patients who had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (four with recurrent FSGS after transplantation and one with primary FSGS) and proteinuria with B7-1 immunostaining of podocytes in kidney-biopsy specimens. Abatacept induced partial or complete remissions of proteinuria in these patients, suggesting that B7-1 may be a useful biomarker for the treatment of some glomerulopathies. Our data indicate that abatacept may stabilize ?1-integrin activation in podocytes and reduce proteinuria in patients with B7-1-positive glomerular disease.
Project description:Introduction:Heterogeneity of nephrotic diseases and a lack of validated biomarkers limits interventions and reduces the ability to examine outcomes. Urinary CD80 is a potential biomarker for minimal change disease (MCD) steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (NS). We investigated and validated a CD80 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in urine in a large cohort with a variety of nephrotic diseases. Methods:A commercial CD80 ELISA was enhanced and analytically validated for urine. Patients were from Mayo Clinic (307) and Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network Consortium (NEPTUNE; 104) as follows: minimal change disease (MCD, 56), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, 92), lupus nephritis (LN, 25), IgA nephropathy (IgAN, 20), membranous nephropathy (MN, 49), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, 10), diabetic nephropathy (DN; 106), pyuria (19), and controls (34). Analysis was by Kruskal-Wallis test, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, and receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curve. Results:Urinary CD80/creatinine values were highest in MCD compared to other glomerular diseases and were increased in DN with proteinuria >2 compared to controls (control = 36 ng/g; MCD = 139 ng/g, P < 0.01; LN = 90 ng/g, P < 0.12; FSGS = 66 ng/g, P = 0.18; DN = 63, P = 0.03; MN = 69 ng/g, P = 0.33; ng/g, P = 0.07; IgA = 19 ng/g, P = 0.09; ADPKD = 42, P = 0.36; and pyuria 31, P = 0.20; GEE, median, P vs. control). In proteinuric patients, CD80 concentration appears to be independent of proteinuria levels, suggesting that it is unrelated to nonspecific passage across the glomeruli. CD80/creatinine values were higher in paired relapse versus remission cases of MCD and FSGS (P < 0.0001, GEE). Conclusion:Using a validated ELISA, urinary CD80 levels discriminate MCD from other forms of NS (FSGS, DN, IgA, MN) and primary from secondary FSGS.
Project description:A growing body of evidence demonstrates a correlation between Th2 cytokines and the development of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Therefore, we hypothesized that GSL-1, a monoglycosylceramide from Sphingomonas ssp. with pro-Th1 activity on invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) lymphocytes, could counterbalance the Th2 profile and modulate glomerulosclerosis. Using an adriamycin(ADM)-based model of FSGS, we found that BALB/c mice presented albuminuria and glomerular degeneration in association with a Th2-like pro-fibrogenic profile; these mice also expressed a combination of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-17, TNF-?, and chemokines, such as RANTES and eotaxin. In addition, we observed a decrease in the mRNA levels of GD3 synthase, the enzyme responsible for GD3 metabolism, a glycolipid associated with podocyte physiology. GSL-1 treatment inhibited ADM-induced renal dysfunction and preserved kidney architecture, a phenomenon associated with the induction of a Th1-like response, increased levels of GD3 synthase transcripts and inhibition of pro-fibrotic transcripts and inflammatory cytokines. TGF-? analysis revealed increased levels of circulating protein and tissue transcripts in both ADM- and GSL-1-treated mice, suggesting that TGF-? could be associated with both FSGS pathology and iNKT-mediated immunosuppression; therefore, we analyzed the kidney expression of phosphorylated SMAD2/3 and SMAD7 proteins, molecules associated with the deleterious and protective effects of TGF-?, respectively. We found high levels of phosphoSMAD2/3 in ADM mice in contrast to the GSL-1 treated group in which SMAD7 expression increased. These data suggest that GSL-1 treatment modulates the downstream signaling of TGF-? through a renoprotective pathway. Finally, GSL-1 treatment at day 4, a period when proteinuria was already established, was still able to improve renal function, preserve renal structure and inhibit fibrogenic transcripts. In conclusion, our work demonstrates that the iNKT agonist GSL-1 modulates the pathogenesis of ADM-induced glomerulosclerosis and may provide an alternative approach to disease management.
Project description:CD80, which regulates T cell activation, may provide a differential diagnostic marker between minimal change disease (MCD) and other renal diseases, including focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS). However, recent reports show contrasting results. Therefore, we evaluated the utility of urinary CD80 as a diagnostic biomarker. We collected 65 urine samples from 55 patients with MCD (n?=?31), FSGS (n?=?4), inherited nephrotic syndrome (n?=?4), Alport syndrome (n?=?5) and other glomerular diseases (n?=?11), and control samples (n?=?30). We measured urinary CD80 levels by ELISA. Urinary CD80 (ng/gCr) (median, interquartile range) levels were significantly higher in patients with MCD in relapse (91.5, 31.1-356.0), FSGS (376.2, 62.7-1916.0), and inherited nephrotic syndrome (220.1, 62.9-865.3), than in patients with MCD in remission (29.5, 21.7-52.8) (p?<?0.05). Elevation of urinary CD80 was observed, even in patients with inherited nephrotic syndrome unrelated to T cell activation. Additionally, urinary CD80 was positively correlated with urinary protein levels. Our results suggest that urinary CD80 is unreliable as a differential diagnostic marker between MCD in relapse and FSGS or inherited kidney diseases. Increased urinary CD80 excretion was present in all patients with active kidney disease.
Project description:Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a renal disorder that is characterized by massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and edema. One of the main causes of NS is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), which has extremely poor prognosis. Although steroids and immunosuppressants are the first line of treatment, some FSGS cases are refractory, prompting the need to find new therapeutic strategies. We have previously demonstrated that an optimized combination treatment of mild electrical stimulation (MES) and heat shock (HS) has several biological benefits including the amelioration of the pathologies of the genetic renal disorder Alport syndrome. Here, we investigated the effect of MES?+?HS on adriamycin (ADR)-induced NS mouse model. MES?+?HS suppressed proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis induced by ADR. The expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-fibrotic genes were also significantly downregulated by MES?+?HS. MES?+?HS decreased the expression level of cleaved caspase-3 and the number of TUNEL-positive cells, indicating that MES?+?HS exerted anti-apoptotic effect. Moreover, MES?+?HS activated the Akt signaling and induced the phosphorylation and inhibition of the apoptotic molecule BAD. In in vitro experiment, the Akt inhibitor abolished the MES?+?HS-induced Akt-BAD signaling and anti-apoptotic effect in ADR-treated cells. Collectively, our study suggested that MES?+?HS modulates ADR-induced pathologies and has renoprotective effect against ADR-induced NS via regulation of Akt-BAD axis.
Project description:Although C1q nephropathy (C1qN) was introduced three decades ago, the clinical significance and renal outcomes of C1qN remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of C1qN, including renal outcomes, by performing a matched comparison within a multicenter cohort. We enrolled 6,413 adult patients who underwent kidney biopsy between January 2000 and January 2018 at three tertiary hospitals in Korea. We compared the clinical characteristics of 23 patients with C1qN with those of patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) or minimal change disease (MCD) who were matched by age, sex, diabetic status, and a period of biopsy. Histological and clinical parameters in patients with C1qN were also evaluated according to the different pathological phenotypes. For a mean follow-up period of 92 months, 4 patients with C1qN (17.4%) developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD). None of the matched patients with MCD had ESRD, but 7 (30.4%) of patients with FSGS progressed to ESRD, which was not different from that of C1qN patients (p = 0.491). Laboratory and pathological findings, except segmental glomerulosclerosis, were not notably different between FSGS and C1qN. The presence of segmental glomerulosclerosis, mesangial hypercellularity, and podocyte effacement did not affect both the short- and long-term renal outcomes in patients with C1qN. Our study showed that the renal outcomes of C1qN are comparable with those of FSGS, and not with MCD. Specific pathological findings, including segmental glomerulosclerosis in C1qN, were not associated with renal outcomes, which may suggest homogeneity in the clinical features of C1qN.
Project description:FSGS is a common glomerular disorder that has a high propensity for recurrence after kidney transplant. The pathophysiology of FSGS is unknown, but podocytes seem to be the target of one or several circulating factors that lead to cytoskeleton reorganization and proteinuria. Research on podocytes has identified B7-1 as an important factor in podocyte biology and a new therapeutic target in renal disease. Indeed, in four patients with recurrent FSGS after transplant, treatment with the B7-1 blocker abatacept was associated with proteinuria remission. Here, we prospectively treated nine patients with recurrent FSGS after transplant using either abatacept or belatacept, a B7-1 blocker with higher affinity, and did not induce proteinuria remission. Furthermore, we did not detect B7-1 expression by immunofluorescence in podocytes of biopsy specimens from these or other kidney grafts or podocytes of native kidney biopsy specimens. In conclusion, B7-1 blockade did not induce FSGS remission after transplant in our study.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and minimal change disease (MCD) is a leading cause of end-stage kidney disease in children. Recurrence of primary disease following transplantation is a major cause of allograft loss. The clinical determinants of disease recurrence are not completely known. Our objectives were to determine risk factors for recurrence of FSGS/MCD following kidney transplantation and factors that predict response to immunosuppression following recurrence. METHODS:Multicenter study of pediatric patients with kidney transplants performed for ESKD due to SRNS between 1/2006 and 12/2015. Demographics, clinical course, and biopsy data were collected. Patients with primary-SRNS (PSRNS) were defined as those initially resistant to corticosteroid therapy at diagnosis, and patients with late-SRNS (LSRNS) as those initially responsive to steroids who subsequently developed steroid resistance. We performed logistic regression to determine risk factors associated with nephrotic syndrome (NS) recurrence. RESULTS:We analyzed 158 patients; 64 (41%) had recurrence of NS in their renal allograft. Disease recurrence occurred in 78% of patients with LSRNS compared to 39% of those with PSRNS. Patients with MCD on initial native kidney biopsy had a 76% recurrence rate compared with a 40% recurrence rate in those with FSGS. Multivariable analysis showed that MCD histology (OR; 95% CI 5.6; 1.3-23.7) compared to FSGS predicted disease recurrence. CONCLUSIONS:Pediatric patients with MCD and LSRNS are at higher risk of disease recurrence following kidney transplantation. These findings may be useful for designing studies to test strategies for preventing recurrence.
Project description:There are controversies whether Minimal Change Disease (MCD) and Focal and Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are distinct glomerular lesions or different manifestations within the same spectrum of diseases. The uPAR (urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor) and some slit diaphragm proteins may be altered in FSGS glomeruli and may function as biomarkers of the disease in renal biopsies. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the diagnostic potential of uPAR and glomerular proteins for differentiation between MCD and FSGS in renal pediatric biopsy. Renal biopsies from 50 children between 2 and 18 years old were selected, with diagnosis of MCD (n = 29) and FSGS (n = 21). Control group consisted of pediatric autopsies (n = 15) from patients younger than 18 years old, with no evidences of renal dysfunction. In situ expressions of WT1, nephrin, podocin and uPAR were evaluated by immunoperoxidase technique. Renal biopsy of patients with MCD and FSGS expressed fewer WT1 (p≤0.0001, F = 19.35) and nephrin (p<0.0001; H = 21.54) than patients in the control group. FSGS patients expressed fewer podocin than control (p<0.0359, H = 6.655). FSGS cases expressed more uPAR than each of control and MCD (p = 0.0019; H = 12.57) and there was a positive and significant correlation between nephrin and podocin (p = 0.0026, rS = 0.6502) in these cases. Podocin had sensitivity of 73.3% and specificity of 86.7% (p = 0.0068) and uPAR had sensitivity of 78.9% and specificity of 73.3% (p = 0.0040) for diagnosis of FSGS patients. The main limitation of the study is the limited number of cases due to the difficulty in performing biopsy in pediatric patients. Podocin and uPAR are good markers for FSGS and differentiate these cases from MCD, reinforcing the theory of distinct glomerular diseases. These findings suggest that podocin and uPAR can be used as biomarkers in the routine analysis of renal biopsies in cases of podocytopathies when the lesion (sclerosis) is not sampled.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Minimal change disease (MCD) and primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are the main causes of primary idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children and adults, with diagnosis being essential for the appropriate choice of therapy and requiring renal biopsy. However, the presence of only normal glomeruli on renal biopsy of FSGS patients may lead to the misclassification of these patients as having MCD. The aim of this study was to (i) compare the peptide profile of MCD and FSGS patients with that of a group of healthy subjects, (ii) generate and validate a class prediction model to classify MCD and FSGS patients and (ii) identify candidate biomarkers of these glomerular entities by analysis of the urinary peptidome.<h4>Methods</h4>The urinary peptide profile was analyzed by magnetic bead-based technology combined with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in 44 patients diagnosed of MCD (n?=?22) and FSGS (n?=?22). The resulting spectra were compiled and analyzed using ClinProTools software.<h4>Results</h4>A class prediction model was developed to differentiate MCD and FSGS patients. The validation of this model correctly classified 81.8% (9/11) of MCD patients and 72.7% (8/11) of FSGS patients. Moreover, the signal with m/z 1913.60, identified as a fragment of uromodulin, and the signal with m/z 2392.54, identified as a fragment of alpha-1-antitrypsin, showed higher and lower peak areas, respectively, in FSGS patients compared with MCD patients.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The simple, non-invasive technique described in the present study may be a useful tool to help clinicians by confirming diagnoses achieved by renal biopsy, thereby reducing misdiagnoses and avoiding the implementation of inappropriate therapies.