Parenting style impacts cognitive and behavioural outcomes of former preterm infants: A systematic review.
ABSTRACT: We sought to evaluate published evidence in aggregate regarding the impact of parenting style on the cognitive and behavioural outcomes of former preterm infants. We searched 5 databases using germane MeSH terms. Parenting style was defined as any descriptor of parenting using ?2 dimensions on published parenting axes. We evaluated studies for quality of evidence and strength of recommendations using standardized tools and categorized summative recommendations by parenting axis and child outcome. Twenty-seven articles met our inclusion criteria. Parental responsivity is the only parenting axis strongly associated with both improved child cognition and behaviour. Parental demandingness is associated only with improved child cognition, and parental warmth and rejection are associated only with child behaviour. Parental coercion is not associated with subsequent child outcomes. Parental responsivity may be essential in optimizing neurodevelopment in former preterm infants. More targeted studies are needed to inform this relationship and identify opportunities for intervention.
Project description:Parents interact with children following specific styles, known to influence child development. These styles represent variations in the dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness, resulting in authoritarian, authoritative, permissive or uninvolved parenting. Given the similarities in the parent to child and owner to dog relationships, we determined the extent to which parenting styles exist in the owner to dog relationship using the existing Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire for the parent-child relationship and an adapted version for dog owners. Items on the parenting of children/dogs were rated for applicability on a five-point Likert scale by 518 Dutch dog owning parents. Principal Component Analyses grouped parenting propensities into styles, with some marked differences between the findings for children and dogs. Dog-directed items grouped into an authoritarian-correction orientated style, incorporating variation in demandingness and focussing on correcting a dog for behaviour verbally/physically, and in two styles based on authoritative items. An authoritative-intrinsic value orientated style reflected variation in mainly responsiveness and oriented on the assumed needs and emotions of the animal. A second authoritative-item based style, captured variations in demandingness and responsiveness. We labelled this style authoritative-training orientated, as it orientated on manners in teaching a dog how to behave in social situations. Thus, we defined dog-directed parenting styles and constructed a Dog-Directed Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire along the lines of the existing theoretical framework on parenting styles. We did not find a dog-directed parenting style of being permissive or uninvolved, which we attribute to a study population of devoted dog owners and our findings should be interpreted with this specific study population in mind. We found evidence of dog-directed parenting styles and provide a fundament for determining their possible impact on the different aspects of a dog's life.
Project description:AIM:Early-life atypical sensory functioning and behavioural profiles are often associated with long-term developmental problems, especially in former preterm infants. We tested whether parenting style is associated with atypical sensory threshold or behavioural outcomes in preterm and term infants assessed during early childhood. METHODS:We prospectively evaluated parenting style for a cohort of term and preterm infants who had previous assessments of sensory development and behaviour. We used standardised tools to evaluate parenting style, sensory neurological threshold at one year, and internalising and externalising behavioural tendencies at two years. Covariates included gestational age, sex and maternal education. RESULTS:For the entire cohort (n = 82), children of more permissive parents were 2.7 times more likely to demonstrate abnormal sensory neurological thresholds compared to children of parents with less permissive styles (CI: 1.4-4.9). More permissive parenting scores were also associated with 2.4 times increased internalising (CI: 1.3-4.2) and 3.0 times increased externalising (CI: 1.6-5.6) tendencies. In the preterm group only, higher authoritative parenting scores were associated with fewer behavioural problems. CONCLUSION:Permissive parenting is associated with worse infant sensory and behavioural outcomes. Authoritative parenting is associated with fewer behavioural problems in preterm children. Modification of parenting style may improve sensory development and behavioural outcomes.
Project description:Physical activity parenting (PAP) is consistently correlated with children's physical activity (PA). Children's perception of PAP has garnered little attention given that it mediates the relationship between PAP and child PA outcomes. This study aimed to examine 7-10-year-old children's perspectives on PAP practices and how they relate to their motivational regulation of PA. A total of 79 children 7-10 years of age participated in 19 semi-structured focus group interviews. Through qualitative theory-guided content analysis, using frameworks of parenting dimensions and self-determination theory (SDT), we found that children's perceptions of high responsiveness and low demandingness in PAP-according to SDT, autonomy support, involvement, and structure-were associated with satisfaction of all three psychological basic needs-autonomy, competence, and relatedness. In contrast, perceptions of high demandingness and low responsiveness in PAP, i.e., coercive control, were associated with dissatisfaction of autonomy need. However, perceptions of high demandingness and high responsiveness in PAP, specifically parental expectations and facilitation of PA, were associated with satisfaction of competence need. It seems possible to identify different types of PAP practices associated with children's motivation for PA. Different forms of parental demandingness with differing motivational outcomes were uniquely identified from the children's perceptions of PAP.
Project description:Parenting a preterm infant is more challenging than a full-term one. Parent involvement in early intervention programs seems to have positive psychosocial effects on both the child and parent. CareToy is an innovative smart system that provides an intensive individualized home-based family-centred EI in preterm infants between 3 and 9 age-corrected months. A RCT study, preceded by a pilot study, has been recently carried out to evaluate the effects of CareToy intervention on neurodevelopmental outcomes with respect to Standard Care. This study aims at evaluating the effects of CareToy early intervention on parenting stress in preterm infants. Parents (mother and father) of a subgroup of infants enrolled in the RCT filled out a self-report questionnaire on parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)) before (T0) and after (T1) the CareToy or Standard Care period (4 weeks), according to the allocation of their preterm infant. For twins, an individual questionnaire for each one was filled out. Results obtained from mothers and fathers were separately analysed with nonparametric tests. 44 mothers and 44 fathers of 44 infants (24 CareToy/20 Standard Care) filled out the PSI-SF at T0 and at T1. CareToy intervention was mainly managed by mothers. A significant (p < 0.05) reduction in Parental Distress subscale in the CareToy group versus Standard Care was found in the mothers. No differences were found among the fathers. CareToy training seems to be effective in reducing parental distress in mothers, who spent more time on CareToy intervention. These findings confirm the importance of parental involvement in early intervention programs. This trial is registered with Clinical Trial.gov NCT01990183.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While parental post-trauma support is considered theoretically important for child adjustment, empirical evidence concerning the specific aspects of parental responding that influence child post-traumatic distress, or the processes via which any such impacts occur, is extremely limited. We conducted a longitudinal examination of whether parental post-trauma appraisals, trauma-specific support style and general parenting style predicted child post-traumatic stress symptom severity (PTSS) following trauma; and whether such influences operated via the child's own appraisals and coping style. METHOD:We recruited 132 parent-child pairs following children's experience of acute trauma. We examined whether parental responses assessed at 1-month post-trauma, predicted child PTSS at 6-month follow-up. Parental trauma-specific appraisals and responses, and general parenting style, were assessed via both self-report and direct observations. Child-report questionnaires were used to assess PTSS and potential mediators. RESULTS:Initial parent negative appraisals and encouragement of avoidant coping were associated with higher child-reported PTSS at 6-month follow-up. Predictive effects were maintained even when controlling for initial child symptom levels. Observational assessments broadly supported conclusions from self-report. There was evidence that parental influences may operate, in part, by influencing the child's own appraisals and coping responses. In contrast, there was no evidence for an influence of more "adaptive" support or general parenting style on child PTSS. CONCLUSIONS:Findings provide important insight into how elements of social support may influence child post-trauma outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Preterm-born or asphyxiated term-born children who received neonatal intensive care show more emotional and behavioral problems than term-born children without a medical condition. It is uncertain whether regular parenting intervention programs to which the parents of these children are usually referred, are effective in reducing child problem behavior in this specific population. Our objective was to investigate whether a regular, brief parenting intervention, Primary Care Triple P, is effective in decreasing emotional and behavioral problems in preterm-born or asphyxiated term-born preschoolers. METHODS: For this pragmatic, open randomized clinical trial, participants were recruited from a cohort of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) of two Dutch hospitals. Children born with a gestational age <32 weeks or birth weight <1500 g and children born at a gestational age 37-42 weeks with perinatal asphyxia were included. After screening for a t-score ?60 on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), children were randomly assigned to Primary Care Triple P (n = 34) or a wait-list control group (n = 33). The primary outcome was child emotional and behavioral problems reported by parents on the CBCL, 6 months after the start of the trial. RESULTS: There was no effect of the intervention on the CBCL at the trial endpoint (t64 = 0.54, P = .30). On secondary measurements of child problem behavior, parenting style, parenting stress, and parent perceived child vulnerability, groups either did not differ significantly or the intervention group showed more problems. In both the intervention and control group there was a significant decrease in emotional and behavioral problems during the trial. CONCLUSIONS: Primary Care Triple P, a brief parenting intervention, is not effective in reducing child emotional and behavioral problems in preterm-born children or term-born children with perinatal asphyxia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR): NTR2179.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Early childhood parenting interventions are increasingly delivered in primary care, but parental engagement with those interventions is often suboptimal. We sought to better understand parents' preferences for the content and delivery method of behavioral health guidance in pediatric primary care and to determine the relationship of those preferences with demographic characteristics, child behavior problems, and parenting style. METHODS:Participants were 396 parents of young children recruited from primary care offices. We collected measures of parental preferences (including behavioral topics, intervention strategies, and methods of delivery) for behavioral intervention in primary care, child behavior symptoms, parenting style, and demographic characteristics. Descriptive statistics were used to identify parents' most preferred behavioral topics and intervention delivery methods. We used a hierarchical regression approach to determine whether parenting style predicted parents' preferences beyond demographic and child-level factors. RESULTS:Nearly all parents (96%) endorsed a behavioral topic (e.g., aggression) as important. Most preferred to receive intervention during routine medical appointments. Child behavior problems correlated with parents' overall interest in behavioral guidance, but clinically significant symptoms did not differentiate interest in any single topic. Socioeconomic factors and negative parenting practices predicted some parental preferences. Notably, lax parenting generally predicted higher interest in behavioral intervention, whereas hostile and physically controlling parenting predicted lower interest. CONCLUSION:Most parents are interested in behavioral guidance as part of primary care, but their preferences for the content and delivery of that guidance vary by known socioeconomic, child, and parenting risk factors. Tailoring intervention to parents' preferences may increase engagement with available interventions.
Project description:Background:Parent feeding styles have been linked to child weight status across multiple studies. However, to our knowledge, the link between feeding styles and children's dietary quality, a more proximal outcome, has not been investigated. Objective:The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between parent feeding styles and dietary quality of Head Start preschoolers' dinner meals. Design:The amount of food served and consumed by children was measured by using a standardized digital photography method during 3 in-home dinner observations of low-income minority families in Houston, Texas. Trained dietitians entered food served and consumed into the Nutrient Data System for Research 2009 for nutrient analysis. Overall dietary quality of the food served and consumed at dinner was evaluated by using the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Parent feeding style was assessed with the use of the Caregiver's Feeding Style Questionnaire (CFSQ). On the basis of a parent's level of demandingness and responsiveness to his or her child during feeding, the CFSQ categorizes parent feeding into 4 styles: authoritative (high demandingness and high responsiveness), authoritarian (high demandingness and low responsiveness), indulgent (low demandingness and high responsiveness), or uninvolved (low demandingness and low responsiveness). Results:For the overall sample, the mean ± SD HEI score for dinner served was 44.2 ± 8.4, and the mean ± SD HEI score for dinner consumed was 43.4 ± 7.0. In the fully adjusted model, ANCOVA indicated that the authoritative parent feeding style was associated with significantly higher child dietary quality compared with the authoritarian feeding style (mean ± SEE HEI consumed-authoritative 45.5 ± 0.9; authoritarian: 41.9 ± 0.7; P = 0.001). Conclusions:Parent feeding style contributes to the overall dietary quality of children, and among low-income minority preschoolers an authoritative feeding style was associated with the highest dietary quality of the 4 feeding styles. Interventions to promote feeding practices that contribute to authoritative feeding are needed to improve the dietary quality of preschool children at dinner. This trial was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02696278.
Project description:Preterm birth affects 8% to 11% of the population and conveys a significant risk of developmental delays. Intervention programs that support child development have been shown to have a positive impact on early motor and cognitive development and on parental well-being. However, these programs are often difficult to implement in a real-life setting due to lack of resources. Hence, our multidisciplinary team developed Mieux Agir au Quotidien (MAQ) to teach developmentally supportive care to parents of preterm infants with the goal of improving child development and parental outcomes. Our intervention included 3 in-person workshops that occurred prior to hospital discharge and a Web-based platform with written and videotaped materials that addressed 5 main themes: (1) infant behavioral cues, (2) flexion positioning; (3) oral feeding support, (4) parent-infant interactions, and (5) anticipation of developmental milestones.This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention by parents of preterm infants and assess clinical benefits on child neurodevelopment and parental outcomes during the first year of life.A total of 107 infants born at <30 weeks and admitted to Sainte-Justine Hospital neonatal intensive care unit and their parents were enrolled in a nonrandomized controlled before-and-after interventional study (intervention n=55, comparison n=52). Acceptability of the program was assessed with a user satisfaction questionnaire. When the infants were at 4 months' corrected age, all parents completed questionnaires on infant temperament, parenting stress, sense of competence, and parenting satisfaction. At 12 months' corrected age, neurodevelopmental testing was performed on infants using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. Comparisons between the 2 groups were done using independent t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Fisher exact tests.The majority of parents (43/45) were satisfied with the intervention program and all would recommend MAQ to others. MAQ met their need for evidence-based information that proved useful to support their child development. No difference in parental or child neurodevelopmental outcomes was detected in this pilot study for most outcomes except for higher median scores for parental coercive behaviors in the intervention group, although proportions scoring in the coercive range did not differ.Acceptability of the program was high among parents thus supporting the relevance of such intervention. A larger study using a randomized controlled trial design is needed to better document impact on parent and children and investigate how Web-based technologies can efficiently complement individualized intervention to alleviate the burden on health care resources.
Project description:At 18 months, children show marked variability in their social-cognitive skill development, and the preponderance of past research has focused on constitutional and contextual factors in explaining this variability. Extending this literature, the current study examined whether cumulative biomedical risk represents another source of variability in social cognition at 18 months. Further, we aimed to determine whether responsive parenting moderated the association between biomedical risk and social cognition. A prospective community birth cohort of 501 families was recruited at the time of the child's birth. Cumulative biomedical risk was measured as a count of 10 prenatal/birth complications. Families were followed up at 18 months, at which point social-cognitive data was collected on children's joint attention, empathy, cooperation, and self-recognition using previously validated tasks. Concurrently, responsive maternal behavior was assessed through observational coding of mother-child interactions. After controlling for covariates (e.g., age, gender, child language, socioeconomic variables), both cumulative biomedical risk and maternal responsivity significantly predicted social cognition at 18 months. Above and beyond these main effects, there was also a significant interaction between biomedical risk and maternal responsivity, such that higher biomedical risk was significantly associated with compromised social cognition at 18 months, but only in children who experienced low levels of responsive parenting. For those receiving comparatively high levels of responsive parenting, there was no apparent effect of biomedical risk on social cognition. This study shows that cumulative biomedical risk may be one source of inter-individual variability in social cognition at 18 months. However, positive postnatal experiences, particularly high levels of responsive parenting, may protect children against the deleterious effects of these risks on social cognition.