Evolution of thiolate-stabilized Ag nanoclusters from Ag-thiolate cluster intermediates.
ABSTRACT: The synthesis of atomically precise thiolate-stabilized silver (Ag) nanoclusters is the subject of intense research interest, yet the formation mechanism of such nanoclusters remains obscure. Here, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is successfully applied to monitor the reaction intermediates formed during the sodium-borohydride-reduction of silver 4-tert-butylbenzenethiolate (AgSPh-tBu). We demonstrate a unique evolution route to thiolate-stabilized Ag nanoclusters mediated by Ag-thiolate clusters. The Ag-thiolate clusters form in the initial stage of reduction contain tens of Ag atoms and similar number of ligands, and they are transformed into Ag17(SPh-tBu)123- and Ag44(SPh-tBu)304- nanoclusters in the later reduction process. The number of Ag atoms in the Ag-thiolate clusters determines the reaction path to each final nanocluster product. A similar mechanism is found when silver 2,4-dimethylbenzenethiolate (AgSPhMe2) is used as precursor. This mechanism differs markedly from the long-established bottom-up evolution process, providing valuable new insights into the synthesis of metal nanoclusters.
Project description:We report a simple strategy to grow highly fluorescing, near-infrared-emitting nanoclusters (NCs) made of bimetallic Au/Ag cores, surface capped with a mixture of triphenylphosphine and various monothiol ligands. The ligands include short chain aliphatic monothiols, which yields hydrophobic NCs, and poly(ethylene glycol)- or zwitterion-appended monothiols, which yield NCs that are readily dispersible in buffer media. The reaction uses well-defined triphenylphosphine-protected Au11 clusters (as precursors) that are reacted with Ag(i)-thiolate complexes. The prepared materials are small (diameter <2 nm, as characterized by TEM) with emission peak at 730-760 nm and long lifetime (?8-12 ?s). The quantum yield measured for these materials in both hydrophobic and hydrophilic dispersions is ?40%. High-magnification dark field STEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show the presence of both metal atoms in the core, with measured binding energies that agree with reported values for nanocluster materials. The NIR emission combined with high quantum yield, small size, colloidal stability in buffer media and ease of surface functionalization afforded by the coating, make these materials suitable for investigating fundamental questions and potentially useful for biological sensing and imaging applications.
Project description:Surface organic ligands are critical in determining the formation and properties of atomically precise metal nanoclusters. In contrast to the conventionally used thiolate, phosphine and alkynyl ligands, the amine ligand dipyridylamine is applied here as a protecting agent in the synthesis of atomically precise metal nanoclusters. We report two homoleptic amido-protected Ag nanoclusters as examples of all-nitrogen-donor-protected metal nanoclusters: [Ag21(dpa)12]SbF6 (Ag21) and [Ag22(dpa)12](SbF6)2 (Ag22) (dpa = dipyridylamido). Single crystal X-ray structural analysis reveals that both clusters consist of a centered-icosahedron Ag13 core wrapped by 12 dpa ligands. The flexible arrangement of the N donors in dpa facilitates the solvent-triggered reversible interconversion between Ag21 and Ag22 due to their very different solubility. The successful use of dpa in the synthesis of well-defined silver nanoclusters may motivate more studies on metal nanoclusters protected by amido type ligands.
Project description:Here, we report the synthesis of dopamine (DA)-mediated Au-Ag bimetallic nanoclusters in aqueous solution under UV activation. The success story emerges from monometallic fluorescent nanocluster evolution from photoactivation of gold as well as silver precursor compounds along with DA. The intriguing fluorescence property of the nanocluster relates to facile incorporation of Ag in Au, showing a 6-fold enhancement of the emission profile than simply DA-mediated Au nanoclusters. Silver effect, which is classified under the synergism, is the main reason behind such enhancement of fluorescence. The as-synthesized nanoclusters are robust and can be vacuum-dried and redispersed for repetitive application. The intriguing fluorescence of bimetallic nanoclusters is found to be quenched selectively in the presence of sulfide ion in an aqueous medium, paving the way for nanomolar detection of sulfide in water. The utility of the sensing platform has been verified employing different environmental water effluents.
Project description:This work presents a controlled reduction method for the selective synthesis of different sized gold nanoclusters protected by thiolate (SR?=?SC2H4Ph). Starting with Au(III) salt, all the syntheses of Aun(SR)m nanoclusters with (n, m)?=?(20, 16), (24, 20), (39, 29), and (40, 30) necessitate experimental conditions of slow stirring and slow reduction of Au(I) intermediate species. By controlling the reaction kinetics for the reduction of Au(I) into clusters by NaBH4, different sized gold nanoclusters are selectively obtained. Two factors are identified to be important for the selective growth of Au20, Au24, and Au39/40 nanoclusters, including the stirring speed of the Au(I) solution and the NaBH4 addition speed during the step of Au(I) reduction to clusters. When comparing with the synthesis of Au25(SC2H4Ph)18 nanoclusters, we further identified that the reduction degree of Au(I) by NaBH4 also plays an important role in controlling cluster size. Overall, our results demonstrate the feasibility of attaining new sizes of gold nanoclusters via a controlled reduction route.
Project description:We report the synthesis and crystal structure of a nanocluster composed of 23 silver atoms capped by 8 phosphine and 18 phenylethanethiolate ligands. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals that the kernel of the Ag nanocluster adopts a helical face-centered cubic structure with C2 symmetry. The thiolate ligands show two binding patterns with the surface Ag atoms: tri- and tetra-podal types. The tetra-coordination mode of thiolate has not been found in previous Ag nanoclusters. No counter ion (e.g., Na+ and NO3-) is found in the single-crystal and the absence of such ions is also confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, indicating electrical neutrality of the nanocluster. Interestingly, the nanocluster has an open shell electronic structure (i.e., 23(Ag 5s1)-18(SR)?=?5e), as confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations are performed to correlate the structure and optical absorption/emission spectra of the Ag nanocluster.
Project description:In order to assess the sensitivity and complementarity of X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies for determining changes in the metal ligation sphere, a systematic experimental and theoretical study of iron model complexes has been carried out. A series of high-spin ferrous complexes, in which the ligation sphere has been varied from a three-coordinate complex, [L(tBu)Fe(SPh)] (1) (where L(tBu) = bulky ?-diketiminate ligand; SPh = phenyl thiolate) to four-coordinate complexes [L(tBu)Fe(SPh)(X)] (where X = CN(t)Bu (2); 1-methylimidazole (3); or N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) (4)), has been investigated using a combination of Fe K-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) and K? X-ray emission (XES) spectroscopies. The Fe K XAS pre-edge and edge of all four complexes are consistent with a high-spin ferrous assignment, with the largest differences in the pre-edge intensities attributed to changes in covalency of the fourth coordination site. The X-ray emission spectra show pronounced changes in the valence to core region (V2C) as the identity of the coordinated ligand is varied. The experimental results have been correlated to density functional theory (DFT) calculations, to understand key molecular orbital contributions to the observed absorption and emission features. The calculations also have been extended to a series of hypothetical high-spin iron complexes to understand the sensitivity of XAS and XES techniques to different ligand protonation states ([L(tBu)Fe(II)(SPh)(NHn)](3-n) (n = 3, 2, 1, 0)), metal oxidation states [L(tBu)Fe(SPh)(N)](n-) (n = 3, 2, 1), and changes in the ligand identity [L(tBu)Fe(IV)(SPh)(X)](n-) (X = C(4-), N(3-), O(2-); n = 2, 1, 0). This study demonstrates that XAS pre-edge data have greater sensitivity to changes in oxidation state, while valence to core (V2C) XES data provide a more sensitive probe of ligand identity and protonation state. The combination of multiple X-ray spectroscopic methods with DFT results thus has the potential to provide for detailed characterization of complex inorganic systems in both chemical and biological catalysis.
Project description:The new iron(II)-thiolate complexes [((iPr)BIP)Fe(II)(SPh)(Cl)] (1) and [((iPr)BIP)Fe(II)(SPh)(OTf)] (2) [BIP = bis(imino)pyridine] were prepared as models for cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), which converts Cys to Cys-SO(2)H at a (His)(3)Fe(II) center. Reaction of 1 and 2 with O(2) leads to Fe-oxygenation and S-oxygenation, respectively. For 1 + O(2), the spectroscopic and reactivity data, including (18)O isotope studies, are consistent with an assignment of an iron(IV)-oxo complex, [((iPr)BIP)Fe(IV)(O)(Cl)](+) (3), as the product of oxygenation. In contrast, 2 + O(2) results in direct S-oxygenation to give a sulfonato product, PhSO(3)(-). The positioning of the thiolate ligand in 1 versus 2 appears to play a critical role in determining the outcome of O(2) activation. The thiolate ligands in 1 and 2 are essential for O(2) reactivity and exhibit an important influence over the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox potential.
Project description:By employing DNAzyme as a recognition group and amplifier, and DNA-stabilized silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs) as signal reporters, we reported for the first time a label-free catalytic and molecular beacon as an amplified biosensing platform for highly selective detection of cofactors such as Pb(2+) and L-histidine.
Project description:DNA-stabilized silver clusters (Ag-DNA) show excellent promise as a multi-functional nanoagent for molecular investigations in living cells. The unique properties of these fluorescent nanomaterials allow for intracellular optical sensors with tunable cytotoxicity based on simple modifications of the DNA sequences. Three Ag-DNA nanoagent designs are investigated, exhibiting optical responses to the intracellular environments and sensing-capability of ions, functional inside living cells. Their sequence-dependent fluorescence responses inside living cells include (1) a strong splitting of the fluorescence peak for a DNA hairpin construct, (2) an excitation and emission shift of up to 120?nm for a single-stranded DNA construct, and (3) a sequence robust in fluorescence properties. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of these Ag-DNA constructs is tunable, ranging from highly cytotoxic to biocompatible Ag-DNA, independent of their optical sensing capability. Thus, Ag-DNA represents a versatile live-cell nanoagent addressable towards anti-cancer, patient-specific and anti-bacterial applications.
Project description:Silver has been widely used in various medical products because of its antibacterial properties. However, there is only limited information concerning silver-related cytotoxicity. In this study we show that Ag(+) at low nanomolar concentrations (<10 nM) strongly inhibits the activity of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK) (Slo1), a widely expressed and physiologically important potassium channel. The Ag(+) inhibition is caused by irreversible modification on cytosolically accessible parts of the BK channel. At least four intracellular cysteines are involved in this process. In addition, at least one of these key cysteines is not accessible to the bulkier thiolate-active reagent [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulfonate bromide. One of the cysteine-less constructs generated in this study shows gating properties similar to wild-type BK channel but with much lower Ag(+) sensitivity, in which the Ag(+) modification rate was decreased by approximately 20-fold. The results from the present study suggest a possible contribution of BK channel inhibition to the cytotoxicity of Ag(+) in humans and other species.