Coupling of replisome movement with nucleosome dynamics can contribute to the parent-daughter information transfer.
ABSTRACT: Positioning of nucleosomes along the genomic DNA is crucial for many cellular processes that include gene regulation and higher order packaging of chromatin. The question of how nucleosome-positioning information from a parent chromatin gets transferred to the daughter chromatin is highly intriguing. Accounting for experimentally known coupling between replisome movement and nucleosome dynamics, we propose a model that can obtain de novo nucleosome assembly similar to what is observed in recent experiments. Simulating nucleosome dynamics during replication, we argue that short pausing of the replication fork, associated with nucleosome disassembly, can be a event crucial for communicating nucleosome positioning information from parent to daughter. We show that the interplay of timescales between nucleosome disassembly (?p) at the replication fork and nucleosome sliding behind the fork (?s) can give rise to a rich 'phase diagram' having different inherited patterns of nucleosome organization. Our model predicts that only when ?p ? ?s the daughter chromatin can inherit nucleosome positioning of the parent.
Project description:Ordered nucleosome disassembly and reassembly are required for eukaryotic DNA replication. The facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) complex, a histone chaperone comprising Spt16 and SSRP1, is involved in DNA replication as well as transcription. FACT associates with the MCM helicase, which is involved in DNA replication initiation and elongation. Although the FACT-MCM complex is reported to regulate DNA replication initiation, its functional role in DNA replication elongation remains elusive. To elucidate the functional role of FACT in replication fork progression during DNA elongation in the cells, we generated and analyzed conditional SSRP1 gene knock-out chicken (Gallus gallus) DT40 cells. SSRP1-depleted cells ceased to grow and exhibited a delay in S-phase cell cycle progression, although SSRP1 depletion did not affect the level of chromatin-bound DNA polymerase ? or nucleosome reassembly on daughter strands. The tracking length of newly synthesized DNA, but not origin firing, was reduced in SSRP1-depleted cells, suggesting that the S-phase cell cycle delay is mainly due to the inhibition of replication fork progression rather than to defects in the initiation of DNA replication in these cells. We discuss the mechanisms of how FACT promotes replication fork progression in the cells.
Project description:Chromatin is thought to carry epigenetic information from one generation to the next, although it is unclear how such information survives the disruptions of nucleosomal architecture occurring during genomic replication. Here, we measure a key aspect of chromatin structure dynamics during replication-how rapidly nucleosome positions are established on the newly replicated daughter genomes. By isolating newly synthesized DNA marked with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), we characterize nucleosome positions on both daughter genomes of S. cerevisiae during chromatin maturation. We find that nucleosomes rapidly adopt their mid-log positions at highly transcribed genes, which is consistent with a role for transcription in positioning nucleosomes in vivo. Additionally, experiments in hir1? mutants reveal a role for HIR in nucleosome spacing. We also characterized nucleosome positions on the leading and lagging strands, uncovering differences in chromatin maturation dynamics at hundreds of genes. Our data define the maturation dynamics of newly replicated chromatin and support a role for transcription in sculpting the chromatin template.
Project description:During DNA replication, chromatin must be disassembled and faithfully reassembled on newly synthesized genomes. The mechanisms that govern the assembly of chromatin structures following DNA replication are poorly understood. Here, we exploited Okazaki fragment synthesis and other assays to study how nucleosomes are deposited and become organized in S. cerevisiae. We observe that global nucleosome positioning is quickly established on newly synthesized DNA in vivo. Importantly, we find that ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzymes, Isw1 and Chd1, collaborate with histone chaperones to remodel nucleosomes as they are loaded behind a replication fork. Using a whole-genome sequencing approach, we determine that the positioning of newly deposited nucleosomes in vivo is specified by the combined actions of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzymes and select DNA-binding proteins. Altogether, our data provide in vivo evidence for coordinated "loading and remodeling" of nucleosomes behind the replication fork, allowing for rapid organization of chromatin during S phase.
Project description:DNA nucleotide mismatches and lesions arise on chromosomes that are a complex assortment of protein and DNA (chromatin). The fundamental unit of chromatin is a nucleosome that contains approximately 146 bp DNA wrapped around an H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 histone octamer. We demonstrate that the mismatch recognition heterodimer hMSH2-hMSH6 disassembles a nucleosome. Disassembly requires a mismatch that provokes the formation of hMSH2-hMSH6 hydrolysis-independent sliding clamps, which translocate along the DNA to the nucleosome. The rate of disassembly is enhanced by actual or mimicked acetylation of histone H3 within the nucleosome entry-exit and dyad axis that occurs during replication and repair in vivo and reduces DNA-octamer affinity in vitro. Our results support a passive mechanism for chromatin remodeling whereby hMSH2-hMSH6 sliding clamps trap localized fluctuations in nucleosome positioning and/or wrapping that ultimately leads to disassembly, and highlight unanticipated strengths of the Molecular Switch Model for mismatch repair (MMR).
Project description:Efficient overcoming and accurate maintenance of chromatin structure and associated histone marks during DNA replication are essential for normal functioning of the daughter cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of replication through chromatin are unknown. We have studied traversal of uniquely positioned mononucleosomes by T7 replisome in vitro. Nucleosomes present a strong, sequence-dependent barrier for replication, with particularly strong pausing of DNA polymerase at the +(31-40) and +(41-65) regions of the nucleosomal DNA. The exonuclease activity of T7 DNA polymerase increases the overall rate of progression of the replisome through a nucleosome, likely by resolving nonproductive complexes. The presence of nucleosome-free DNA upstream of the replication fork facilitates the progression of DNA polymerase through the nucleosome. After replication, at least 50% of the nucleosomes assume an alternative conformation, maintaining their original positions on the DNA. Our data suggest a previously unpublished mechanism for nucleosome maintenance during replication, likely involving transient formation of an intranucleosomal DNA loop.
Project description:DNA replication errors generate complex chromosomal rearrangements and thereby contribute to tumorigenesis and other human diseases. One mechanism that triggers these errors is mitotic entry before the completion of DNA replication. To address how mitosis might affect DNA replication, we used Xenopus egg extracts. When mitotic CDK (Cyclin B1-CDK1) is used to drive interphase egg extracts into a mitotic state, the replicative CMG (CDC45/MCM2-7/GINS) helicase undergoes ubiquitylation on its MCM7 subunit, dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAIP. Whether replisomes have stalled or undergone termination, CMG ubiquitylation is followed by its extraction from chromatin by the CDC48/p97 ATPase. TRAIP-dependent CMG unloading during mitosis is also seen in C. elegans early embryos. At stalled forks, CMG removal results in fork breakage and end joining events involving deletions and templated insertions. Our results identify a mitotic pathway of global replisome disassembly that can trigger replication fork collapse and DNA rearrangements.
Project description:Polymerase-blocking DNA lesions are thought to elicit a checkpoint response via accumulation of single-stranded DNA at stalled replication forks. However, as an alternative to persistent fork stalling, re-priming downstream of lesions can give rise to daughter-strand gaps behind replication forks. We show here that the processing of such structures by an exonuclease, Exo1, is required for timely checkpoint activation, which in turn prevents further gap erosion in S phase. This Rad9-dependent mechanism of damage signaling is distinct from the Mrc1-dependent, fork-associated response to replication stress induced by conditions such as nucleotide depletion or replisome-inherent problems, but reminiscent of replication-independent checkpoint activation by single-stranded DNA Our results indicate that while replisome stalling triggers a checkpoint response directly at the stalled replication fork, the response to replication stress elicited by polymerase-blocking lesions mainly emanates from Exo1-processed, postreplicative daughter-strand gaps, thus offering a mechanistic explanation for the dichotomy between replisome- versus template-induced checkpoint signaling.
Project description:DNA sequence and epigenetic information embedded in chromatin must be faithfully duplicated and transmitted to daughter cells during cell division. However, how chromatin assembly and DNA replication are integrated remains unclear. We examined the contribution of the Tousled-like kinases 1 and 2 (TLK1/TLK2) to chromatin assembly and maintenance of replication fork integrity. We show that TLK activity is required for DNA replication and replication-coupled nucleosome assembly and that lack of TLK activity leads to replication fork stalling and the accumulation of single-stranded DNA, a phenotype distinct from ASF1 depletion. Consistent with these results, sustained TLK depletion gives rise to replication-dependent DNA damage and p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in G1. We find that deficient replication-coupled de novo nucleosome assembly renders replication forks unstable and highly dependent on the ATR and CHK1 checkpoint kinases, as well as poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity, to avoid collapse. Human cancer data revealed frequent up-regulation of TLK genes and an association with poor patient outcome in multiple types of cancer, and depletion of TLK activity leads to increased replication stress and DNA damage in a panel of cancer cells. Our results reveal a critical role for TLKs in chromatin replication and suppression of replication stress and identify a synergistic lethal relationship with checkpoint signaling and PARP that could be exploited in treatment of a broad range of cancers.
Project description:Built of DNA polymerases and multiple associated factors, the replication fork steadily progresses along the DNA template and faithfully replicates DNA. This model can be found in practically every textbook of genetics, with the more complex situation of chromatinized DNA in eukaryotes often viewed as a variation. However, the replication-coupled disassembly/reassembly of chromatin adds significant complexity to the whole replication process. During the course of eukaryotic DNA replication the forks encounter various conditions and numerous impediments. These include nucleosomes with a variety of post-translational modifications, euchromatin and heterochromatin, differentially methylated DNA, tightly bound proteins, active gene promoters and DNA loops. At such positions the forks slow down or even stall. Dedicated factors stabilize the fork and prevent its rotation or collapse, while other factors resolve the replication block and facilitate the resumption of elongation. The fate of histones during replication stalling and resumption is not well understood. In this review we briefly describe recent advances in our understanding of histone turnover during DNA replication and focus on the possible mechanisms of nucleosome disassembly/reassembly at paused replication forks. We propose that replication pausing provides opportunities for an epigenetic change of the associated locus.
Project description:Correct duplication of DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin is central to genome function and stability. However, it remains unclear how cells coordinate DNA synthesis with provision of new histones for chromatin assembly to ensure chromosomal stability. In this paper, we show that replication fork speed is dependent on new histone supply and efficient nucleosome assembly. Inhibition of canonical histone biosynthesis impaired replication fork progression and reduced nucleosome occupancy on newly synthesized DNA. Replication forks initially remained stable without activation of conventional checkpoints, although prolonged histone deficiency generated DNA damage. PCNA accumulated on newly synthesized DNA in cells lacking new histones, possibly to maintain opportunity for CAF-1 recruitment and nucleosome assembly. Consistent with this, in vitro and in vivo analysis showed that PCNA unloading is delayed in the absence of nucleosome assembly. We propose that coupling of fork speed and PCNA unloading to nucleosome assembly provides a simple mechanism to adjust DNA replication and maintain chromatin integrity during transient histone shortage.