Expression of miR-652-3p and Effect on Apoptosis and Drug Sensitivity in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) expression profiles were screened in plasma samples from pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and healthy controls, using qRT-PCR-based TaqMan low-density miRNA arrays. MiR-652-3p (a circulating miRNA) was downregulated in new diagnosis (ND) patients compared with healthy controls. The levels of miR652-3p were restored in complete remission (CR) but were downregulated again in disease relapse (RE). The expression pattern of miR-652-3p was validated in bone marrow (BM) samples from other pediatric ALL patients. MiR-652-3p was significantly upregulated in BM when the patients (n=86) achieved CR, as compared with the matched ND samples (p<0.001). Moreover, the miR-652-3p levels in BM decreased again in two patients at RE. In addition, the lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines Reh and RS4:11 were found to have lower levels of miR-625-3p than the normal B-cell line. Overexpression of miR-652-3p using agomir increased the sensitivity to vincristine and cytarabine (all p<0.05) and promoted apoptosis (both p<0.05) in Reh and RS4:11 cells. In conclusion, the results suggested that a low level of miR-652-3p might be involved in the pathogenesis of pediatric ALL. Overexpression of miR-652-3p might suppress lymphoblastic leukemia cells, promoting apoptosis and increasing sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs.
Project description:Our previous study found that miR-652-3p is markedly upregulated in the serum of patients with NSCLC and suggesting that miR-652-3p is a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis of NSCLC. In this study, we detected the expression of miR-652-3p in NSCLC tumor tissues and cell lines and investigated the effect of miR-652-3p on the proliferation and metastasis of NSCLC cells. Our results showed that the expression of miR-652-3p was significantly upregulated in tumor tissues of 50 patients with NSCLC, and it was significantly higher in patients with positive lymph node metastasis, advanced TNM stage and poor prognosis. Using functional analyses by overexpressing or suppressing miR-652-3p in NSCLC cells, we demonstrated that miR-652-3p promoted cell proliferation, migration, invasion and inhibited cell apoptosis. Moreover, the lethal(2) giant larvae 1 (Lgl1) was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-652-3p. Overexpression or knockdown of miR-652-3p led to decreased or increased expression of Lgl1 protein, and the binding site mutation of LLGL1 3'UTR abrogated the responsiveness of the luciferase reporters to miR-652-3p. Overexpression of Lgl1 partially attenuated the function of miR-652-3p. Collectively, these results revealed that miR-652-3p execute a tumor-promoter function in NSCLC through direct binding and regulating the expression of Lgl1.
Project description:Many studies have demonstrated that microRNA-210 (miR-210) expression is intensively upregulated in hypoxic states and differentially regulated in most types of cancer cells. However, the clinical significance of miR-210 and its effects on the response of leukemic cells to chemotherapeutic drugs in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remain unknown. In the current study, using real-time qRT-PCR to detect miR-210 expression in bone marrow samples from 114 children at initial diagnosis of ALL, we investigated the prognostic significance of miR-210 and determined its associations with common clinical characteristics and treatment outcome. We further examined its effect on the response to chemotherapeutic drugs in the Reh and RS4;11 cell lines. Results showed that miR-210 expression was significantly lower in patients suffering from relapse and induction failure than in other patients (P < 0.001). Using the receiver operating characteristic curve, 3.8243 was selected as the cut-off value of miR-210 expression in our test cohort (38 cases). A significantly poorer treatment outcome (P < 0.05) was found in the low-expression group and verified in the validation cohort (76 cases, P < 0.05). Patients with low expression of miR-210 and positive minimal residual disease at the end of induction had a much higher rate of relapse or induction failure (P = 0.001). Increasing/decreasing miR-210 expression using agomir/antagomir could enhance or reduce the response of Reh cells and RS4;11 cells to daunorubicin/dexamethasone/L-asparaginase and daunorubicin/dexamethasone/vincristine, respectively. In conclusion, miR-210 may be a good prognostic factor and a useful predictor of drug sensitivity, and is a potential therapeutic target for pediatric ALL.
Project description:Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is an aggressive hematological tumor resulting from the malignant transformation of lymphoid progenitors. Thiopurine is a widely used drug in the maintaining treatment of ALL. After a period of chemotherapy, 20% of pediatric patients and over 50% of adult patients will relapse. To investigate the mechanisms of drug resistance in vitro, we established the thiopurine resistant cell lines Reh-6MPR (6-MP Resistant cell) and Reh-6TGR (6-TG Resistant cell) by stepwise selection of the ALL cell line Reh. Cell viability assay revealed that 6MPR and 6TGR cells were almost 1000-fold more resistant to thiopurine comparing with the control Reh cells, and thiopurine conversion was significantly impaired in the resistant cells. Mechanistically, a same novel hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1) mutation c.495_496insA (p.V165fs) was found by whole exome sequencing in both resistant cells. The HPRT1 mutation dramaticly decreased the production of [13C5,15N4]-IMP from [13C5,15N4]-hypoxanthine (HX), showed a loss-of-funciton mechanism. Notably, re-expression the wildtype HPRT1 in Reh-6MPR cell can reverse the drug resistance and thiopurine conversion in Reh-6MPR cells. These results highlight the importance of HPRT1's activity in thiopurine resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Atherosclerosis is a hyperlipidemia-induced condition affecting the arterial wall that damages healthy endothelial cell (EC) function, leading to enhanced risk of atherothrombotic events. Certain microRNAs regulate EC dysfunction in response to hyperlipidemia and may be suitable therapeutic targets to combat atherosclerosis. METHODS:miRNA expression in human ECs was analyzed under various conditions to identify key microRNAs. High-cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed Mir652-/-Apoe-/- (Mir652-/-) mice and matching Mir652+/+Apoe-/- (Mir652+/+) mice were subjected to carotid injury to analyze the effects of miR-652 knockdown on endothelial repair. In silico analysis followed by in vitro and in vivo experiments were applied to identify miR-652's target gene Ccnd2 and investigate the pair's effects on ECs. miR-652-5p and miR-652-3p antagomir therapies were tested in Mir652+/+ mice under normal and HCD diet to assess their effect on endothelial repair. FINDINGS:miR-652-3p, which is upregulated in human and murine atherosclerotic plaques, suppresses expression of the endothelial repair gene Ccnd2, thereby enhancing atherosclerotic lesion formation. Post-denudation recovery of ECs was promoted in Mir652-/- mice due to enhanced EC proliferation attributable to de-repression of miR-652-3p's (but not miR-652-5p's) regulation of Ccnd2 expression. Under hyperlipidemic conditions at non-predilection sites, miR-652-3p produces anti-proliferative effects in ECs, such that Mir652-/- mice display reduced atherosclerotic progression. In contrast, neither miR-652-3p nor Ccnd2 displayed significant effects on the endothelium at predilection sites or under disturbed flow conditions. Administration of a miR-652-3p antagomir rescued the proliferation of ECs in vivo, thereby limiting atherosclerotic development. INTERPRETATION:miR-652-3p blockade may be a potential therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatment stratification based on bone marrow minimal residual disease (MRD) at set time points has resulted in considerably improved survival in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Treatment response is assessed using bone marrow samples. MicroRNAs (miRs) easily traffic among fluid spaces and are more stable than most other RNA classes. We examined the role of circulating miRs as putative less invasive MRD biomarkers. METHODS:In an exploratory experiment, expression of 46 preselected miRs was studied in platelet-free blood plasma samples of 15 de novo, 5 relapsed ALL patients and 10 controls by Custom TaqMan Array Advanced MicroRNA Card. Based on their high expression in ALL compared to controls, and on the reduction observed along the induction therapy, four miRs were selected for further analyses: miR-128-3p, -181a-5p, -181b-5p and 222-3p. Their expression was measured by qPCR at 4 time points in 27 de novo ALL patients treated in the ALL IC-BFM 2009 study. RESULTS:The expression of all 4 miRs significantly decreased over the first week of therapy (miR-128-3p: log2 fold change -?2.86; adjusted p 3.6?×?10-7; miR-181b-5p: log2 fold change -?1.75; adjusted p 1.48?×?10-2; miR-181a-5p: log2 fold change -1.33; adjusted p 3.12?×?10-2; miR-222-3p: log2 fold change -?1.25; adjusted p 1.66?×?10-2). However, no significant further reduction in miR expression was found after the 8th day of therapy. Measured drop in expression of 2 miRs at day 8 strongly correlated with day 15 bone marrow flow cytometry MRD results (miR-128-3p: Pearson's r?=?0.88, adjusted p?=?2.71?×?10-4; miR-222-3p: r?=?0.81, adjusted p?=?2.99?×?10-3). CONCLUSION:In conclusion, these circulating miRs might act as biomarkers of residual leukemia. MiR-128-3p and miR-222-3p in blood predict day 15 flow cytometry MRD results 7 days earlier. Although, their sensitivity falls behind that of bone marrow flow cytometry MRD at day 15.
Project description:The t(12;21) (p13;q22) chromosomal translocation resulting in the ETV6/RUNX1 fusion gene is the most frequent structural cytogenetic abnormality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The erythropoietin receptor (EPOR), usually associated with erythroid progenitor cells, is highly expressed in ETV6/RUNX1 positive cases compared to other B-lineage ALL subtypes. Gene expression analysis of a microarray database and direct quantitative analysis of patient samples revealed strong correlation between EPOR and GATA2 expression in ALL, and higher expression of GATA2 in t(12;21) patients. The mechanism of EPOR regulation was mainly investigated using two B-ALL cell lines: REH, which harbor and express the ETV6/RUNX1 fusion gene; and NALM-6, which do not. Expression of EPOR was increased in REH cells compared to NALM-6 cells. Moreover, of the six GATA family members only GATA2 was differentially expressed with substantially higher levels present in REH cells. GATA2 was shown to bind to the EPOR 5'-UTR in REH, but did not bind in NALM-6 cells. Overexpression of GATA2 led to an increase in EPOR expression in REH cells only, indicating that GATA2 regulates EPOR but is dependent on the cellular context. Both EPOR and GATA2 are hypomethylated and associated with increased mRNA expression in REH compared to NALM-6 cells. Decitabine treatment effectively reduced methylation of CpG sites in the GATA2 promoter leading to increased GATA2 expression in both cell lines. Although Decitabine also reduced an already low level of methylation of the EPOR in NALM-6 cells there was no increase in EPOR expression. Furthermore, EPOR and GATA2 are regulated post-transcriptionally by miR-362 and miR-650, respectively. Overall our data show that EPOR expression in t(12;21) B-ALL cells, is regulated by GATA2 and is mediated through epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms, contingent upon the genetic subtype of the disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Refractory central nervous system (CNS) involvement is among the major causes of therapy failure in childhood acute leukemia. Applying contemporary diagnostic methods, CNS disease is often underdiagnosed. To explore more sensitive and less invasive CNS status indicators, we examined microRNA (miR) expressions and extracellular vesicle (EV) characteristics. METHODS:In an acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) discovery cohort, 47 miRs were screened using Custom TaqMan Advanced Low-Density Array gene expression cards. As a validation step, a candidate miR family was further scrutinized with TaqMan Advanced miRNA Assays on serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood samples with different acute leukemia subtypes. Furthermore, small EV-rich fractions were isolated from CSF and the samples were processed for immunoelectron microscopy with anti-CD63 and anti-CD81 antibodies, simultaneously. RESULTS:Regarding the discovery study, principal component analysis identified the role of miR-181-family (miR-181a-5p, miR-181b-5p, miR-181c-5p) in clustering CNS-positive (CNS+) and CNS-negative (CNS?) CSF samples. We were able to validate miR-181a expression differences: it was about 52 times higher in CSF samples of CNS+ ALL patients compared to CNS? cases (n?=?8 vs. n?=?10, ?FC?=?52.30, p?=?1.5E-4), and CNS+ precursor B cell subgroup also had ninefold higher miR-181a levels in their BM (p?=?0.04). The sensitivity of CSF miR-181a measurement in ALL highly exceeded those of conventional cytospin in the initial diagnosis of CNS leukemia (90% vs. 54.5%). Pellet resulting from ultracentrifugation of CNS+ CSF samples of ALL patients showed atypical CD63-/CD81- small EVs in high density by immunoelectron microscopy. CONCLUSIONS:After validating in extensive cohorts, quantification of miR-181a or a specific EV subtype might provide novel tools to monitor CNS disease course and further adjust CNS-directed therapy in pediatric ALL.
Project description:Ectopic Viral Integration site 1 (EVI1) upregulation is implicated in 10-25% of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and has an inferior outcome with current chemotherapy regimens. Here we report that EVI1 upregulation is associated with methylation of the miR-9 promoter and correlated with downregulation of miR-9 in human AML cell lines and bone marrow (BM) cells from pediatric patients. Reactivation of miR-9 by hypomethylating agents and forced expression of miR-9 in EVI1high leukemia cell lines and primary leukemia cells results in apoptosis and decreased proliferation of EVI1high leukemia cells. Furthermore, re-expression of miR-9 delays disease progression in EVI1high leukemia-xenograft mice. Our results suggest that EVI1-induced hypermethylation and downregulation of the miR-9 plays an important role in leukemogenesis in EVI-1high pediatric AML, indicating that hypomethylating agents may be a potential therapeutic strategy for EVI1high pediatric AML.
Project description:BACKGROUND: This study investigates pharmacogenetic risk factors for bone mineral (apparent) density (BM(A)D) and body composition in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia DESIGN AND METHODS: We determined the influence of SNPs in 4 genes (vitamin-D receptor (VDR: BsmI/ApaI/TaqI and Cdx-2/GATA), collagen type I alpha 1 (SpI), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1: PvuII/XbaI), glucocorticoid receptor (BclI)) on body composition, BM(A)D and fracture risk during dexamethasone-based pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. Body composition and BMD were measured repeatedly during and after treatment using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Non-carriers of VDR 5'-end (Cdx-2/GATA) haplotype 3 revealed a significant larger fat gain than carriers (Delta%fat: non-carriers: +1.76SDS, carriers: +0.77SDS, P<0.001). At diagnosis and during therapy, lumbar spine BMD was significantly higher in non-carriers of VDR 5'-end (Cdx-2/GATA) haplotype 3 than in carriers. The other SNPs did not influence BMD or fracture risk during/after treatment. The year after treatment completion, lean body mass increased in non-carriers of ESR1 (PvuII/XbaI) haplotype 3 and decreased in carriers (Delta lean body mass: non-carriers:+0.28SDS, carriers: -0.55SDS, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Only VDR 5'-end (Cdx-2/GATA) haplotype 3 was identified as protective factor against excessive fat gain and as a risk factor for lower lumbar spine BMD during treatment. Carrying ESR1 (PvuII/XbaI) haplotype 3 negatively influenced recovery of lean body mass after pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment.
Project description:T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy arising from T lymphocyte precursors. We have previously shown by miRNA-seq, that miRNAs from the mir-106a-363 cluster are overexpressed in pediatric T-ALL. In silico analysis indicated their potential involvement in the regulation of apoptosis. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis on the pro-tumorigenic roles of these miRNAs in T-ALL cells in vitro. We demonstrate, for the first time, that hsa-miR-20b-5p and hsa-miR-363-3p from the mir-106a-363 cluster, when upregulated in T-ALL cells in vitro, protect leukemic cells from apoptosis, enhance proliferation, and contribute to growth advantage. We show, using dual luciferase reporter assays, Ago2-RNA immunoprecipitation, RT-qPCR, and Western blots, that the oncogenic effects of these upregulated miRNAs might, at least in part, be mediated by the downregulation of two important tumor suppressor genes, PTEN and BIM, targeted by both miRNAs. Additionally, we demonstrate the cooperative effects of these two miRNAs by simultaneous inhibition of both miRNAs as compared to the inhibition of single miRNAs. We postulate that hsa-miR-20b-5p and hsa-miR-363-3p from the mir-106a-363 cluster might serve as oncomiRs in T-ALL, by contributing to post-transcriptional repression of key tumor suppressors, PTEN and BIM.