Recyclable hypervalent-iodine-mediated solid-phase peptide synthesis and cyclic peptide synthesis.
ABSTRACT: The system of the hypervalent iodine(III) reagent FPID and (4-MeOC6H4)3P was successfully applied to solid-phase peptide synthesis and cyclic peptide synthesis. Four peptides with biological activities were synthesized through SPPS and the bioactive cyclic heptapeptide pseudostellarin D was obtained via solution-phase peptide synthesis. It is worth noting that FPID can be readily regenerated after the peptide coupling reaction.
Project description:1-Benzoyloxy-1,2-benziodoxol-3-(1H)-one (IBA-OBz), a readily available and bench stable benziodoxole-based iodine(III) reagent, can be employed for the synthesis of dipeptides from various standard and sterically hindered amino acids in the presence of (4-MeOC6H4)3P. The combined system of IBA-OBz/(4-MeOC6H4)3P is also successfully applied to the solid-phase peptide synthesis and a pentapeptide leu-enkephalin in unprotected form has been synthesized. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the rate-limiting step is nucleophilic attack of 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) onto IBA-OBz.
Project description:We have developed a convenient method for the direct synthesis of peptide thioesters, versatile intermediates for peptide ligation and cyclic peptide synthesis. The technology uses a modified Boc SPPS strategy that avoids the use of anhydrous HF. Boc in?situ neutralization protocols are used in combination with Merrifield hydroxymethyl resin and TFA/TMSBr cleavage. Avoiding HF extends the scope of Boc SPPS to post-translational modifications that are compatible with the milder cleavage conditions, demonstrated here with the synthesis of the phosphorylated protein CHK2. Peptide thioesters give easy, direct, access to cyclic peptides, illustrated by the synthesis of cyclorasin, a KRAS inhibitor.
Project description:We designed and synthesized a series of novel hybrid histone deacetylase inhibitors based on conjugation of benzamide-type inhibitors with either linear or cyclic peptides. Linear tetrapeptides (compounds 13 and 14), cyclic tetrapeptides (compounds 1 and 11), and heptanediamide-peptide conjugates (compounds 10, 12, 15 and 16) were synthesized through on-resin solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). All compounds were found to be moderate HDAC1 and HDAC3 inhibitors, with IC(50) values ranging from 1.3 microM to 532 microM. Interestingly, compound 15 showed 19-fold selectivity for HDAC3 versus HDAC1.
Project description:A binary hybrid system comprising a hypervalent iodine(III) reagent and BF3•OEt2 Lewis acid was found to be effective for the diastereoselective ?-acetoxylation of cyclic ketones. In this hybrid system, BF3•OEt2 Lewis acid allowed the activation of the hypervalent iodine(III) reagent and cyclic ketones for smooth ?-acetoxylation reaction, achieving high diastereoselectivity. This hypervalent iodine-mediated ?-acetoxylation of the cyclic ketone reaction plausibly undergoes an SN2 substitution mechanism via an ?-C-bound hypervalent iodine intermediate. The diastereoselectivity of the reaction mainly originates from thermodynamic control.
Project description:Flexible in vitro translation (FIT) was used as a screening method to uncover a new methodology for peptide constraining based on the attack of a nucleophilic side-chain functionality onto an oxidized furylalanine side chain. A set of template peptides, each containing furylalanine as furan-modified amino acid and a nucleophilic residue (Cys, His, Lys, Arg, Ser, or Tyr), was produced through FIT. The translation mixtures were treated with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to achieve selective furan oxidation and subsequent MALDI analysis demonstrated Lys and Ser as promising residues for cyclisation. Solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) was used to synthesize suitable amounts of material for further in-depth analysis and characterisation. It was found that in the case of the peptide containing lysine next to a furylalanine residue, a one-pot oxidation and reduction reaction leads to the generation of a cyclic peptide featuring a pyrrole moiety as cyclisation motif, resulting from the attack of the lysine side chain onto the oxidized furylalanine side chain. Structural evidence was provided via NMR and the generality of the methodology was explored. We hereby expand the scope of our previously developed furan-based peptide labeling and crosslinking strategy.
Project description:An amine-derivatized DOTA has been used to modify the surface of a polymeric support for conventional Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS) following standard Fmoc chemistry methods. This methodology was used to synthesize a peptide-DOTA conjugate that was demonstrated to be a PARACEST MRI contrast agent. Therefore, this synthesis methodology can facilitate Fmoc SPPS of molecular imaging contrast agents.
Project description:Electrophilic trifluoromethylation is at the forefront of methodologies available for the installation of the CF3 moiety to organic molecules; research in this field is largely spurred by the availability of stable and accessible trifluoromethylation reagents, of which hypervalent iodine and sulfoximine based compounds have emerged as two prominent reagent classes. Herein, we describe the facile synthesis of an electrophilic trifluoromethylation reagent which merges these two scaffolds in a novel hypervalent iodosulfoximine compound. This presents the first analogue of the well-known Togni reagents which neither compromises stability or reactivity. The electronic and physical properties of this new compound were fully explored by X-ray crystallography, cyclic voltammetry, TGA/DSC and DFT analysis. This solution stable, crystalline reagent was found to be competent in the electrophilic trifluoromethylation of a variety of nucleophiles as well as a source of the trifluoromethyl radical. Furthermore, the possibility of enantioinductive transformations could be probed with the isolation of the first enantiopure hypervalent iodine compound bearing a CF3 group, thus this new reagent scaffold offers the opportunity of structurally diversifying the reagent towards asymmetric synthesis.
Project description:Advances in imaging diagnostics using magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), positron emission tomography (PET) and fluorescence imaging including near infrared (NIR) imaging methods are facilitated by constant improvement of the concepts of peptide synthesis. Feasible patient-specific theranostic platforms in the personalized medicine are particularly dependent on efficient and clinically applicable peptide constructs. The role of peptides in the interrelations between the structure and function of proteins is widely investigated, especially by using computer-assisted methods. Nowadays the solid phase synthesis (SPPS) chemistry emerges as a key technology and is considered as a promising methodology to design peptides for the investigation of molecular pharmacological processes at the transcriptional level. SPPS syntheses could be carried out in core facilities producing peptides for large-scale scientific implementations as presented here.
Project description:A new, highly efficient, all-solid-phase synthesis of argifin, a natural product cyclic pentapeptide chitinase inhibitor, is reported. The synthesis features attachment of an orthogonally protected Asp residue to the solid support and assembly of the linear peptide chain by Fmoc SPPS prior to cyclisation and side-chain manipulation on-resin. Introduction of the key N-methyl carbamoyl-substituted Arg side chain is achieved via derivatisation of a selectively protected Orn residue, prior to cleavage from the resin and side-chain deprotection. A severe aspartimide side-reaction observed upon final deprotection is circumvented by the use of a novel aqueous acidolysis procedure. The flexibility of the synthesis is demonstrated by the preparation of a series of argifin analogues designed from the X-ray structure of the natural product in complex with a representative family 18 chitinase.
Project description:Solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) is usually performed with optically pure building blocks to prepare peptides as single enantiomers. Herein we report that SPPS using racemic amino acids provides stereorandomized (<i>sr</i>) peptides, containing up to billions of different stereoisomers, as well-defined single HPLC peaks, single mass products with high yield, which can be used to investigate peptide bioactivity. To exemplify our method, we show that stereorandomization abolishes the membrane-disruptive effect of ?-helical amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides but preserves their antibiofilm effect, implying different mechanisms involving folded versus disordered conformations. For antimicrobial peptide dendrimers by contrast, stereorandomization preserves antibacterial, membrane-disruptive, and antibiofilm effects but reduces hemolysis and cytotoxicity, thereby increasing their therapeutic index. Finally, we identify partially stereorandomized analogues of the last resort cyclic peptide antibiotic polymyxin B with preserved antibacterial activity but lacking membrane-disruptive and lipopolysaccharide-neutralizing activity, pointing to the existence of additional targets.