Quality of health literacy instruments used in children and adolescents: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Improving health literacy at an early age is crucial to personal health and development. Although health literacy in children and adolescents has gained momentum in the past decade, it remains an under-researched area, particularly health literacy measurement. This study aimed to examine the quality of health literacy instruments used in children and adolescents and to identify the best instrument for field use. DESIGN:Systematic review. SETTING:A wide range of settings including schools, clinics and communities. PARTICIPANTS:Children and/or adolescents aged 6-24 years. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Measurement properties (reliability, validity and responsiveness) and other important characteristics (eg, health topics, components or scoring systems) of health literacy instruments. RESULTS:There were 29 health literacy instruments identified from the screening process. When measuring health literacy in children and adolescents, researchers mainly focus on the functional domain (basic skills in reading and writing) and consider participant characteristics of developmental change (of cognitive ability), dependency (on parents) and demographic patterns (eg, racial/ethnic backgrounds), less on differential epidemiology (of health and illness). The methodological quality of included studies as assessed via measurement properties varied from poor to excellent. More than half (62.9%) of measurement properties were unknown, due to either poor methodological quality of included studies or a lack of reporting or assessment. The 8-item Health Literacy Assessment Tool (HLAT-8) showed best evidence on construct validity, and the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents showed best evidence on reliability. CONCLUSIONS:More rigorous and high-quality studies are needed to fill the knowledge gap in measurement properties of health literacy instruments. Although it is challenging to draw a robust conclusion about which instrument is the most reliable and the most valid, this review provides important evidence that supports the use of the HLAT-8 to measure childhood and adolescent health literacy in future school-based research.
Project description:Health literacy is an important health promotion concern and recently children and adolescents have been the focus of increased academic attention. To assess the health literacy of this population, researchers have been focussing on developing instruments to measure their health literacy. Compared to the wider availability of instruments for adults, only a few tools are known for younger age groups. The objective of this study is to systematically review the field of generic child and adolescent health literacy measurement instruments that are currently available.A systematic literature search was undertaken in five databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycNET, ERIC, and FIS) on articles published between January 1990 and July 2015, addressing children and adolescents ?18 years old. Eligible articles were analysed, data was extracted, and synthesised according to review objectives.Fifteen generic health literacy measurement instruments for children and adolescents were identified. All, except two, are self-administered instruments. Seven are objective measures (performance-based tests), seven are subjective measures (self-reporting), and one uses a mixed-method measurement. Most instruments applied a broad and multidimensional understanding of health literacy. The instruments were developed in eight different countries, with most tools originating in the United States (n =?6). Among the instruments, 31 different components related to health literacy were identified. Accordingly, the studies exhibit a variety of implicit or explicit conceptual and operational definitions, and most instruments have been used in schools and other educational contexts. While the youngest age group studied was 7-year-old children within a parent-child study, there is only one instrument specifically designed for primary school children and none for early years.Despite the reported paucity of health literacy research involving children and adolescents, an unexpected number of health literacy measurement studies in children's populations was found. Most instruments tend to measure their own specific understanding of health literacy and not all provide sufficient conceptual information. To advance health literacy instruments, a much more standardised approach is necessary including improved reporting on the development and validation processes. Further research is required to improve health literacy instruments for children and adolescents and to provide knowledge to inform effective interventions.
Project description:Health literacy is a promising approach to promoting health and preventing disease among children and adolescents. Promoting health literacy in early stages of life could contribute to reducing health inequalities. However, it is difficult to identify concrete needs for action as there are few age-adjusted measures to assess generic health literacy in young people. Our aim was to develop a multidimensional measure of health literacy in German to assess generic health literacy among 14- to 17-year-old adolescents, namely, the "Measurement of Health Literacy Among Adolescents Questionnaire" (MOHLAA-Q). The development process included two stages. Stage 1 comprised the development and validation using a literature review, two rounds of cognitive interviews, two focus groups and two rounds of expert assessments by health literacy experts. Stage 2 included a standard pretest (n = 625) of the questionnaire draft to examine the psychometric properties, reliability and different validity aspects. The MOHLAA-Q consists of 29 items in four scales: (A) "Dealing with health-related information (HLS-EU-Q12-adolescents-DE)"; (B) "Communication and interaction skills", (C) "Attitudes toward one's own health and health information", and (D) "Health-related knowledge". The confirmatory factor analysis indicated a multidimensional structure of the MOHLAA-Q. The internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's ?) of the scales varied from 0.54 to 0.77. The development of the MOHLAA-Q constitutes a significant step towards the comprehensive measurement of adolescents' health literacy. However, further research is necessary to re-examine its structural validity and to improve the internal consistency of two scales.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pain in children and adolescents with cancer has been identified as an area where many healthcare professionals seek guidance. This protocol details a systematic review whose aim is to explore current knowledge regarding measurement instruments to assess pain (and pain-related distress) in children and adolescents with cancer. After completion of the review, the information will be used in the development of a clinical practice guideline. METHODS:We will search four electronic databases (MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO and HaPI). Additional relevant studies will be identified by reference checking and expert consultation. All citations will be screened independently by two reviewers in a three-step approach: first selection based on title, second selection based on abstract, third selection based on full-text. Studies in children and adolescents with cancer that aimed to evaluate the clinimetric properties of an existing pain measurement instrument or to develop a new pain measurement instrument and that include at least one relevant outcome (reliability, validity, responsiveness, interpretability, clinical utility) are eligible for inclusion. For all steps of evidence selection, a detailed list with eligibility criteria will be determined a priori. Data extraction and quality assessment of included studies (according to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, COSMIN criteria) will be conducted independently by two authors. DISCUSSION:This systematic review will provide an overview of the current literature regarding measurement instruments to assess pain in children and adolescents with cancer. This knowledge synthesis will be used to formulate recommendations for clinical practice. Also, by synthesizing existing evidence, knowledge gaps will be identified. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:PROSPERO CRD42017072879.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Few studies have compared multiple health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) instruments simultaneously for pediatric populations. This study aimed to test psychometric properties of 4 legacy pediatric HRQOL instruments: the Child Health and Illness Profile (CHIP), the KIDSCREEN-52, the KINDL, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). METHODS:This study used data from 908 parents whose children (ages 2-19 years) were enrolled in Florida Medicaid. Parents were asked via telephone interview to complete each instrument appropriate to the age of their children. Structural, convergent/discriminant, and known-group validities were investigated. We examined structural validity using confirmatory factor analyses. We examined convergent/discriminant validity by comparing Spearman rank correlation coefficients of homogeneous (physical functioning and physical well-being) versus heterogeneous (physical and psychological functioning) domains of the instruments. We assessed known-groups validity by examining the extent to which HRQOL differed by the status of children with special health needs (CSHCN). RESULTS:Domain scores of the 4 instruments were not normally distributed, and ceiling effects were significant in most domains. The KIDSCREEN-52 demonstrates the best structural validity, followed by the CHIP, KINDL, and PedsQL. The PedsQL and the KIDSCREEN-52 show better convergent/discriminant validity than the other instruments. Known-groups validity in discriminating CSHCN versus no needs was the best for the PedsQL, followed by the KIDSCREEN-52, the CHIP, and the KINDL. CONCLUSION:No one instrument was fully satisfactory in all psychometric properties. Strategies are recommended for future comparison of item content and measurement properties across different HRQOL instruments for research and clinical use.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Health literacy (HL) is seen as an increasingly relevant issue for global public health and requires a reliable and comprehensive operationalization. By now, there is limited evidence on how the development of tools measuring HL proceeded in recent years and if scholars considered existing methodological guidance when developing an instrument.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a systematic review of generic measurement tools developed to assess HL by searching PubMed, ERIC, CINAHL and Web of Knowledge (2009 forward). Two reviewers independently reviewed abstracts/ full text articles for inclusion according to predefined criteria. Additionally we conducted a reporting quality appraisal according to the survey reporting guideline SURGE.<h4>Results</h4>We identified 17 articles reporting on the development and validation of 17 instruments measuring health literacy. More than two thirds of all instruments are based on a multidimensional construct of health literacy. Moreover, there is a trend towards a mixed measurement (self-report and direct test) of health literacy with 41% of instruments applying it, though results strongly indicate a weakness of coherence between the underlying constructs measured. Overall, almost every third instrument is based on assessment formats modeled on already existing functional literacy screeners such as the REALM or the TOFHLA and 30% of the included articles do not report on significant reporting features specified in the SURGE guideline.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Scholars recently developing instruments that measure health literacy mainly comply with recommendations of the academic circle by applying multidimensional constructs and mixing up measurement approaches to capture health literacy comprehensively. Nonetheless, there is still a dependence on assessment formats, rooted in functional literacy measurement contradicting the widespread call for new instruments. All things considered, there is no clear "consensus" on HL measurement but a convergence to more comprehensive tools. Giving attention to this finding can help to offer direction towards the development of comparable and reliable health literacy assessment tools that effectively respond to the informational needs of populations.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) for adults, and equivalent measures for children and adolescents and older people, are widely used in clinical practice and research contexts to measure mental health and functional outcomes. Additional HoNOS measures have been developed for special populations and applications. Stakeholders require synthesised information about the measurement properties of these measures to assess whether they are fit for use with intended service settings and populations and to establish performance benchmarks. This planned systematic review will critically appraise evidence on the measurement properties of the HoNOS family of measures. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Journal articles meeting inclusion criteria will be identified via a search of seven electronic databases: MEDLINE via EBSCOhost, PsycINFO via APA PsycNET, Embase via Elsevier, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature via EBSCOhost, Web of Science via Thomson Reuters, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library. Variants of 'Health of the Nation Outcome Scales' or 'HoNOS' will be searched as text words. No restrictions will be placed on setting or language of publication. Reference lists of relevant studies and reviews will be scanned for additional eligible studies. Appraisal of reliability, validity, responsiveness and interpretability will be guided by the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. Feasibility/utility will be appraised using definitions and criteria derived from previous reviews. For reliability studies, we will also apply the Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies to assess quality of reporting. Results will be synthesised narratively, separately for each measure, and by subgroup (eg, treatment setting, rater profession/experience or training) where possible. Meta-analyses will be undertaken where data are adequate. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethics approval is not required as no primary data will be collected. Outcomes will be disseminated to stakeholders via reports, journal articles and presentations at meetings and conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42017057871.
Project description:Health literacy is an important determinant of health, and is one of the key indicators of a healthy city. Developing and improving methods to measure health literacy is prudent and necessary. This review summarizes the findings of published tools for assessing health literacy among the general population to provide a reference for establishing health literacy assessment tools in the future. In this systematic review, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were used to search articles regarding tools for assessing health literacy among the general population published up to 10 January 2018. Two researchers independently conducted literature screening, quality assessment of methodology, and data extraction according to preset inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality assessment of the research was examined with the use of the specifications of the reporting guidelines for survey research (SURGE). Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria. All included instruments in monitoring the health literacy of the general population were presented through the form of questionnaires. The multistage process of making all the scales generally involved the following steps: item development, pre-testing, and evaluation of readability. However, the specific methods were different. Internal consistency for all the instruments was acceptable but with weak consistency among the subscales for some instruments. Most of the identified instruments derived from the definition of health literacy or were based on existing health literacy theory. Approximately 30% of the performed studies provided no description of the important features specified in the SURGE. This review indicates a trend in the increasing tools for assessing the health literacy of the general population by using multidimensional structures and comprehensive measurement approaches. However, no clear "consensus" was observed in the dimensions of health literacy tools.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Breakthrough pain is common in children and adults with cancer and other conditions, including those approaching end-of-life, although it is often poorly managed, possibly partly due to a lack of validated assessment tools. This review aims to (1) identify all available instruments measuring breakthrough pain in infants, children, adolescents or adults and (2) critically appraise, compare and summarise the quality of the psychometric properties of the identified instruments using COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) criteria. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Two searches will be carried out between October 2019 and January 2020, one for each aim of the review. The Cochrane Library, International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, Embase, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), PsycINFO, Web of Science Core Collection, Google Scholar, the ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database, Evidence Search and OpenGrey databases will be searched from database inception until the date the search is conducted. Reference lists of eligible articles will be screened and authors in the field contacted. For search 1, articles will be screened by two reviewers by abstract, and full-text where necessary, to identify if a breakthrough pain assessment was used. Search 2 will then be conducted to identify studies evaluating measurement properties of these assessments. Two reviewers will screen articles from search 2 by title and abstract. All potentially relevant studies will be screened by full text by both reviewers. For search 2, data will be extracted in parallel with the quality assessment process, as recommended by COSMIN. Two reviewers will assess methodological quality using the COSMIN Risk of Bias checklist and the COSMIN updated criteria for good measurement properties. Findings will be summarised and, if possible, data will be pooled using meta-analysis. The quality of the evidence will be graded and summarised using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) guidelines. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Results of this review will be submitted for publication in a peer review journal and presented at conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42019155583.
Project description:<h4>Background/objective</h4>The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability and validity of "Perceived Physical Literacy Instrument" (PPLI) questionnaire in adolescents.<h4>Methods</h4>Based on physical literacy literature, a 9-item instrument was developed for initial tests. The self-report measure was administered to 1945 adolescents in Hong Kong. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine a three-factor structure of physical literacy. A chi-square difference test analysed several competing models and compared the results between the proposed models (i.e., a three-factor solution) and other alternative models (i.e., a one-factor or two-factor solution). Furthermore, the measurement invariance across gender groups was examined by using multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis. Mean scores for physical literacy factors were also examined by demographic characteristics.<h4>Results</h4>Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that the construct demonstrated a good fit to the model. For convergent validity, our results, evaluating the factor loading of each items, the values of composite reliability (CR) and the average variance extracted (AVE) of the three factors, revealed that the three-factor validity of physical literacy was satisfactory. The chi-square difference test between models was significant indicating that all the latent variables had satisfactory discriminant validity. Moreover, the findings of measurement invariance showed that the PPLI is invariant across gender.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The PPLI thus appeared to be reliable and valid as a measure of the perceived physical literacy of adolescents. Thus, along with other validated instruments, protocols and research designs, the PPLI could be widely used to test adolescents' self-perception of physical literacy and their own physical and mental health conditions and thereby health. Physical education professionals may thus recommend appropriate intervention programmes for younger generations.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:This review is an update of a previous review published in 2010, and aims to summarize the available studies on the measurement properties of physical activity questionnaires for young people under the age of 18 years. METHODS:Systematic literature searches were carried out using the online PubMed, EMBASE, and SPORTDiscus databases up to 2018. Articles had to evaluate at least one of the measurement properties of a questionnaire measuring at least the duration or frequency of children's physical activity, and be published in the English language. The standardized COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist was used for the quality assessment of the studies. RESULTS:This review yielded 87 articles on 89 different questionnaires. Within the 87 articles, 162 studies were conducted: 103 studies assessed construct validity, 50 assessed test-retest reliability, and nine assessed measurement error. Of these studies, 38% were of poor methodological quality and 49% of fair methodological quality. A questionnaire with acceptable validity was found only for adolescents, i.e., the Greek version of the 3-Day Physical Activity Record. Questionnaires with acceptable test-retest reliability were found in all age categories, i.e., preschoolers, children, and adolescents. CONCLUSION:Unfortunately, no questionnaires were identified with conclusive evidence for both acceptable validity and reliability, partly due to the low methodological quality of the studies. This evidence is urgently needed, as current research and practice are using physical activity questionnaires of unknown validity and reliability. Therefore, recommendations for high-quality studies on measurement properties of physical activity questionnaires were formulated in the discussion. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42016038695.