Intact regulation of muscle expression and circulating levels of myokines in response to exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT: Regular exercise plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The synthesis and secretion of myokines in response to contraction may contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of exercise. However, some exercise-induced responses may be attenuated in T2D. Here, we investigated whether the effect of acute exercise on selected myokines are impaired in T2D. Skeletal muscle biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 13 men with T2D and 14 weight-matched, glucose-tolerant men before, immediately after and 3-h after acute exercise (60 min cycling) to examine muscle expression and plasma/serum levels of selected myokines. One-hour of exercise increased muscle expression of IL6, FGF21, ANGPTL4, CHI3L1, CTGF and CYR61, of which FGF21, ANGPTL4 and CHI3L1 increased further 3-h into recovery, whereas expression of IL6, CYR61, and CTGF returned to baseline levels. There was no immediate effect of exercise on IL15 expression, but it decreased 3-h into recovery. Plasma IL-6 increased robustly, whereas circulating levels of FGF21, ANGPTL4, IL-15, and CHI3L1 increased only modestly in response to exercise. All returned toward baseline levels 3-h into recovery except for plasma ANGPTL4, which increased further. No significant differences in these responses to exercise were observed between the groups. Our results demonstrate that muscle expression and circulating levels of selected known and putative myokines were equally regulated by acute exercise in patients with T2D and weight-matched controls. This suggests that the potential beneficial metabolic effects of these myokines are not impaired in patients with T2D.
Project description:Exercise and physical activity levels influence myokine release from skeletal muscle and contribute to circulating concentrations. Indeed, many myokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-15, secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine (SPARC), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 are higher in the circulation after an exercise bout. Since these peptides modulate muscle metabolism and can also be targeted toward other tissues to induce adaptations to energy demand, they are of great interest regarding metabolic diseases. Therefore, we set out to compare, in six women with obesity (BMI ?30 kg/m2) and five healthy women (BMI 22-29.9 kg/m2), the effect of an acute bout of moderate-intensity, continuous cycling exercise (60 min, 60% VO2peak) on the release of myokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, SPARC, and FGF21) in plasma for a 24-h time course. We found that plasma IL-8 and SPARC levels were reduced in the group of women with obesity, whereas plasma IL-13 concentrations were elevated in comparison to non-obese women both before and after the exercise bout. We also found that plasma FGF21 concentration during the 24 h following the bout of exercise was regulated differently in the non-obese in comparison to obese women. Plasma concentrations of FGF21, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, and IL-18 were regulated by acute exercise. Our results confirm the results of others concerning exercise regulation of circulating myokines while providing insight into the time course of myokine release in circulation after an acute exercise bout and the differences in circulating myokines after exercise in women with or without obesity.
Project description:Muscle contraction during exercise is the major stimulus for the release of peptides and proteins (myokines) that are supposed to take part in the benefical adaptation to exercise. We hypothesize that application of an in vitro exercise stimulus as electric pulse stimulation (EPS) to human myotubes enables the investigation of the human muscle secretome in a clearly defined model. We applied EPS for 24 h to primary human myotubes and studied the whole genome-wide transcriptional response and as well as the release of candidate myokines. We observed 183 differentially regulated transcripts with fold-changes > 1.3. The transcriptional response resembles several properties of the in vivo situation in the skeletal muscle after endurance exercise, namely significant enrichment of pathways associated with interleukin and chemokine signaling, lipid metabolism, and anti-oxidant defense; notably without increased release of creatin kinase. Multiplex immunoassays verified the translation of the transcriptional response of several myokines into high secretion levels (IL6, IL8, CXCL1, LIF, CSF3, IL1B, TNF) and identified an increased secretion of additional cytokines (IL2, IL4, IL13, IL17A). Inhibitor studies and immunoblotting revealed the participation of ERK1/2 and AMPK dependent pathways in the upregulation of myokines. To conclude our data highlight the importance of skeletal muscle cells per se as endocrine cells. This in vitro exercise model is not only suitable to identify known and novel exercise-regulated myokines but it might be applied to primary human myotubes obtained from different muscle biopsy donors to study molecular mechanisms of the individual response to exercise. We performed gene expression microarray analysis of myotubes in vitro stimulated by EPS and control myotubes
Project description:BACKGROUND:Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue that adapts to changes in exercise, nutrition, and stress by secreting myokines and myometabolites. These muscle-secreted factors have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine effects, contributing to whole body homeostasis. Muscle dysfunction in aging sarcopenia, cancer cachexia, and diabetes is tightly correlated with the disruption of the physiological homeostasis at the whole body level. The expression levels of the myokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) are very low in normal healthy muscles. However, fasting, ER stress, mitochondrial myopathies, and metabolic disorders induce its release from muscles. Although our understanding of the systemic effects of muscle-derived FGF21 is exponentially increasing, the direct contribution of FGF21 to muscle function has not been investigated yet. METHODS:Muscle-specific FGF21 knockout mice were generated to investigate the consequences of FGF21 deletion concerning skeletal muscle mass and force. To identify the mechanisms underlying FGF21-dependent adaptations in skeletal muscle during starvation, the study was performed on muscles collected from both fed and fasted adult mice. In vivo overexpression of FGF21 was performed in skeletal muscle to assess whether FGF21 is sufficient per se to induce muscle atrophy. RESULTS:We show that FGF21 does not contribute to muscle homeostasis in basal conditions in terms of fibre type distribution, fibre size, and muscle force. In contrast, FGF21 is required for fasting-induced muscle atrophy and weakness. The mass of isolated muscles from control-fasted mice was reduced by 15-25% (P < 0.05) compared with fed control mice. FGF21-null muscles, however, were significantly protected from muscle loss and weakness during fasting. Such important protection is due to the maintenance of protein synthesis rate in knockout muscles during fasting compared with a 70% reduction in control-fasted muscles (P < 0.01), together with a significant reduction of the mitophagy flux via the regulation of the mitochondrial protein Bnip3. The contribution of FGF21 to the atrophy programme was supported by in vivo FGF21 overexpression in muscles, which was sufficient to induce autophagy and muscle loss by 15% (P < 0.05). Bnip3 inhibition protected against FGF21-dependent muscle wasting in adult animals (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:FGF21 is a novel player in the regulation of muscle mass that requires the mitophagy protein Bnip3.
Project description:PURPOSE:Myokines have been shown to affect muscle physiology and exert systemic effects. We endeavored to investigate a panel of myokine mRNA expression after a single exercise bout (studies 1 and 2) to measure myokine mRNA in primary human myotubes in an in vitro exercise model (study 2). METHODS:Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained from 20 healthy males (age, 24.0 ± 4.5 yr; BMI, 23.6 ± 1.8 kg·m)(-2) before and after a single exercise bout (650 kcal at 50% V˙O2max). Primary myotubes from active and sedentary male donors were treated with a pharmacological cocktail (palmitate, forskolin, and ionomycin (PFI)) to mimic exercise-stimulated contractions in vitro. RESULTS:Interleukin 6 and 8 (IL-6 and IL-8), leukocyte-inducing factor, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA levels increased approximately 10-fold after a single exercise bout (all P < 0.001), whereas myostatin levels decreased (P < 0.05). Key correlations between myokine expression and parameters of muscle and whole-body physiology were found: myostatin versus skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity (r = -0.69, P < 0.001), V˙O2max (r = -0.64, P = 0.002) and the percentage of Type I fibers (r = -0.55, P = 0.01); IL-6 versus the RER (r = 0.45, P = 0.04), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (r = 0.44, P = 0.05), and serum lactate (r = 0.50, P = 0.02). Myokine expressions in myotubes from sedentary donors for CTGF and myostatin decreased, whereas IL-6 and IL-8 increased after PFI treatment. In myotubes from active donors, myokine expression increased for IL-6, CTGF, and myostatin but decreased for IL-8 after PFI treatment. CONCLUSION:These data offer insight into the differences in regulation of myokine expression and their possible physiologic relationships.
Project description:Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) may regulate lipoprotein lipase-dependent plasma clearance of triacylglycerol from skeletal muscle during exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the importance of muscle in regulating ANGPTL4 in response to exercise. We sampled muscle biopsies and serum before, immediately after, and 2 h after 45 min of ergometer cycling. Sampling was done before and after a 12-week training intervention in controls and dysglycemic subjects. Moreover, fat biopsies were taken before and after the training intervention. The regulation of ANGPTL4 was also investigated in several tissues of exercising mice, and in cultured myotubes. ANGPTL4 levels in serum and expression in muscle were highest 2 h after exercise in both groups. Whereas ANGPTL4 was higher in muscle of exercising controls as compared to dysglycemic subjects, the opposite was observed in serum. In exercising mice, Angptl4 mRNA showed both higher basal expression and induction in liver compared to muscle. Angptl4 mRNA was much higher in adipose tissue than muscle and was also induced by exercise. We observed two mRNA isoforms of ANGPTL4 in muscle and fat in humans. Both were induced by exercise in muscle; one isoform was expressed 5- to 10-fold higher than the other. Studies in mice and cultured myotubes showed that both fatty acids and cortisol have the potential to increase ANGPTL4 expression in muscle during exercise. In conclusion, ANGPTL4 is markedly induced in muscle in response to exercise. However, liver and adipose tissue may contribute more than muscle to the exercise-induced increase in circulating ANGPTL4.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue that undergoes cellular and metabolic adaptations under conditions of increased contractile activity such as exercise. Using adult zebrafish as an exercise model, we previously demonstrated that swimming training stimulates hypertrophy and vascularization of fast muscle fibers, consistent with the known muscle growth-promoting effects of exercise and with the resulting increased aerobic capacity of this tissue. Here we investigated the potential involvement of factors and signaling mechanisms that could be responsible for exercise-induced fast muscle remodeling in adult zebrafish. By subjecting zebrafish to swimming-induced exercise, we observed an increase in the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Mef2 protein levels in fast muscle. We also observed an increase in the protein levels of the mitotic marker phosphorylated histone H3 that correlated with an increase in the protein expression levels of Pax7, a satellite-like cell marker. Furthermore, the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was also increased by exercise, in parallel with an increase in the mRNA expression levels of pgc1? and also of pparda, a ?-oxidation marker. Changes in the mRNA expression levels of slow and fast myosin markers further supported the notion of an exercise-induced aerobic phenotype in zebrafish fast muscle. The mRNA expression levels of il6, il6r, apln, aplnra and aplnrb, sparc, decorin and igf1, myokines known in mammals to be produced in response to exercise and to signal through mTOR/AMPK pathways, among others, were increased in fast muscle of exercised zebrafish. These results support the notion that exercise increases skeletal muscle growth and myogenesis in adult zebrafish through the coordinated activation of the mTOR-MEF2 and AMPK-PGC1? signaling pathways. These results, coupled with altered expression of markers for oxidative metabolism and fast-to-slow fiber-type switch, also suggest improved aerobic capacity as a result of swimming-induced exercise. Finally, the induction of myokine expression by swimming-induced exercise support the hypothesis that these myokines may have been produced and secreted by the exercised zebrafish muscle and acted on fast muscle cells to promote metabolic remodeling. These results support the use of zebrafish as a suitable model for studies on muscle remodeling in vertebrates, including humans.
Project description:Angiopoietin-like protein-4 (ANGPTL4) is a circulating protein that is highly expressed in liver and implicated in regulation of plasma triglyceride levels. Systemic ANGPTL4 increases during prolonged fasting and is suggested to be secreted from skeletal muscle following exercise.We investigated the origin of exercise-induced ANGPTL4 in humans by measuring the arterial-to-venous difference over the leg and the hepato-splanchnic bed during an acute bout of exercise. Furthermore, the impact of the glucagon-to-insulin ratio on plasma ANGPTL4 was studied in healthy individuals. The regulation of ANGPTL4 was investigated in both hepatic and muscle cells.The hepato-splanchnic bed, but not the leg, contributed to exercise-induced plasma ANGPTL4. Further studies using hormone infusions revealed that the glucagon-to-insulin ratio is an important regulator of plasma ANGPTL4 as elevated glucagon in the absence of elevated insulin increased plasma ANGPTL4 in resting subjects, whereas infusion of somatostatin during exercise blunted the increase of both glucagon and ANGPTL4. Moreover, activation of the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade let to an increase in ANGPTL4 mRNA levels in hepatic cells, which was prevented by inhibition of PKA. In humans, muscle ANGPTL4 mRNA increased during fasting, with only a marginal further induction by exercise. In human muscle cells, no inhibitory effect of AMPK activation could be demonstrated on ANGPTL4 expression.The data suggest that exercise-induced ANGPTL4 is secreted from the liver and driven by a glucagon-cAMP-PKA pathway in humans. These findings link the liver, insulin/glucagon, and lipid metabolism together, which could implicate a role of ANGPTL4 in metabolic diseases.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Skeletal muscle is an important secretory organ, producing and releasing numerous myokines, which may be involved in mediating beneficial health effects of physical activity. More than 100 myokines have been identified by different proteomics approaches, but these techniques may not detect all myokines. We used mRNA sequencing as an untargeted approach to study gene expression of secreted proteins in skeletal muscle upon acute as well as long-term exercise. METHODS:Twenty-six middle-aged, sedentary men underwent combined endurance and strength training for 12 weeks. Skeletal muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis and blood samples were taken before and after an acute bicycle test, performed at baseline as well as after 12 weeks of training intervention. We identified transcripts encoding secretory proteins that were changed more than 1.5-fold in muscle after exercise. Secretory proteins were defined based on either curated UniProt annotations or predictions made by multiple bioinformatics methods. RESULTS:This approach led to the identification of 161 candidate secretory transcripts that were up-regulated after acute exercise and 99 that where increased after 12 weeks exercise training. Furthermore, 92 secretory transcripts were decreased after acute and/or long-term physical activity. From these responsive transcripts, we selected 17 candidate myokines sensitive to short- and/or long-term exercise that have not been described as myokines before. The expression of these transcripts was confirmed in primary human skeletal muscle cells during in vitro differentiation and electrical pulse stimulation (EPS). One of the candidates we identified was macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF1), which influences macrophage homeostasis. CSF1 mRNA increased in skeletal muscle after acute and long-term exercise, which was accompanied by a rise in circulating CSF1 protein. In cultured muscle cells, EPS promoted a significant increase in the expression and secretion of CSF1. CONCLUSION:We identified 17 new, exercise-responsive transcripts encoding secretory proteins. We further identified CSF1 as a novel myokine, which is secreted from cultured muscle cells and up-regulated in muscle and plasma after acute exercise.
Project description:Prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity is increasing worldwide. Currently available therapies are not suited for all patients in the heterogeneous obese/T2D population, hence the need for novel treatments. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is considered a promising therapeutic agent for T2D/obesity. Native FGF21 has, however, poor pharmacokinetic properties, making gene therapy an attractive strategy to achieve sustained circulating levels of this protein. Here, adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) were used to genetically engineer liver, adipose tissue, or skeletal muscle to secrete FGF21. Treatment of animals under long-term high-fat diet feeding or of ob/ob mice resulted in marked reductions in body weight, adipose tissue hypertrophy and inflammation, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, and insulin resistance for > 1 year. This therapeutic effect was achieved in the absence of side effects despite continuously elevated serum FGF21. Furthermore, FGF21 overproduction in healthy animals fed a standard diet prevented the increase in weight and insulin resistance associated with aging. Our study underscores the potential of FGF21 gene therapy to treat obesity, insulin resistance, and T2D.
Project description:Hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HPC) reside quiescently in normal biliary trees and are activated in the form of ductular reactions during severe liver damage when the replicative ability of hepatocytes is inhibited. HPC niches are full of profibrotic stimuli favoring scarring and hepatocarcinogenesis. The Cyr61/CTGF/NOV (CCN) protein family consists of six members, CCN1/CYR61, CCN2/CTGF, CCN3/NOV, CCN4/WISP1, CCN5/WISP2, and CCN6/WISP3, which function as extracellular signaling modulators to mediate cell-matrix interaction during angiogenesis, wound healing, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis. This study investigated expression patterns of CCN proteins in HPC and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Mouse HPC were induced by the biliary toxin 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC). Differential expression patterns of CCN proteins were found in HPC from DDC damaged mice and in human CCA tumors. In addition, we utilized reporter mice that carried <i>Ccn2/Ctgf</i> promoter driven GFP and detected strong <i>Ccn2/Ctgf</i> expression in epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)<sup>+</sup> HPC under normal conditions and in DDC-induced liver damage. Abundant CCN2/CTGF protein was also found in cytokeratin 19 (CK19)<sup>+</sup> human HPC that were surrounded by <i>?</i>-smooth muscle actin (<i>?</i>-SMA)<sup>+</sup> myofibroblast cells in intrahepatic CCA tumors. These results suggest that CCN proteins, particularly CCN2/CTGF, function in HPC activation and CCA development.