Symptom severity in autism spectrum disorder is related to the frequency and severity of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: a retrospective case-control study.
ABSTRACT: Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is thought to be caused by changes in maternal hormones during pregnancy. Differences in hormone exposure during prenatal life have been implicated in the causal pathways for some cases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, no study has investigated whether the presence and severity of NVP may be related to symptom severity in offspring with ASD.A large sample of children with ASD (227 males and 60 females, aged 2 to 18 years) received a clinical assessment, during which parents completed questionnaires regarding their child's social (Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS) and communication (Children's Communication Checklist-2nd edition, CCC-2) symptoms. Parents also reported on a 5-point scale the frequency and severity of NVPs during the pregnancy of the child being assessed: (1) no NVP during the pregnancy, (2) occasional nausea, but no vomiting, (3) daily nausea, but no vomiting, (4) occasional vomiting, with or without nausea, and (5) daily nausea and vomiting.Impairments in social responsiveness in offspring, as indexed by SRS total score, significantly increased as a function of the frequency and severity of their mothers' NVP, as did the level of language difficulties as indexed by the Global Communication Composite of the CCC-2.The strong, positive association between increasing frequency and severity of NVP and ASD severity in offspring provides further evidence that exposure to an atypical hormonal environment during prenatal life may affect neurodevelopment and contribute to the ASD phenotype. Given that the measure of NVP symptoms in the current study was based on retrospective recall, replication of this finding is required before strong conclusions can be drawn.
Project description:To better understand previous associations reported regarding nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) and pelvic girdle pain (PGP), an investigation into timing of symptom onset for NVP and PGP in pregnancy, as well as the association of NVP with PGP 4-6 months post-partum was performed. We hypothesised that women with NVP symptoms would be most susceptible to experiencing persistence of PGP post-partum.Fifty two thousand six hundred seventy-eight pregnancies from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were analysed regarding nausea, vomiting, pelvic girdle pain, and health outcome data collected from questionnaires answered between gestation weeks 15, 20, 30, and 6 months post-partum. Logistic regression was used.Women experiencing NVP and PGP together (6.9%) were heaviest in the sample, youngest at menarche and had highest proportion with education ?12 years. The primiparous women in this group had the lowest timespan from menarche to pregnancy. Women with nausea alone (NP) and NVP had higher odds of PGP 4-6 months post-partum (adjusted odds ratio, aOR?=?2.14, 95% CI 1.70-2.71, and aOR?=?2.83, 95% CI 2.25-3.57, respectively), compared to symptom-free women. NP/NVP symptoms appeared early in the first trimester, while PGP symptoms appeared later in pregnancy. Women with longer durations of nausea and/or vomiting had a higher proportion of PGP compared to shorter duration women.Women with NP and NVP had increased odds of PGP 4-6 months post-partum, and women with a long duration of nausea and/or vomiting had a higher proportion of PGP than women with shorter duration, both during pregnancy and 4-6 months post-partum. This finding suggests a synergistic relationship between NP/NVP and PGP.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To examine whether personal history of nausea or history of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) in relatives are risk factors for a woman to suffer from NVP. Further, to evaluate if these factors are associated with the severity of NVP.<h4>Methods</h4>Cohort study of 2411 pregnant women recruited from maternity health care clinics. The severity of NVP was categorized according to Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) questionnaire into no/mild/moderate/severe NVP. History of nausea was assessed in connection with motion sickness, seasickness, migraine or other kinds of headache, after anesthesia, related to the use of contraceptives, and other kinds of nausea. History of NVP in relatives was categorized into first-degree (mother/sister) and second-degree relatives (more distant).<h4>Results</h4>In multivariable analysis including previous personal history of nausea, motion sickness (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.81-5.56, p?<?0.0001) and nausea in migraine (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.86-5.45, p?<?0.0001) were associated with severe NVP. History of nausea in other kinds of headache was associated with moderate NVP (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.34-2.72, p?=?0.001). Women with affected first-degree relatives had higher odds for moderate (OR 3.84, 95% CI 2.72-5.40) and severe (OR 3.19, 95% CI 1.92-5.28) NVP (p?<?0.0001). All these results remained significant after adjusting for parity, body mass index, smoking, employment and age.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Women with personal history of nausea or family history of NVP have an increased susceptibility of NVP. This information is useful in pre-pregnancy counselling.
Project description:Experiences of nausea and/or vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) vary greatly, but the paucity of studies with pre-pregnancy dietary data mean that little is known about the effects of NVP on diet. Using an administered food frequency questionnaire, diet was assessed before pregnancy and at 11 and 34 weeks' gestation in 2270 participants in a UK birth cohort study (Southampton Women's Survey). Experience of NVP in early pregnancy was graded as none, mild, moderate, or severe. Participants reported their level of food consumption as more, the same, or less than before pregnancy. "Prudent" diet scores (derived using principal component analysis) were used to describe participants' diet quality before, in early and late pregnancy. In early pregnancy, 89% of women were nauseous, although most commonly, the NVP experienced was mild (48%) or moderate (30%); 11% had severe NVP. A total of 39% of women reported an increase in their level of food intake in early pregnancy; 34% reported a reduction. Increasing severity of nausea was associated with changes in intake of a range of foods, most notably reduced consumption of vegetables, tea/coffee, rice/pasta, breakfast cereals, beans/pulses and citrus fruits/fruit juices and increased consumption of white bread, and soft drinks. Increasing severity of nausea was also associated with decreasing prudent diet score from before to early pregnancy, such that women with severe nausea had prudent diet scores 0.29 SDs lower than those with no nausea (P < 0.001). However, this was transient as NVP was not related to change in diet quality from before to late pregnancy.
Project description:This study aimed to assess the impact of wearing compression stockings on women's quality of life (QoL) associated with nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy (NVP).In this randomized, open, single-center, crossover study, 74 women were assigned 1:1 to 2 weeks with compression stockings followed by 2 weeks without or vice versa. The main outcomes were NVP-associated QoL, leg-related QoL, and dizziness, as assessed by the Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy Quality of Life (NVPQOL) questionnaire, Chronic Venous Disease Quality of Life (CIVIQ) questionnaire, and questions on dizziness at baseline and after each 2-week period, respectively. Daily NVP was assessed using the modified Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis and Nausea (PUQE) questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square and independent t-tests.Fifty-eight women completed the study. QoL scores improved with compression treatment; changes in mean total scores were as follows: NVPQOL, -36.7 with compression vs -21.7 without (P<0.0001); and CIVIQ, -4.5 with compression vs +1.4 without (P=0.001). Mean dizziness scores were -3.2 with compression vs -0.4 without (P<0.0001). PUQE mean total score (standard deviation) was 4.9 (2.3) with compression vs 5.5 (2.2) without (P=0.042).Wearing of compression stockings in early pregnancy may improve nausea and vomiting-associated symptoms in addition to improving QoL factors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Some studies have indicated that female birth and multiple births were risk factors for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP). The results, however, were conflicting. Our study was conducted to evaluate the association of maternal NVP with fetal sex in singleton and twin pregnancies. METHODS:We used the data set from a birth cohort study, the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS). In the self-administered questionnaire, participants were asked whether they experienced NVP prior to 12 gestational weeks. Main outcome measures were the presence of NVP and severity of NVP. We estimated the association of fetal sex and birth plurality with NVP using logistic regression analysis, followed by interaction analysis. RESULTS:Of 91,666 women, 75,828 (82.7%) experienced at least some symptoms of NVP and 10,159 (11.1%) experienced severe NVP. Women with female pregnancies and twin pregnancies had higher odds for the presence of NVP and severe NVP compared to women with male pregnancies and singleton pregnancies, respectively. Moreover, of mothers with twin pregnancies, higher odds for the presence of NVP and severe NVP were reported when one or both infants were female, compared to those in which both infants were male. There was no significant interaction between fetal sex and birth plurality. CONCLUSIONS:Female sex birth and multiple births are risk factors for the presence of NVP, and especially for severe NVP without interaction. These findings suggest that a factor abundant in the female fetus associates with the severity of NVP.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Studies that contributed to the epidemiology of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy have reported conflicting findings, and often failed to account for all possible co-variables necessary to evaluate the multidimensional associations. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Estimate the prevalence and the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy during the 1st and the 2nd trimester of pregnancy, and 2) Identify determinants of presence and severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy during the 1st and 2nd trimesters separately, with a special emphasis on the impact of race/ethnicity. METHODS: A prospective study including pregnant women attending the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine or René-Laennec clinics for their prenatal care was conducted from 2004 to 2006. Women were eligible if they were > or = 18 years of age, and </= 16 weeks of gestation. Women were asked to fill out a 1st trimester self-administered questionnaire and were interviewed over the telephone during their 2nd trimester of pregnancy. Presence of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy was based on the reporting of pregnant women (yes/no); severity of symptoms was measured by the validated modified-PUQE index. RESULTS: Of the 367 women included in the study, 81.2% were Caucasians, 10.1% Blacks, 4.6% Hispanics, and 4.1% Asians. Multivariate analyses showed that race/ethnicity was significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of reporting nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (Asians vs. Caucasians OR: 0.13; 95%CI 0.02-0.73; and Blacks vs. Caucasians OR: 0.29; 95%CI 0.09-0.99). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that race/ethnicity was associated with the reporting of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy in the 1st trimester of pregnancy.
Project description:Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is a pervasive and debilitating phenomenon in humans. Several adaptive explanations for NVP occurrence have been recently proposed, the two most prominent of which predict associations with nutritional intake or specific dietary components. Here we extend previous cross-cultural analyses by analysing associations between NVP prevalence in 56 studies (21 countries) and quantitative estimates of per capita intake across major dietary categories, measured for the year of study by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). Rates of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy were correlated with high intake of macronutrients (kilocalories, protein, fat, carbohydrate), as well as sugars, stimulants, meat, milk and eggs, and with low intake of cereals and pulses. Restricting analyses to studies from North America and Europe caused relationships between macronutrient intake and NVP to disappear, suggesting that they might be influenced by non-dietary confounds associated with geographical region of study. However, factor analysis of dietary components revealed one factor significantly associated with NVP rate, which was characterized by low cereal consumption and high intake of sugars, oilcrops, alcohol and meat. The results provide further evidence for an association between diet and NVP prevalence across populations, and support for the idea that NVP serves an adaptive prophylactic function against potentially harmful foodstuffs.
Project description:Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is a condition that commonly affects women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Despite frequently leading to emergency department (ED) visits, little evidence exists to characterize the nature of ED visits or to guide its treatment in the ED. Our objectives were to evaluate the treatment of NVP in the ED and to identify factors that predict return visits to the ED for NVP.We conducted a retrospective database analysis using the electronic medical record from a single, large academic hospital. Demographic and treatment variables were collected using a chart review of 113 ED patient visits with a billing diagnosis of "nausea and vomiting in pregnancy" or "hyperemesis gravidarum." Logistic regression analysis was used with a primary outcome of return visit to the ED for the same diagnoses.There was wide treatment variability of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy patients in the ED. Of the 113 patient visits, 38 (33.6%) had a return ED visit for NVP. High gravidity (OR 1.31, 95% CI [1.06-1.61]), high parity (OR 1.50 95% CI [1.12-2.00]), and early gestational age (OR 0.74 95% CI [0.60-0.90]) were associated with an increase in return ED visits in univariate logistic regression models, while only early gestational age (OR 0.74 95% CI [0.59-0.91]) was associated with increased return ED visits in a multiple regression model. Admission to the hospital was found to decrease the likelihood of return ED visits (p=0.002).NVP can be difficult to manage and has a high ED return visit rate. Optimizing care with aggressive, standardized treatment in the ED and upon discharge, particularly if factors predictive of return ED visits are present, may improve quality of care and reduce ED utilization for this condition.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is a common condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between response to antiemetics in the treatment of NVP and genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin receptor subunit genes HTR3A and HTR3B. METHODS: Pregnant women ?18 years of age with NVP starting antiemetic therapy with promethazine, prochlorperazine, metoclopramide, or ondansetron at???16 weeks gestational age were eligible. The study recruited 29 women with complete data and sampling who returned for their one week follow-up and were genotyped for HTR3A and HTR3B polymorphisms. Severity of NVP was captured (using Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) and Quality of Life (QOL) tools) upon enrollment and after one week of antiemetic therapy. These measures were correlated with pharmacogenetic variability. RESULTS: Subjects with genotype associated with high serotonin affinity of the 5-HT3B receptor (rs1176744, CC) required more antiemetic medications (p?<?0.001) than other subjects. Those with genotypes associated with increased expression of the 5-HT3A receptor subunit (rs1062613, CT or TT) had worse final PUQE scores (p?=?0.01) than other subjects while rs3782025 variants carriers had significantly better initial (p?=?0.02) and final (p?=?0.02) PUQE scores than other subjects. CONCLUSIONS: HTR3B and HTR3A gene variants may contribute to variability in response to antiemetic therapy for NVP.
Project description:Low birth weight has important short- and long-term health implications. Previously it has been shown that pregnancies affected by hyperemesis gravidarum in the mother are at higher risk of having low birth weight offspring. In this study we tested whether such risks are also evident with less severe nausea and vomiting in pregnancy.One thousand two hundred thirty-eight women in the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study filled in pregnancy questionnaires which included questions relating to adverse effects of pregnancy and drugs taken during that time. Ordinal logistic regression models, adjusted for parity, ethnicity, marital and smoking status were used to relate the risk of giving birth to low birth weight (<?2.5 kg) babies to nausea and/or vomiting in pregnancy that were not treated with anti-emetics and did not report suffering from hyperemesis gravidarum.Only three women in the cohort reported having had hyperemesis gravidarum although a further 17 women reported taking anti-emetics during pregnancy. Of those 1218 women who did not take anti-emetics 286 (23.5%) did not experience nausea or vomiting, 467 (38.3%) experienced nausea but not vomiting and 465 experienced vomiting (38.2%). Vomiting during pregnancy was associated with higher risk of having a low birth weight baby (odds ratio 3.5 (1.2, 10.8), p =?0.03). The risk associated with vomiting was found in the first (p =?0.01) and second (p?=?0.01) trimesters but not the third (p =?1.0). The higher risk was not evident in those women who only experienced nausea (odds ratio 1.0 (0.3, 4.0), p?=?1.0).Vomiting in early pregnancy, even when not perceived to be sufficiently severe to merit treatment, is associated with a higher risk of delivering a low birth weight baby. Early pregnancy vomiting might therefore be usable as a marker of higher risk of low birth weight in pregnancy. This may be of benefit in situations where routine ultrasound is not available to distinguish prematurity from fetal growth restriction, so low birth weight is used as an alternative.