Iatrogenic subclavian arteriovenous fistula during permanent pacemaker implantation: Closed by endovascular coiling.
ABSTRACT: Iatrogenic arteriovenous fistula is a unique complication during pacemaker implantation. A 55-year-old man was posted for pacemaker implantation for recurrent unexplained syncope with trifascicular AV block. After axillary/subclavian venous puncture and introduction of RV lead, arterial spurting was immediately noticed as the the sheath was peeled away. After dissecting the overlying pectoralis muscle, deep sutures and manual compression achieved hemostasis. However, Subclavian arteriogram revealed an arteriovenous fistula from a lateral thoracic artery branch to the innominate vein. Hilal coils were deployed near the fistulous orifice, leading to complete resolution of the leak. After 3 days, pacemaker was implanted from right side. A multidisciplinary approach was the key to successful outcome.
Project description:AbstractBackgroundSubclavian vein obstruction may occur in patients with pacemaker leads, which may make the implantation of new pacemaker leads difficult.Case summaryWe report two cases in which upgrading to cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemaker was challenging due to total central vein occlusion. In the first case, a 78-year-old woman with permanent pacemaker implantation, 5 years ago, was successfully treated by balloon venoplasty. In the second case, balloon venoplasty was unsuccessful in a 46-year-old woman who has received twice single-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, 12 years and 5 years ago, due to vessel crowding, so a contralateral side puncture, along with a tunnel technique, was performed to solve this problem.DiscussionCardiac implantable electronic device-related subclavian vein stenosis can present a challenge to common cardiac resynchronization therapy device upgrades in the absence of appropriate techniques.
Project description:Background:The subclavian artery is an alternative access route for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), with a potential advantage in patients unsuitable for traditional access routes such as the femoral artery. This study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of the trans-subclavian (TSc) compared to the trans-femoral (TF) approach. Methods:A systematic review was conducted on two online databases: Embase and Medline. The initial search returned 508 titles. Nine observational studies were included: n = 2938 patients (2382 TF and 556 TSc). Results:Both TSc and TF groups were comparable for: 30-day mortality (Odds ratio, OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.49 - 1.16, p = 0.195); in-hospital stroke (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.60-1.85, p = 0.859); myocardial infarction (OR 1.97, 95% CI 0.74-5.23, p = 0.176); paravalvular leaks (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.76-1.90, p = 0.439); rates of postoperative permanent pacemaker implantation (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.92-2.41, p = 0.105); in-hospital bleeding and meta-analysis demonstrated no significant difference between access points (OR 3.44, 95% CI 0.35-34.22, p = 0.292). Procedural time was found to be longer in the TSc group (SMD 1.02; 95% CI 0.815-1.219, p < 0.001). Major vascular complications were significantly higher in the TF group (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32-0.94, p = 0.029). Meta regression found no influence of the covariates on the outcomes. Conclusion:Subclavian access is both a safe and feasible alternative access route for TAVI with lower risks of major vascular complications. This study supports the use of subclavian access as a viable alternative in patient groups where transfemoral TAVI is contraindicated.
Project description:Abstract Background Subclavian venous spasm is an uncommon complication during permanent pacemaker implantation. The exact aetiology of subclavian venous spasm is not clear but has been suggested to be due to either mechanical irritation of the vein during needle puncture or due to chemical irritation from contrast injection. Here, we report a case of an unyielding subclavian vein valve that impeded guidewire advancement and the repeated guidewire manipulation led to venous spasm. Case summary A 45-year-old woman with a history of surgical repair of Tetrology of Fallot in childhood presented with symptomatic bifascicular block and underwent a permanent pacemaker implantation. A subclavian venogram done prior to the procedure showed a prominent valve in the distal portion of the vein. Following venous puncture, guidewire advancement was impeded by the prominent valve. The resulting guidewire manipulation led to subclavian venous spasm necessitating a medial subclavian venous puncture and access. Discussion Prolonged mechanical irritation of the vein during pacemaker implantation may lead to venous spasm impeding pacemaker implantation. Early identification of an impeding valve and obtaining access medial to the valve may help prevent this uncommon complication.
Project description:Fetal heart failure and hydrops fetalis may occur due to systemic arteriovenous fistula because of increased cardiac output. Arteriovenous fistula of the central nervous system, liver, bone or vascular tumors such as sacrococcygeal teratoma were previously reported to be causes of intrauterine heart failure. However, coronary arteriovenous fistula was not reported as a cause of fetal heart failure previously. It is a rare pathology comprising 0.2-0.4% of all congenital heart diseases even during postnatal life. Some may remain asymptomatic for many years and diagnosed by auscultation of a continuous murmur during a routine examination, while a larger fistulous coronary artery opening to a low pressure cardiac chamber may cause ischemia of the affected myocardial region due to steal phenomenon and may present with cardiomyopathy or congestive heart failure during childhood. We herein report a neonate with coronary arteriovenous fistula between the left main coronary artery and the right ventricular apex, who presented with hydrops fetalis during the third trimester of pregnancy.
Project description:Iatrogenic aortocoronary arteriovenous fistula is a very rare complication of coronary artery bypass grafting in which one of the arterial grafts inadvertently forms a fistulous tract with a cardiac vein, shunting blood from the anastomosed coronary artery. We report a patient with an iatrogenic left internal mammary artery graft to cardiac vein fistula presenting with recurrent angina three years after a three-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting.
Project description:Coronary arteriovenous fistulae are a rare but potentially curable cause of ischaemic heart disease and should be considered as a differential diagnosis especially in patients lacking classical risk factors for coronary artery disease. We discuss one such case of cardiac ischaemia resulting from a coronary arteriovenous fistula. While there are sporadic case reports of similar patients in medical literature, our patient is the first reported case of ST-elevation myocardial infarction secondary to the fistulous connection.
Project description:The number of implantations of cardiac implantable electrophysiological devices (CIEDs) has increased over the past several years. However, the aging population and expansion of indications for CIEDs have led to an increase in associated infections. We experienced a case of a 99-year-old man presenting with skin erosion at the pocket site, where a 6-month-old implantable pacemaker was replaced. He was referred for pacemaker pocket infection and presented with fever accompanied by pain and swelling around pacemaker generator. We could not explant 7-year-old pacemaker leads and the patient refused to undergo either laser lead extraction or surgical removal. We planned to re-implant in the contralateral chest. However, the patient was emaciated with low body-mass-index (15.2 kg/m2), thus concerns arose about the possibility of tissue disruption and re-infection owing to thin skin and absence of sufficient subcutaneous tissue in contralateral subclavian region. Axillary placement of CIEDs has been adopted in patients with limited venous access. We applied a mid-axillary pacemaker implant procedure to this elderly and emaciated patient. Postoperative clinical course was uneventful. After discharge, no history of unexplained fever or illness was recorded. Mid-axillary pacemaker pocket could be an alternative approach for re-implantation in patients with emaciated, cachexic, or limited pocket preparation. <Learning objective: We apply the mid-axillary pacemaker implant procedure to a nonagenarian with contralateral pacemaker infection to minimize the risk of skin disruption after implantation. This implies that implantation is possible in patients with emaciated or cachexic or infection of the contralateral subclavian pocket. Mid-axillary pacemaker pocket could be an alternative approach for re-implantation in patients with emaciated, cachexic, or limited pocket preparation.>?.
Project description:The conventional venous access for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) is the subclavian vein, which is often accompanied by high complication rate. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of optimized axillary vein technique.A total of 247 patients undergoing CIED implantation were included and assigned to the axillary vein group or the subclavian vein group randomly. Success rate of puncture and complications in the perioperative period and follow-ups were recorded.The overall success rate (95.7% vs. 96.0%) and one-time success rate (68.4% vs. 66.1%) of punctures were similar between the two groups. In the subclavian vein group, pneumothorax occurred in three patients. The subclavian gaps of three patients were too tight to allow operation of the electrode lead. In contrast, there were no puncture-associated complications in the axillary vein group. In the patient follow-ups, two patients in the subclavian vein group had subclavian crush syndrome and both of them received lead replacement. The incidence of complications during the perioperative period and follow-ups of the axillary vein group and the subclavian vein group was 1.6% (2/125) and 8.2% (10/122), respectively (χ2 = 5.813, P = 0.016).Optimized axillary vein technique may be superior to the conventional subclavian vein technique for CIED lead placement.www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02358551; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02358551?term=NCT02358551& rank=1.
Project description:Venous malformations have static venous lakes that predispose to spontaneous venous thrombosis within the malformation due to its low-flow static state. Thrombi of varying sizes can then embolize continually into the pulmonary arterial circulation, and occlude and narrow elastic pulmonary arteries causing chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) is potentially curative in CTEPH, but has not been previously reported in the setting of mediastinal and chest wall venous malformations. We report the case of a 21-year-old female with such a large malformation treated successfully with PTE. The patient underwent complete endovascular reconstruction of her subclavian vein system from the axillary vein to the innominate vein stump with covered stent grafts to exclude the malformations from causing recurrent pulmonary emboli. This was followed by embolization of the malformation to allow for the surgical approach. The series of events in this case serves as a novel approach in managing such rare patients.
Project description:Reconstruction of the aortic major branches during thoracic endovascular aortic repair is complicated because of the complex anatomic configuration and variation of the aortic arch. In situ laser fenestration has shown great potential for the revascularization of aortic branches. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of in situ laser fenestration on the three branches of the aortic arch during thoracic endovascular aortic repair.Before clinical application, the polytetrafluoroethylene and Dacron grafts were fenestrated by an 810-nm laser system ex vivo, which did not damage the bare metal portion of the endografts and created a clean fenestration while maintaining the integrity of the endografts. In vivo, 6 anesthetized female swine survived after this operation, including stent-graft implantation in the aortic arches, laser fenestration, and conduit implantation through the innominate arteries and the left carotid arteries. Based on the animal experiments, in situ laser fenestration during thoracic endovascular aortic repair was successively performed on 24 patients (aged 33-86 years) with aortic artery diseases (dissection type A: n=4, type B: n=7, aneurysm: n=2, mural thrombus: n=7). Fenestration of 3 aortic branches was performed in 2 (8.3%) patients. Both the left carotid artery and the left subclavian artery were fenestrated in 6 (25%) patients. Only left subclavian artery fenestration surgery was done in 16 (66.7%) patients. Among these patients, 1 fenestration was abandoned secondary to an acute takeoff of the innominate artery in a type III aortic arch. The average operative time was 137±15 minutes. The technical success rate was 95.8% (n=23). No fenestration-related complications or neurological morbidity occurred after this operation. During a mean postoperative 10-month follow-up (range: 2-17 months), 1 patient died of severe pneumonia, and all the left subclavian artery and carotid artery stents were patent with no fenestration-related endoleaks upon computed tomography angiography images.In situ laser fenestration is a feasible, effective, rapid, repeatable, and safe option for the reconstruction of aortic arch during thoracic endovascular aortic repair, which might be available to revascularize the 3 branches. However, follow-up periods should be extended to evaluate the robustness of this technique.