Targeting Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Mucopolysaccharidoses.
ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are inherited metabolic diseases caused by the deficiency of lysosomal enzymes needed to catabolize glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Four therapeutic options are currently considered: enzyme replacement therapy, substrate reduction therapy, gene therapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, while some of them exhibit limited clinical efficacy and require high costs, others are still in development. Therefore, alternative treatments for MPSs need to be explored. Here we describe an innovative therapeutic approach based on the use of a recombinant protein that is able to bind the excess of extracellular accumulated heparan sulfate (HS). We demonstrate that this protein is able to reduce lysosomal defects in primary fibroblasts from MPS I and MPS IIIB patients. We also show that, by masking the excess of extracellular accumulated HS in MPS fibroblasts, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signal transduction can be positively modulated. We, therefore, suggest the use of a competitive binding molecule for HS in MPSs as an alternative strategy to prevent the detrimental extracellular substrate storage.
Project description:Neurological pathology is characteristic of the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) that store heparan sulphate (HS) glycosaminoglycan (gag) and has been proven to be refractory to systemic therapies. Substrate deprivation therapy (SDT) using general inhibitors of gag synthesis improves neurological function in mouse models of MPS, but is not specific to an MPS type. We have investigated RNA interference (RNAi) as a method of targeting SDT to the HS synthesising enzymes, EXTL2 and EXTL3. Multiple shRNA molecules specific to EXTL2 or EXTL3 were designed and validated in a reporter gene assay, with four out of six shRNA constructs reducing expression by over 90%. The three EXTL2-specific shRNA constructs reduced endogenous target gene expression by 68, 32 and 65%, and decreased gag synthesis by 46, 50 and 27%. One EXTL3-specific shRNA construct reduced endogenous target gene expression by 14% and gag synthesis by 39%. Lysosomal gag levels in MPS IIIA and MPS I fibroblasts were also reduced by EXTL2 and EXTL3-specific shRNA. Incorporation of shRNAs into a lentiviral expression system reduced gene expression, and one EXTL2-specific shRNA reduced gag synthesis. These results indicate that deprivation therapy through shRNA-mediated RNAi has potential as a therapy for HS-storing MPSs.
Project description:Diagnosis of the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) generally relies on an initial analysis of total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) excretion in urine. Often the dimethylmethylene blue dye-binding (DMB) assay is used, although false-negative results have been reported. We report a multiplexed diagnostic test with a high sensitivity for all MPSs and with the potential to identify patients with I-cell disease (ML II) and mucolipidosis III (ML III).Urine samples of 100 treatment naive MPS patients were collected and analyzed by the conventional DMB assay and a multiplex assay based on enzymatic digestion of heparan sulfate (HS), dermatan sulfate (DS) and keratan sulfate (KS) followed by quantification by LC-MS/MS. Specificity was calculated by analyzing urine samples from a cohort of 39 patients suspected for an inborn error of metabolism, including MPSs.The MPS cohort consisted of 18 MPS I, 16 MPS II, 34 MPS III, 10 MPS IVA, 3 MPS IVB, 17 MPS VI and 2 MPS VII patients. All 100 patients were identified by the LC-MS/MS assay with typical patterns of elevation of HS, DS and KS, respectively (sensitivity 100%). DMB analysis of the urine was found to be in the normal range in 10 of the 100 patients (sensitivity 90%). Three out of the 39 patients were identified as false-positive, resulting in a specificity of the LS-MS/MS assay of 92%. For the DMB this was 97%. All three patients with MLII/MLIII had elevated GAGs in the LC-MS/MS assay while the DMB test was normal in 2 of them.The multiplex LC-MS/MS assay provides a robust and very sensitive assay for the diagnosis of the complete spectrum of MPSs and has the potential to identify MPS related disorders such as MLII/MLIII. Its performance is superior to that of the conventional DMB assay.
Project description:Sanfilippo syndrome type B, or mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB (MPS IIIB), is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU). Deficiency in NAGLU disrupts the lysosomal turnover of heparan sulfate (HS), which results in the abnormal accumulation of partially degraded HS in cells and tissues. BMN 250 (NAGLU-insulin-like growth factor 2 [IGF2]) is a recombinant fusion protein developed as an investigational enzyme replacement therapy for MPS IIIB. The IGF2 peptide on BMN 250 promotes enhanced targeting of the enzyme to lysosomes through its interaction with the mannose 6-phosphate receptor. The focus of these studies was to further characterize the ability of NAGLU-IGF2 to clear accumulated HS compared to unmodified NAGLU in primary cellular models of MPS IIIB. Here, we establish distinct primary cell models of MPS IIIB with HS accumulation. These cellular models revealed distinct NAGLU uptake characteristics that depend on the duration of exposure. We found that with sustained exposure, NAGLU uptake and HS clearance occurred independent of known lysosomal targeting signals. In contrast, under conditions of limited exposure duration, NAGLU-IGF2 was taken up more rapidly than the unmodified NAGLU into MPS IIIB primary fibroblasts, astrocytes, and cortical neurons, where it efficiently degraded accumulated HS. These studies illustrate the importance of using physiologically relevant conditions in the evaluation of enzyme replacement therapies in cellular models.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are rare lysosomal storage diseases caused by the accumulation of undegraded glycosaminoglycans in cells and tissues. The effectiveness of early intervention for MPS has been reported. Multiple-assay formats using tandem mass spectrometry have been developed. Here, we developed a method for simultaneous preparation and better measurement of the activities of five enzymes involved in MPSs, i.e., MPS I, MPS II, MPS IIIB, MPS IVA, and MPS VI, which were validated using 672 dried blood spot samples obtained from healthy newborns and 23 patients with MPS. The mean values of the enzyme activities and standard deviations in controls were as follows: ?-iduronidase (IDUA), 4.19 ± 1.53 µM/h; iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S), 8.39 ± 2.82 µM/h; N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase (NAGLU), 1.96 ± 0.57 µM/h; N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS), 0.50 ± 0.20 µM/h; and N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (ARSB), 2.64 ± 1.01 µM/h. All patients displayed absent or low enzyme activity. In MPS I, IIIB, and VI, each patient group was clearly separated from controls, whereas there was some overlap between the control and patient groups in MPS II and IVA, suggesting the occurrence of pseudo-deficiencies. Thus, we established a multiplex assay for newborn screening using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, allowing simultaneous pretreatment and measurement of five enzymes relevant to MPSs.
Project description:The recent advancements in the knowledge of lysosomal biology and function have translated into an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs). The concept that MPS manifestations are direct consequences of lysosomal engorgement with undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) has been challenged by new information on the multiple biological roles of GAGs and by a new vision of the lysosome as a signaling hub involved in many critical cellular functions. MPS pathophysiology is now seen as the result of a complex cascade of secondary events that lead to dysfunction of several cellular processes and pathways, such as abnormal composition of membranes and its impact on vesicle fusion and trafficking; secondary storage of substrates; impairment of autophagy; impaired mitochondrial function and oxidative stress; dysregulation of signaling pathways. The characterization of this cascade of secondary cellular events is critical to better understand the pathophysiology of MPS clinical manifestations. In addition, some of these pathways may represent novel therapeutic targets and allow for the development of new therapies for these disorders.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) caused by a deficiency of lysosomal enzymes, leading to a wide range of various clinical symptoms depending upon the type of MPS or its severity. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), substrate reduction therapy (SRT), and various surgical procedures are currently available for patients with MPS. However, there is no curative treatment for this group of disorders. Gene therapy should be a one-time permanent therapy, repairing the cause of enzyme deficiency. Preclinical studies of gene therapy for MPS have been developed over the past three decades. Currently, clinical trials of gene therapy for some types of MPS are ongoing in the United States, some European countries, and Australia. Here, in this review, we summarize the development of gene therapy for MPS in preclinical and clinical trials.
Project description:Previous studies on the prevalence of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) in different populations have shown considerable variations. There are, however, few data with regard to the prevalence of MPSs in Fenno-Ugric populations or in north-eastern Europe, except for a report about Scandinavian countries. A retrospective epidemiological study of MPSs in Estonia was undertaken, and live-birth prevalence of MPS patients born between 1985 and 2006 was estimated. The live-birth prevalence for all MPS subtypes was found to be 4.05 per 100,000 live births, which is consistent with most other European studies. MPS II had the highest calculated incidence, with 2.16 per 100,000 live births (4.2 per 100,000 male live births), forming 53% of all diagnosed MPS cases, and was twice as high as in other studied European populations. The second most common subtype was MPS IIIA, with a live-birth prevalence of 1.62 in 100,000 live births. With 0.27 out of 100,000 live births, MPS VI had the third-highest live-birth prevalence. No cases of MPS I were diagnosed in Estonia, making the prevalence of MPS I in Estonia much lower than in other European populations. MPSs are the third most frequent inborn error of metabolism in Estonia after phenylketonuria and galactosemia.
Project description:The stepwise degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is accomplished by twelve lysosomal enzymes. Deficiency in any of these enzymes will result in the accumulation of the intermediate substrates on the pathway to the complete turnover of GAGs. The accumulation of these undegraded substrates in almost any tissue is a hallmark of all Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS). Present therapeutics based on enzyme replacement therapy and bone marrow transplantation have low effectiveness for the treatment of MPS with neurological complications since enzymes used in these therapies are unable to cross the blood brain barrier. Small molecule-based approaches are more promising in addressing neurological manifestations. In this report we identify a target for developing a substrate reduction therapy (SRT) for six MPS resulting from the abnormal degradation of heparan sulfate (HS). Using the minimal promoter of NDST1, one of the first modifying enzymes of HS precursors, we established a luciferase based reporter gene assay capable of identifying small molecules that could potentially reduce HS maturation and therefore lessen HS accumulation in certain MPS. From the screen of 1,200 compounds comprising the Prestwick Chemical library we identified SAHA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, as the drug that produced the highest inhibitory effects in the reporter assay. More importantly SAHA treated fibroblasts expressed lower levels of endogenous NDST1 and accumulated less 35S GAGs in patient cells. Thus, by using our simple reporter gene assay we have demonstrated that by inhibiting the transcription of NDST1 with small molecules, identified by high throughput screening, we can also reduce the level of sulfated HS substrate in MPS patient cells, potentially leading to SRT.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I, Hurler and Scheie syndromes) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that results from a deficiency of the hydrolase alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) which is involved in the lysosomal degradation of both heparan sulphate (HS) and dermatan sulphate (DS). Patients with MPS I store and excrete large amounts of partially degraded HS and DS. In order to evaluate enzyme replacement therapy for MPS I patients we have expressed human IDUA cDNA in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-K1 cells utilizing a plasmid vector that places the cDNA under the transcriptional control of the human polypeptide-chain-elongation factor I alpha gene promoter. A clonal cell-line that secreted recombinant IDUA in a precursor form at approximately 2.2 micrograms/10(6) cells per day was identified. This enzyme was shown to be endocytosed into cultured MPS I fibroblasts via mannose-6-phosphate receptors and to correct the storage phenotype of these cells by enabling the lysosomal-digestion of accumulated sulphated glycosaminoglycans. The recombinant IDUA had on SDS/PAGE a molecular mass of 85 kDa and was processed to 74 kDa and smaller forms following its uptake by fibroblasts. Milligram quantities of the recombinant IDUA were immunopurified and the enzyme was shown to have pH optimum and kinetic parameters differing from those of the mature enzyme purified from human liver. The specific activity of the recombinant enzyme was shown to increase on dilution and on incubation with reducing agents. This was in contrast to the mature IDUA form (74 kDa) which did not have its activity stimulated by reducing agents or dilution.
Project description:Obstacles to effective therapies for mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) determine the need for continuous studies in order to enhance therapeutic strategies. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is frequently utilised as a solvent in biological studies, and as a vehicle for drug therapy and the in vivo administration of water-insoluble substances. In the light of the uncertainty on the mechanisms of DMSO impact on metabolism of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) pathologically accumulated in MPSs, in this work, we made an attempt to investigate and resolve the question of the nature of GAG level modulation by DMSO, the isoflavone genistein solvent employed previously by our group in MPS treatment. In this work, we first found the cytotoxic effect of DMSO on human fibroblasts at concentrations above 3%. Also, our results displayed the potential role of DMSO in the regulation of biological processes at the transcriptional level, then demonstrated a moderate impact of the solvent on GAG synthesis. Interestingly, alterations of lysosomal ultrastructure upon DMSO treatment were visible. As there is growing evidence in the literature that DMSO can affect cellular pathways leading to numerous changes, it is important to expand our knowledge concerning this issue.