ABSTRACT: Studies in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro have shown clear evidence that multiple macrophage polarization states exist. The extent to which different alveolar macrophage (AM) polarization states exist in homeostasis or in the setting of severe injury such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is largely unknown. We applied single-cell cytometry TOF (CyTOF) to simultaneously measure 36 cell-surface markers on CD45+ cells present in bronchoalveolar lavage from healthy volunteers, as well as mechanically ventilated subjects with and without ARDS. Visualization of the high-dimensional data with the t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding algorithm demonstrated wide diversity of cell-surface marker profiles among CD33+CD71+CD163+ AMs. We then used a ?-nearest neighbor density estimation algorithm to statistically identify distinct alveolar myeloid subtypes, and we discerned 3 AM subtypes defined by CD169 and PD-L1 surface expression. The percentage of AMs that were classified into one of the 3 AM subtypes was significantly different between healthy and mechanically ventilated subjects. In an independent cohort of subjects with ARDS, PD-L1 gene expression and PD-L1/PD-1 pathway-associated gene sets were significantly decreased in AMs from patients who experienced prolonged mechanical ventilation or death. Unsupervised CyTOF analysis of alveolar leukocytes from human subjects has potential to identify expected and potentially novel myeloid populations that may be linked with clinical outcomes.
Project description:Rationale: Serial measurements of alveolar macrophage (AM) transcriptional changes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) could identify cell-specific biological programs that are associated with clinical outcomes.Objectives: To determine whether AM transcriptional programs are associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and 28-day mortality in individuals with ARDS.Methods: We performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of AMs purified from BAL fluid collected from 35 subjects with ARDS. Cells were obtained at baseline (Day 1), Day 4, and Day 8 after ARDS onset (N?=?68 total samples). We identified biological pathways that were enriched at each time point in subjects alive and extubated within 28 days after ARDS onset (alive/extubatedDay28) versus those dead or persistently supported on mechanical ventilation at Day 28 (dead/intubatedDay28).Measurements and Main Results: "M1-like" (classically activated) and proinflammatory gene sets such as IL-6/JAK/STAT5 (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5) signaling were significantly enriched in AMs isolated on Day 1 in alive/extubatedDay28 versus dead/intubatedDay28 subjects. In contrast, by Day 8, many of these same proinflammatory gene sets were enriched in AMs collected from dead/intubatedDay28 compared with alive/extubatedDay28 subjects. Serially sampled alive/extubatedDay28 subjects were characterized by an AM temporal expression pattern of Day 1 enrichment of innate immune programs followed by prompt downregulation on Days 4 and 8. Dead/intubatedDay28 subjects exhibited an opposite pattern, characterized by progressive upregulation of proinflammatory programs over the course of ARDS. The relationship between AM expression profiles and 28-day clinical status was distinct in subjects with direct (pulmonary) versus indirect (extrapulmonary) ARDS.Conclusions: Clinical outcomes in ARDS are associated with highly distinct AM transcriptional programs.
Project description:Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common in intensive care units (ICUs), although it is associated with high mortality, no effective pharmacological treatments are currently available. Despite being poorly understood, the role of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis in ARDS may provide significant insights into the immunosuppressive mechanisms that occur after ARDS. In the present study, we observed that the level of soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1), a potential activator of the PD-1 pathway, was upregulated in survivors of direct ARDS than in non-survivors. Administration of sPD-L1 in mice with direct ARDS relieved inflammatory lung injury and improved the survival rate, indicating the protective role of sPD-L1 in direct ARDS. Using high-throughput mass cytometry, we found a marked decrease in the number of lung monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) with proinflammatory markers, and the protective role of sPD-L1 diminished in ARDS mice with monocyte/macrophage depletion. Furthermore, PD-1 expression increased in the MDMs of patients and mice with direct ARDS. Finally, we showed that sPD-L1 induced MDM apoptosis in patients with direct ARDS. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the engagement of sPD-L1 on PD-1 expressing macrophages resulted in a decrease in pro-inflammatory macrophages and eventually improved direct ARDS. Our study identified a prognostic indicator for patients with direct ARDS and a potential target for therapeutic development in direct ARDS.
Project description:Rationale: Serial measurements of genome-wide transcriptional changes in alveolar macrophages (AM) and peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) from patients with acute respiratory distress (ARDS) could clarify the biologic programs activated in ARDS and the relationship of these changes to clinical outcomes. Objectives: To identify transcriptional programs activated in purified AM and PBM over the course of ARDS, and determine the relationship of these programs with patient outcomes. Methods: We performed transcriptional profiling of total RNA isolated from AMs and PBMs purified from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and peripheral blood respectively, collected from patients (n = 26) with ARDS previously enrolled in a phase-II clinical trial. Cells were obtained at baseline (day 0) after enrollment. Measurements and Main Results: Using an unbiased gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), we found highly divergent patterns of gene expression in AMs and PBMs. Notably, immuno-inflammatory gene sets were enriched in AMs isolated on day 0 in those who survived and had more ventilator-free days (VFD); however, this association between inflammatory and immune gene sets and good outcomes was not seen in PBMs. Conclusion: Transcriptional responses during ARDS are remarkably different between AMs and PBMs. Rationale: Serial measurements of genome-wide transcriptional changes in alveolar macrophages (AM) and peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) from patients with acute respiratory distress (ARDS) could clarify the biologic programs activated in ARDS and the relationship of these changes to clinical outcomes. Objectives: To identify transcriptional programs activated in purified AM and PBM over the course of ARDS, and determine the relationship of these programs with patient outcomes. Methods: We performed transcriptional profiling of total RNA isolated from AMs and PBMs purified from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood respectively, collected from patients (n = 26) with ARDS previously enrolled in a phase-II clinical trial. Cells were obtained at baseline (day 0) after enrollment. Measurements and Main Results: Using an unbiased gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), we found highly divergent patterns of gene expression in AMs and PBMs. Notably, immuno-inflammatory gene sets were enriched in AM isolated on day 0 in those who survived and had more ventilator-free days (VFD); however, this association between inflammatory and immune gene sets and good outcomes was not seen in PBMs. Conclusion: Transcriptional responses during ARDS are remarkably different between AM and PBM. Overall design: 1. Total RNA from human alveolar macrophages was isolated and hybridized to Illumina HumanRef-8 BeadChip (n = 26) 2. Total RNA from human peripheral monocytes was isolated and hybridized to Illumina HumanRef-8 BeadChip (n = 26)
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to invading pathogens. Although NETs play an important role in host defense against microbial pathogens, they have also been shown to play a contributing mechanistic role in pathologic inflammation in the absence of infection. Although a role for NETs in bacterial pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is emerging, a comprehensive evaluation of NETs in the alveolar space of critically ill patients has yet to be reported. In this study, we evaluated whether markers of NET formation in mechanically ventilated patients are associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). METHODS:We collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 100 critically ill patients undergoing bronchoscopy for clinically suspected VAP. Subjects were categorized by the absence or presence of VAP and further stratified by ARDS status. NETs (myeloperoxidase (MPO)-DNA complexes) and the NET-associated markers peroxidase activity and cell-free DNA were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colorimetric assays, respectively. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was used to determine the origin of the extruded DNA. Interleukin (IL)-8 and calprotectin were assayed as measures of alveolar inflammation and neutrophil activation. Correlations between NETs and markers of neutrophil activation were determined using Spearman's correlation. We tested for associations with VAP and bacterial burden by logistic and linear regression, respectively, using log10-transformed NETs. RESULTS:MPO-DNA concentrations were highly correlated with other measures of NET formation in the alveolar space, including cell-free DNA and peroxidase activity (r?=?0.95 and r?=?0.87, p?<?0.0001, respectively). Alveolar concentrations of MPO-DNA were higher in subjects with VAP and ARDS compared with those with ARDS alone (p?<?0.0001), and higher MPO-DNA was associated with increased odds of VAP (odds ratio 3.03, p?<?0.0001). In addition, NET concentrations were associated with bacterial burden (p?<?0.0001) and local alveolar inflammation as measured by IL-8 (r?=?0.89, p?<?0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:Alveolar NETs measured by MPO-DNA complex are associated with VAP, and markers of NETosis are associated with local inflammation and bacterial burden in the lung. These results suggest that NETs contribute to inflammatory responses involved in the pathogenesis of VAP.
Project description:Prolonged exposure to hyperoxia has deleterious effects on the lung, provoking both inflammation and alveolar injury. The elements of hyperoxic injury, which result in high rates of lethality in experimental models, are thought to include multicellular immune responses. To characterize these alterations in immune cell populations, we performed time-of-flight mass cytometry (CyTOF) analysis of CD45-expressing immune cells in whole lung parenchyma and the bronchoalveolar space of mice, exposed to 48?hours of hyperoxia together with normoxic controls. At the tested time point, hyperoxia exposure resulted in decreased abundance of immunoregulatory populations (regulatory B cells, myeloid regulatory cells) in lung parenchyma and markedly decreased proliferation rates of myeloid regulatory cells, monocytes and alveolar macrophages. Additionally, hyperoxia caused a shift in the phenotype of alveolar macrophages, increasing proportion of cells with elevated CD68, CD44, CD11c, PD-L1, and CD205 expression levels. These changes occurred in the absence of histologically evident alveolar damage and abundance of neutrophils in the parenchyma or alveolar space did not change at these time points. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that pulmonary response to hyperoxia involves marked changes in specific subsets of myeloid and lymphoid populations. These findings have important implications for therapeutic targeting in acute lung injury.
Project description:Macrophages have a central role in the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis since they are an important line of defense, serve as a site for fungal replication, and also can contribute to tissue damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction of macrophages with cells from smooth-colony variants (SM) and mucoid-colony variants (MC) arising from phenotypic switching of Cryptococcus neoformans. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) isolated from SM- and MC-infected mice exhibited differences in gene and surface expression of PD-L1, PD-L2, and major histocompatibility class II (MHC-II). PD-L1 and PD-L2 are the ligands for PD1 and are differentially regulated in Th1- and Th2-type cells. In addition, macrophage activation in SM- and MC-infected mice was characterized as alternatively activated. Flow cytometric and cytokine analysis demonstrated that MC infection was associated with the emergence of Th17 cells and higher levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17) in lung tissue, which were reduced by AM depletion. In conclusion, our results indicate that macrophages play a significant role in maintaining damage-promoting inflammation in the lung during MC infection, which ultimately results in death.
Project description:Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a highly complex process that can be triggered by both noninfectious (sterile) and infectious stimuli. Inflammatory lung responses are one of the key features in the pathogenesis of this devastating syndrome. How ALI/ARDS-associated inflammation develops remains incompletely understood, particularly after exposure to sterile stimuli. Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) regulate intercellular communication and inflammatory responses in various diseases. In this study, we characterized the generation and function of pulmonary EVs in the setting of ALI/ARDS, induced by sterile stimuli (oxidative stress or acid aspiration) and infection (LPS/Gram-negative bacteria) in mice. EVs detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were markedly increased after exposure of animals to both types of stimuli. After sterile stimuli, alveolar type-І epithelial cells were the main source of the BALF EVs. In contrast, infectious stimuli-induced BALF EVs were mainly derived from alveolar macrophages (AMs). Functionally, BALF EVs generated in both the noninfectious and infectious ALI models promoted the recruitment of macrophages in in vivo mouse models. Furthermore, BALF EVs differentially regulated AM production of cytokines and inflammatory mediators, as well as TLR expression in AMs in vivo. Regardless of their origin, BALF EVs contributed significantly to the development of lung inflammation in both the sterile and infectious ALI. Collectively, our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which EVs regulate the development of lung inflammation in response to diverse stimuli, potentially providing novel therapeutic and diagnostic targets for ALI/ARDS.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate whether a selective phosphodiesterase-3 (PDE3) inhibitor olprinone can positively influence the inflammation, apoptosis, and respiratory parameters in animals with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) model induced by repetitive saline lung lavage. Adult rabbits were divided into 3 groups: ARDS without therapy (ARDS), ARDS treated with olprinone i.v. (1 mg/kg; ARDS/PDE3), and healthy ventilated controls (Control), and were oxygen-ventilated for the following 4 h. Dynamic lung-thorax compliance (Cdyn), mean airway pressure (MAP), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), alveolar-arterial gradient (AAG), ratio between partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to a fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), oxygenation index (OI), and ventilation efficiency index (VEI) were evaluated every hour. Post mortem, inflammatory and oxidative markers (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1?, a receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), IL-10, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and apoptosis (apoptotic index and caspase-3) were assessed in the lung tissue. Treatment with olprinone reduced the release of inflammatory mediators and markers of oxidative damage decreased apoptosis of epithelial cells and improved respiratory parameters. The results indicate a future potential of PDE3 inhibitors also in the therapy of ARDS.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway have clinical activity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but only a subset of patients respond to these therapies, highlighting a need for novel biomarkers to improve clinical benefit. HCC usually occurs in the setting of liver cirrhosis from chronic hepatitis B or C viral infection, but the effects of viral status on the tumor immune microenvironment and clinical responses to ICIs in HCC remains unclear. METHODS:We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the objective response rates for PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in virally-infected and uninfected patients, and examined the effects of viral etiology on the tumor microenvironment using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, as well as peripheral blood responses using an independent cohort of patients studied by mass cytometry (cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF)). RESULTS:Meta-analysis comparing objective response rates (ORR) between virally-infected and uninfected patients showed no clinically meaningful difference (absolute difference of ORR in virally-infected vs uninfected=-1.4%, 95%?CI: -13.5% to 10.6%). There was no relationship between viral etiology on features of the tumor immune microenvironment that are known to modulate responses to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, and the tumor mutational burden was similar between virally-infected and uninfected HCC. RNA sequencing of tissue-resident T cell and B cell repertoires similarly showed no effect of viral status on their diversity. CyTOF analysis of peripheral blood specimens further demonstrated similar expression of immune-related markers in response to PD-1 inhibitor therapy in virally-infected and uninfected HCC. CONCLUSION:There is no significant effect of viral etiology on the tumor immune microenvironment in HCC, and viral status should not be used as a criterion to select patients for PD-1/PD-L1 therapy.