Metagenome Sequences of a Thermophilic Anaerobic Digester Adapted to a Low C/N Ratio, High-Ammonia Feedstock (Poultry Litter).
ABSTRACT: We sequenced the metagenome of a pilot-scale thermophilic digester with long-term, stable performance on poultry litter feedstock which has a very low C/N ratio, a high ammonia level, and high lignocellulose content. Firmicutes were the dominant phylum (68.9%). Other abundant phyla included Bacteroidetes, Euryarchaeota, and Thermotogae This microbiome represents a hydrogenotrophic methanogenic community with high diversity.
Project description:The feasibility of using pre-acclimated activated carbon to start up microbial electrolysis cell assisted anaerobic digester (MEC-AD) has been testified in this study. Two identical lab-scale digesters were separately packed with granular activated carbon (GAC) and powered activated carbon (PAC), which were initially acclimated as anaerobic digester and then transferred to MEC-AD. When a voltage of 0.5?V was applied, increased methane generation and substrate removal rates were observed. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens predominated in both digesters before and after transition, indicating that the pre-cultured microbial community on carbon materials could provide necessary microbiome favorable for starting up MECs. Although a low abundance of <i>Geobacter</i> was detected in inoculum, a rapid propagation could be realized when reactors were subjected to the electro-stimulation. The abundance of <i>Methanosarcina</i> closely attached to PAC was four times than that of GAC, which might be partially contributed to the improved resilience of anaerobic digester subjected to electro-stimulation.
Project description:Methanoculleus bourgensis, of the order Methanomicrobiales, is a dominant methanogenic archaeon in many biogas-producing reactor systems fed with renewable primary products. It is capable of synthesizing methane via the hydrogenotrophic pathway utilizing hydrogen and carbon dioxide or formate as the substrates. Here we report the complete and finished genome sequence of M. bourgensis strain MS2(T), isolated from a sewage sludge digester.
Project description:We sequenced the metagenome of a microbial community enriched under strictly anaerobic conditions from wastewater treatment plant-derived digester sludge. The metagenomic analysis of the enrichment revealed that Acetobacterium and methanogenic archaea belonged to the dominant prokaryotes, and genes encoding components of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway were identified.
Project description:Anaerobic digestion is a biological process in which a consortium of microorganisms transforms a complex substrate into methane and carbon dioxide. A good understanding of the interactions between the populations that form this consortium can contribute to a successful anaerobic digestion of the substrate. In this study we combine the analysis of the biogas production in a laboratory anaerobic digester fed with the microalgae Spirulina, a protein rich substrate, with the analysis of the metagenome of the consortium responsible for digestion, obtained by high-throughput DNA sequencing. The obtained metagenome was also compared with a metagenome from a full scale biogas plant fed with cellulose rich material.The optimal organic loading rate for the anaerobic digestion of Spirulina was determined to be 4.0 g Spirulina L(-1) day(-1) with a specific biogas production of 350 mL biogas g Spirulina (-1) with a methane content of 68 %. Firmicutes dominated the microbial consortium at 38 % abundance followed by Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Thermotogae. Euryarchaeota represented 3.5 % of the total abundance. The most abundant organism (14.9 %) was related to Tissierella, a bacterium known to use proteinaceous substrates for growth. Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales dominated the archaeal community. Compared to the full scale cellulose-fed digesters, Pfam domains related to protein degradation were more frequently detected and Pfam domains related to cellulose degradation were less frequent in our sample.The results presented in this study suggest that Spirulina is a suitable substrate for the production of biogas. The proteinaceous substrate appeared to have a selective impact on the bacterial community that performed anaerobic digestion. A direct influence of the substrate on the selection of specific methanogenic populations was not observed.
Project description:In this study, the microbial community succession in a thermophilic methanogenic bioreactor under deteriorative and stable conditions that were induced by acidification and neutralization, respectively, was investigated using PCR-mediated single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) based on the 16S rRNA gene, quantitative PCR, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The SSCP analysis indicated that the archaeal community structure was closely correlated with the volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, while the bacterial population was impacted by pH. The archaeal community consisted mainly of two species of hydrogenotrophic methanogen (i.e., a Methanoculleus sp. and a Methanothermobacter sp.) and one species of aceticlastic methanogen (i.e., a Methanosarcina sp.). The quantitative PCR of the 16S rRNA gene from each methanogen revealed that the Methanoculleus sp. predominated among the methanogens during operation under stable conditions in the absence of VFAs. Accumulation of VFAs induced a dynamic transition of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and in particular, a drastic change (i.e., an approximately 10,000-fold increase) in the amount of the 16S rRNA gene from the Methanothermobacter sp. The predominance of the one species of hydrogenotrophic methanogen was replaced by that of the other in response to the VFA concentration, suggesting that the dissolved hydrogen concentration played a decisive role in the predominance. The hydrogenotrophic methanogens existed close to bacteria in aggregates, and a transition of the associated bacteria was also observed by FISH analyses. The degradation of acetate accumulated during operation under deteriorative conditions was concomitant with the selective proliferation of the Methanosarcina sp., indicating effective acetate degradation by the aceticlastic methanogen. The simple methanogenic population in the thermophilic anaerobic digester significantly responded to the environmental conditions, especially to the concentration of VFAs.
Project description:Influenced by feedstock type and microbial inoculum, different microbial groups must precisely interact for high-quality biogas yields. As a first approach for optimization, this study aimed to identify through time the biogas-producing microbial community in a 10-ton dry anaerobic digester treating cattle manure by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and metagenomics. Moreover, the associated bovine residues or feedstocks (leachate, manure, oxidation lagoon water, rumen) were also characterized to determine their contribution. A diverse and dynamic community characterized by Bacteria (82%-88%) and a considerable amount of Archaea (8%-15%) presented profiles particular to each stage of biogas production. Eukaryotes (2.6%-3.6%), mainly fungi, were a minor but stable component. Proteobacteria represented 47% of the community at the start of the run but only 18% at the end, opposite to the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi group (8% and 20%, respectively), while Firmicutes (12%-18%) and Actinobacteria (12%-32%) remained relatively constant. Methanogens of the order Methanomicrobiales represented by several species of Methanoculleus were abundant at the end of the run (77%) contrary to Methanosarcinales (11%) and Methanobacteriales (0.7%). Therefore, methanogenesis mainly occurred by the hydrogenotrophic pathway. Manure and oxidation lagoon water seemed to contribute key microorganisms, while rumen dominated by Methanobrevibacter (72%) did not proliferate in the digester. Manure particularly possessed Methanoculleus (24%) and uncultured methanogens identified by DGGE, whereas oxidation lagoon was exclusively abundant in Methanolinea (18%) and Methanosaeta (19%). Leachate, as the microbial inoculum from a previous run, adequately preserved the biogas-producing community. These results could lead to higher biogas yields through bioaugmentation strategies by incorporating higher proportions or an enriched inoculum from the relevant feedstocks.
Project description:An anaerobic dynamic membrane digester (ADMD) was developed to digest waste sludge, and pyrosequencing was used to analyze the variations of the bacterial and archaeal communities during the start-up. Results showed that bacterial community richness decreased and then increased over time, while bacterial diversity remained almost the same during the start-up. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the major phyla. At the class level, Betaproteobacteria was the most abundant at the end of start-up, followed by Sphingobacteria. In the archaeal community, richness and diversity peaked at the end of the start-up stage. Principle component and cluster analyses demonstrated that archaeal consortia experienced a distinct shift and became stable after day 38. Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales were the two predominant orders. Further investigations indicated that Methanolinea and Methanosaeta were responsible for methane production in the ADMD system. Hydrogenotrophic pathways might prevail over acetoclastic means for methanogenesis during the start-up, supported by specific methanogenic activity tests.
Project description:A high solid digester with dewatered sludge was operated for 110 days to ascertain the interactions between bacterial and archaeal communities under ammonium stress, as well as the corresponding changes in bio-degradation mechanisms. The volatile solids reduction (95% confidence intervals in mean) changed from 31.6?±?0.9% in the stable period (day 40-55) to 21.3?±?1.5% in the last period (day 71-110) when ammonium concentration was elevated to be within 5,000-6,000?mgN/L. Biogas yield dropped accordingly from 11.9?±?0.3 to 10.4?±?0.2?L/d and carbon dioxide increased simultaneously from 35.2% to 44.8%. Anaerobranca better adapted to the ammonium stress, while the initially dominant protein-degrading microbes-Tepidimicrobium and Proteiniborus were suppressed, probably responsible for the increase of protein content in digestate. Meanwhile, Methanosarcina, as the dominant Archaea, was resistant to ammonium stress with the constant relative abundance of more than 92% during the whole operation. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysis was thus conducted which indicated that the gradually increased TAN dictated the bacterial clusters. The dominant Methanosarcina and the increased carbon dioxide content under ammonium stress suggested that, rather than the commonly acknowledged syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, only SAO pathway was enhanced during the initial 'ammonium inhibition'.
Project description:Anaerobic digesters become unstable when operated at a high organi c loading rate (OLR). Investigating the microbial community response to OLR disturbance is helpful for achieving efficient and stable process operation. However, previous studies have only focused on community succession during different process stages. How does community succession influence process stability? Is this kind of succession resilient? Are any key microbial indicator closely related to process stability? Such relationships between microbial communities and process stability are poorly understood.In this study, a mesophilic anaerobic digester for treating food waste (FW) was operated to study the microbial diversity and dynamicity due to OLR disturbance. Overloading resulted in proliferation of acidogenic bacteria, and the resulting high volatile fatty acid (VFA) yield triggered an abundance of acetogenic bacteria. However, the abundance and metabolic efficiency of hydrogenotrophic methanogens decreased after disturbance, and as a consequence, methanogens and acetogenic bacteria could not efficiently complete the syntrophy. This stress induced the proliferation of homoacetogens as alternative hydrogenotrophs for converting excessive H2 to acetate. However, the susceptible Methanothrix species also failed to degrade the excessive acetate. This metabolic imbalance finally led to process deterioration. After process recovery, the digester gradually returned to its original operational conditions, reached close to its original performance, and the microbial community profile achieved a new steady-state. Interestingly, the abundance of Syntrophomonas and Treponema increased during the deteriorative stage and rebounded after disturbance, suggesting they were resilient groups.Acidogenic bacteria showed high functional redundancy, rapidly adapted to the increased OLR, and shaped new microbial community profiles. The genera Syntrophomonas and Treponema were resilient groups. This observation provides insight into the key microbial indicator that are closely related to process stability. Moreover, the succession of methanogens during the disturbance phase was unsuitable for the metabolic function needed at high OLR. This contradiction resulted in process deterioration. Thus, methanogenesis is the main step that interferes with the stable operation of digesters at high OLR. Further studies on identifying and breeding high-efficiency methanogens may be helpful for breaking the technical bottleneck of process instability and achieving stable operation under high OLR.
Project description:Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a widespread microbial technology used to treat organic waste and recover energy in the form of methane ("biogas"). While most AD systems have been designed to treat a single input, mixtures of digester sludge and solid organic waste are emerging as a means to improve efficiency and methane yield. We examined laboratory anaerobic cultures of AD sludge from two sources amended with food waste, xylose, and xylan at mesophilic temperatures, and with cellulose at meso- and thermophilic temperatures, to determine whether and how the inoculum and substrate affect biogas yield and community composition. All substrate and inoculum combinations yielded methane, with food waste most productive by mass. Pyrosequencing of transcribed bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA showed that community composition varied across substrates and inocula, with differing ratios of hydrogenotrophic/acetoclastic methanogenic archaea associated with syntrophic partners. While communities did not cluster by either inoculum or substrate, additional sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in the source sludge revealed that the bacterial communities were influenced by their inoculum. These results suggest that complete and efficient AD systems could potentially be assembled from different microbial inocula and consist of taxonomically diverse communities that nevertheless perform similar functions.