Diversity in the incidence and spectrum of organic acidemias, fatty acid oxidation disorders, and amino acid disorders in Asian countries: Selective screening vs. expanded newborn screening.
ABSTRACT: Background:Expanded newborn screening (ENBS) utilizing tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for inborn metabolic diseases (IMDs), such as organic acidemias (OAs), fatty acid oxidation disorders, (FAODs), and amino acid disorders (AAs), is increasingly popular but has not yet been introduced in many Asian countries. This study aimed to determine the incidence rates of OAs, FAODs, and AAs in Asian countries and Germany using selective screening and ENBS records. Materials and methods:Selective screening for IMDs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and MS/MS was performed among patients suspected to be afflicted in Asian countries (including Japan, Vietnam, China, and India) between 2000 and 2015, and the results from different countries were compared. Similarly, ENBS results from Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Germany were compared. Additionally, the results of selective screening and ENBS in Japan were compared. Results:Among 39,270 patients who underwent selective screening, IMDs were detected in 1170. Methylmalonic acidemia was frequently identified in several countries, including Japan (81/377 diagnosed IMDs), China (94/216 IMDs), and India (72/293 IMDs). In Vietnam, however, ?-ketothiolase deficiency was particularly frequent (33/250 IMDs). ENBS yielded differences in overall IMD rates by country: 1:8557 in Japan, 1:7030 in Taiwan, 1:13,205 in South Korea, and 1:2200 in Germany. Frequently discovered diseases included propionic acidemia (PPA) and phenylketonuria (PKU) in Japan, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (MCCD) and PKU in Taiwan, MCCD and citrullinemia type I in South Korea, and PKU and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Germany. Furthermore, in Japan, selective screening and ENBS yielded respective PPA frequencies of 14.7% and 49.4% among all organic acidemias. Conclusion:The incidence rates of IMDs vary by country. Moreover, the disease spectra of IMDs detected via selective screening differ from those detected via ENBS.
Project description:In 2012, the Norwegian newborn screening program (NBS) was expanded (eNBS) from screening for two diseases to that for 23 diseases (20 inborn errors of metabolism, IEMs) and again in 2018, to include a total of 25 conditions (21 IEMs). Between 1 March 2012 and 29 February 2020, 461,369 newborns were screened for 20 IEMs in addition to phenylketonuria (PKU). Excluding PKU, there were 75 true-positive (TP) (1:6151) and 107 (1:4311) false-positive IEM cases. Twenty-one percent of the TP cases were symptomatic at the time of the NBS results, but in two-thirds, the screening result directed the exact diagnosis. Eighty-two percent of the TP cases had good health outcomes, evaluated in 2020. The yearly positive predictive value was increased from 26% to 54% by the use of the Region 4 Stork post-analytical interpretive tool (R4S)/Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports 2.0 (CLIR), second-tier biochemical testing and genetic confirmation using DNA extracted from the original dried blood spots. The incidence of IEMs increased by 46% after eNBS was introduced, predominantly due to the finding of attenuated phenotypes. The next step is defining which newborns would truly benefit from screening at the milder end of the disease spectrum. This will require coordinated international collaboration, including proper case definitions and outcome studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs) are a group of individually rare single-gene diseases. For many IMDs, there is a paucity of high-quality evidence that evaluates the effectiveness of clinical interventions. Clinical effectiveness trials of IMD interventions could be supported through the development of core outcome sets (COSs), a recommended minimum set of standardized, high-quality outcomes and associated outcome measurement instruments to be incorporated by all trials in an area of study. We began the process of establishing pediatric COSs for two IMDs, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency and phenylketonuria (PKU), by reviewing published literature to describe outcomes reported by authors, identify heterogeneity in outcomes across studies, and assemble a candidate list of outcomes. METHODS:We used a comprehensive search strategy to identify primary studies and guidelines relevant to children with MCAD deficiency and PKU, extracting study characteristics and outcome information from eligible studies including outcome measurement instruments for select outcomes. Informed by an established framework and a previously published pediatric COS, outcomes were grouped into five, mutually-exclusive, a priori core areas: growth and development, life impact, pathophysiological manifestations, resource use, and death. RESULTS:For MCAD deficiency, we identified 83 outcomes from 52 articles. The most frequently represented core area was pathophysiological manifestations, with 33 outcomes reported in 29/52 articles (56%). Death was the most frequently reported outcome. One-third of outcomes were reported by a single study. The most diversely measured outcome was cognition and intelligence/IQ for which eight unique measurement instruments were reported among 14 articles. For PKU, we identified 97 outcomes from 343 articles. The most frequently represented core area was pathophysiological manifestations with 31 outcomes reported in 281/343 articles (82%). Phenylalanine concentration was the most frequently reported outcome. Sixteen percent of outcomes were reported by a single study. Similar to MCAD deficiency, the most diversely measured PKU outcome was cognition and intelligence/IQ with 39 different instruments reported among 82 articles. CONCLUSIONS:Heterogeneity of reported outcomes and outcome measurement instruments across published studies for both MCAD deficiency and PKU highlights the need for COSs for these diseases, to promote the use of meaningful outcomes and facilitate comparisons across studies.
Project description:Long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD/MTPD) and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) were included in the expanded neonatal screening program (ENBS) in Czechia in 2009, allowing for the presymptomatic diagnosis and nutritional management of these patients. The aim of our study was to assess the nationwide impact of ENBS on clinical outcome. This retrospective study analysed acute events and chronic complications and their severity in pre-ENBS and post-ENBS cohorts. In total, 28 children (12 before, 16 after ENBS) were diagnosed with LCHADD/MTPD (incidence 0.8/100,000 before and 1.2/100,000 after ENBS). In the subgroup detected by ENBS, a significantly longer interval from birth to first acute encephalopathy was observed. In addition, improvement in neuropathy and cardiomyopathy (although statistically non-significant) was demonstrated in the post-ENBS subgroup. In the MCADD cohort, we included 69 patients (15 before, 54 after ENBS). The estimated incidence rose from 0.7/100,000 before to 4.3/100,000 after ENBS. We confirmed a significant decrease in the number of episodes of acute encephalopathy and lower proportion of intellectual disability after ENBS (<i>p</i> < 0.0001). The genotype-phenotype correlations suggest a new association between homozygosity for the c.1528C > G variant and more severe heart involvement in LCHADD patients.
Project description:Expanded newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) could simultaneously analyze more than 40 metabolites and identify about 50 kinds of IEMs. Next generation sequencing (NGS) targeting hundreds of IMEs-associated genes as a follow-up test in expanded newborn screening has been used for genetic analysis of patients. The spectrum, prevalence, and genetic characteristic of IEMs vary dramatically in different populations. To determine the spectrum, prevalence, and gene mutations of IEMs in newborns in Suzhou, China, 401,660 newborns were screened by MS/MS and 138 patients were referred to genetic analysis by NGS. The spectrum of 22 IEMs were observed in Suzhou population of newborns, and the overall incidence (excluding short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) and 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (3-MCCD)) was 1/3,163. The prevalence of each IEM ranged from 1/401,660 to 1/19,128, while phenylketonuria (PKU) (1/19,128) and Mild hyperphenylalaninemia (M-HPA) (1/19,128) were the most common IEMs, followed by primary carnitine uptake defect (PCUD) (1/26,777), SCADD (1/28,690), hypermethioninemia (H-MET) (1/30,893), 3-MCCD (1/33,412) and methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) (1/40,166). Moreover, 89 reported mutations and 51 novel mutations in 25 IMEs-associated genes were detected in 138 patients with one of 22 IEMs. Some hotspot mutations were observed for ten IEMs, including PAH gene c.728G > A, c.611A > G, and c.721C > T for Phenylketonuria, PAH gene c.158G > A, c.1238G > C, c.728G > A, and c.1315+6T > A for M-HPA, SLC22A5 gene c.1400C > G, c.51C > G, and c.760C > T for PCUD, ACADS gene c.1031A > G, c.164C > T, and c.1130C > T for SCAD deficiency, MAT1A gene c.791G > A for H-MET, MCCC1 gene c.639+2T > A and c.863A > G for 3-MCCD, MMUT gene c.1663G > A for MMA, SLC25A13 gene c.IVS16ins3Kb and c.852_855delTATG for cittrullinemia II, PTS gene c.259C > T and c.166G > A for Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency, and ACAD8 gene c.1000C > T and c.286C > A for Isobutyryl coa dehydrogenase deficiency. All these hotspot mutations were reported to be pathogenic or likely pathogenic, except a novel mutation of ACAD8 gene c.286C > A. These mutational hotspots could be potential candidates for gene screening and these novel mutations expanded the mutational spectrum of IEMs. Therefore, our findings could be of value for genetic counseling and genetic diagnosis of IEMs.
Project description:Introduction:Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAODs) are a heterogeneous group of hereditary autosomal recessive diseases included in newborn screening (NBS) program in Italy. The aim of this study was to analyse FAODs cases, identified either clinically or by NBS,for clinical and genetic characterization and to evaluate a five years' experience of NBS, in the attempt to figure out the complexity of genotype-phenotype correlation and to confirm the clinical impact of NBS in our centre experience. Materials and methods:We analysed FAODs patients diagnosed either by NBS or clinically, followed since February 2014 to April 2019 at the Regional Screening Centre and Inherited Metabolic Diseases Unit of Verona. Diagnosis was confirmed by plasma acylcarnitines, urinary organic acids, enzymatic and genetic testing. For not clear genotypes due to the presence of variants of uncertain significance, in silico predictive tools have been used as well as enzymatic activity assays. Patients underwent clinical, nutritional and biochemical follow up. Results:We diagnosed 30 patients with FAODs. 20 by NBS: 3 CUD, 6 SCADD, 5 MCADD, 4 VLCADD, 2 MADD. Overall incidence of FAODs diagnosed by NBS was 1:4316 newborns. No one reported complications during the follow up period. 10 patients were diagnosed clinically: 2 CUD, 2 CPT2D, 1 VLCADD, 5 MADD. Mean age at diagnosis was 29.3 years. Within this group, complications or symptoms were reported at diagnosis, but not during follow-up. 12 mutations not previously reported in literature were found, all predicted as pathogenic or likely pathogenic. Discussion and conclusions:Our study highlighted the great phenotypic variability and molecular heterogeneity of FAODs and confirmed the importance of a tailored follow up and treatment. Despite the short duration of follow up, early identification by NBS prevented diseases related complications and resulted in normal growth and psycho-motor development as well.
Project description:Neonatal inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) are closely associated with early neonatal death and abnormal growth and development. Increasing attention has been paid to IMDs because of their high incidence and diversity. However, there are no reports about the incidence of IMDs in Changsha, China. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the screening results of neonates to evaluate the characteristics of IMDs in the area. From January 2016 to December 2020, 300,849 neonates were enrolled for expanded newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry in the Neonatal Disease Screening Center of the Changsha Hospital for Maternal & Child Health Care. Newborns with mild initial results were recalled for repeated tests; if the second test was still positive, the patient was referred for confirmatory tests. A total of 71 confirmed cases were identified in our study, with an incidence rate of 1:4,237. There were 28 cases of amino acid metabolic disorders, representing 39.44% of the IMDs diagnosed, with an incidence rate of 1:10,745. Twelve newborns were diagnosed with organic acid metabolic disorders, accounting for 16.66% of IMDs, with an incidence rate of 1:25,071. There were 31 cases of fatty acid oxidation disorders, representing 43.05% of IMDs, with an incidence rate of 1:9,705. Overall, 14 types of IMDs were found in Changsha. The most common disorders in the region were primary carnitine deficiency, hyperphenylalaninemia and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Their incidence rate is respectively 1:13,675, 1:16,714 and 1:42,978. The mutations in <i>PAH</i>, <i>SLC22A5</i>, and <i>ACADS</i> are the leading causes of IMDs in this area. This study demonstrates the importance of utilizing MS/MS in IMD screening for early diagnosis and treatment. This strategy may be used for prenatal genetic counseling to avoid irreversible growth and intellectual development disorders in children.
Project description:Fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAODs) are potentially fatal inherited disorders for which management focuses on early disease detection and dietary intervention to reduce the impact of metabolic crises and associated spectrum of clinical symptoms. They can be divided functionally into long-chain (LC-FAODs) and medium-chain disorders (almost exclusively deficiency of medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase). Newborn screening (NBS) allows prompt identification and management. FAOD detection rates have increased following the addition of FAODs to NBS programs in the United States and many developed countries. NBS-identified neonates with FAODs may remain asymptomatic with dietary management. Evidence from numerous studies suggests that NBS-identified patients have improved outcomes compared with clinically diagnosed patients, including reduced rates of symptomatic manifestations, neurodevelopmental impairment, and death. The limitations of NBS include the potential for false-negative and false-positive results, and the need for confirmatory testing. Although NBS alone does not predict the consequences of disease, outcomes, or management needs, subsequent genetic analyses may have predictive value. Genotyping can provide valuable information on the nature and frequency of pathogenic variants involved with FAODs and their association with specific phenotypes. Long-term follow-up to fully understand the clinical spectrum of NBS-identified patients and the effect of different management strategies is needed.
Project description:A newborn screening (NBS) program has been utilized to detect asymptomatic newborns with inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs). There have been some bottlenecks such as false-positives and imprecision in the current NBS tests. To overcome these issues, we developed a multigene panel for IMD testing and investigated the utility of our integrated screening model in a routine NBS environment. We also evaluated the genetic epidemiologic characteristics of IMDs in a Korean population.In total, 269 dried blood spots with positive results from current NBS tests were collected from 120,700 consecutive newborns. We screened 97 genes related to NBS in Korea and detected IMDs, using an integrated screening model based on biochemical tests and next-generation sequencing (NGS) called NewbornSeq. Haplotype analysis was conducted to detect founder effects.The overall positive rate of IMDs was 20%. We identified 10 additional newborns with preventable IMDs that would not have been detected prior to the implementation of our NGS-based platform NewbornSeq. The incidence of IMDs was approximately 1 in 2,235 births. Haplotype analysis demonstrated founder effects in p.Y138X in DUOXA2, p.R885Q in DUOX2, p.Y439C in PCCB, p.R285Pfs*2 in SLC25A13, and p.R224Q in GALT.Through a population-based study in the NBS environment, we highlight the screening and epidemiological implications of NGS. The integrated screening model will effectively contribute to public health by enabling faster and more accurate IMD detection through NBS. This study suggested founder mutations as an explanation for recurrent IMD-causing mutations in the Korean population.
Project description:Phenylketonuria (PKU) and hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA), both identified in newborn screening, are attributable to variants in <i>PAH</i>. Reportedly, the p.R53H(c.158G>A) variant is common in patients with HPA in East Asia. Here, we aimed to define the association between p.R53H and HPA phenotype, and study the long-term outcome of patients with HPA carrying p.R53H. We retrospectively reviewed the genotype in 370 patients detected by newborn screening, and identified the phenotype in 280 (117, HPA; 163, PKU). p.R413P(c.1238G>C) was the most frequently found (<i>n</i> = 117, 31.6%) variant, followed by <i>p.R53H</i> (<i>n</i> = 89, 24.1%). The odds ratio for heterozygous p.R53H to cause HPA was 48.3 (95% CI 19.410-120.004). Furthermore, we assessed the non-linear association between the phenylalanine (Phe) value and elapsed time using the follow-up data of the blood Phe levels of 73 patients with HPA carrying p.R53H. The predicted levels peaked at 161.9 μmol (95% CI 152.088-172.343) at 50-60 months of age and did not exceed 360 μmol/L during the 210-month long observation period. The findings suggest that patients with HPA, carrying p.R53H, do not need frequent Phe monitoring as against those with PKU. Our study provides convincing evidence to determine clinical management of patients detected through newborn screening in Japan.
Project description:Fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAODs) and carnitine shuttling defects are inborn errors of energy metabolism with associated mortality and morbidity due to cardiomyopathy, exercise intolerance, rhabdomyolysis, and liver disease with physiologic stress. Hypoglycemia is characteristically hypoketotic. Lactic acidemia and hyperammonemia may occur during decompensation. Recurrent rhabdomyolysis is debilitating. Expanded newborn screening can detect most of these disorders, allowing early, presymptomatic treatment. Treatment includes avoiding fasting and sustained extraneous exercise and providing high-calorie hydration during illness to prevent lipolysis, and medium-chain triglyceride oil supplementation in long-chain FAODs. Carnitine supplementation may be helpful. However, conventional treatment does not prevent all symptoms.