Function of Thelenota ananas saponin desulfated holothurin A in modulating cholesterol metabolism.
ABSTRACT: This work was designed to separate and purify the saponin from Thelenota ananas with the highest anti-cholesterol ability using multiple chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses, and to systematically investigate the effect of the Thelenota ananas saponin on cholesterol metabolism in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced macrophage foam cells. Desulfated holothurin A (desHA), which was finally identified as the targeted saponin with the highest activity in decreasing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), markedly inhibited the formation of foam cells derived from macrophages based on Oil Red O staining. In addition, desHA significantly blocked the synthesis of fatty acid synthetase while promoted intracellular cholesterol efflux. Furthermore, desHA inhibited the effects of ox-LDL on macrophage mRNA expression, which enhanced the level of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) and suppressed the expression of SR-BI, ABCA1 and ABCG1, which further increased the levels of extracellular cholesterol and triglyceride. Blocking AKT and AMPK pathway and LXR synthesis revealed that desHA also regulated the contents of HMG-CoAR and eNOS via LXR/AKT/AMPK pathway. Thus, desHA played an essential role in cholesterol efflux and synthesis, which indicated desHA and Thelenota ananas are valuable resources to exploit new functional food and nutraceuticals.
Project description:To determine the effects and potential mechanisms of ibrolipim on ATP-binding membrane cassette transporter A-1 (ABCA1) and ATP-binding membrane cassette transporter G-1 (ABCG1) expression from human macrophage foam cells, which may play a critical role in atherogenesis.Human THP-1 cells pre-incubated with ox-LDL served as foam cell models. Specific mRNA was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression using Western blotting. Cellular cholesterol handling was studied using cholesterol efflux experiments and high performance liquid chromatography assays.Ibrolipim 5 and 50 ?mol/L significantly increased cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells to apoA-I or HDL. Moreover, it upregulated the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1. In addition, LXR? was also upregulated by the ibrolipim treatment. In addition, LXR? small interfering RNA completely abolished the promotion effect that was induced by ibrolipim.Ibrolipim increased ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression and promoted cholesterol efflux, which was mediated by the LXR? signaling pathway.
Project description:Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and its effects in various inflammatory diseases have been investigated. However, the role of IL-32 on atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease, remains unknown. The present study examined the use of IL-32?, the most abundant transcript of IL-32, in the treatment of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-stimulated THP-1 macrophages for 24 h, which simulates a foam cell formation model. The effect of IL-32? (20, 50 and 100 ng/ml) on lipid deposition in the macrophages was analyzed using Oil Red O staining, while the cholesterol efflux on apolipoprotein A-I was also measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), liver X receptor ? (LXR?), ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ABCG1 were quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. The results indicated that IL-32? exposure enhanced the lipid deposition and attenuated the cholesterol efflux from ox-LDL-stimulated THP-1 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the expression levels of ABCA1, LXR? and PPAR? were dose-dependently decreased by IL-32? at the mRNA and protein levels. Addition of the PPAR? agonist 15d-PGJ2 or overexpression of PPAR? in THP-1 macrophages abrogated the IL-32?-mediated inhibition of cholesterol efflux and reversed the IL-32?-mediated downregulation of ABCA1 and LXR?. In conclusion, IL-32? enhances lipid accumulation and inhibits cholesterol efflux from ox-LDL-exposed THP-1 macrophages by regulating the PPAR?-LXR?-ABCA1 pathway.
Project description:Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoAR) inhibitors has been associated with an increase in intestinal cholesterol absorption. This study examined how HMG-CoAR inhibition by atorvastatin modulates expression of key genes involved in intestinal cholesterol metabolism. A crossover study was conducted in which 22 hyperlipidemic men received atorvastatin, 40 mg/day, or placebo, each for 12 weeks. Gene expression was assessed by real-time PCR using duodenal biopsy samples obtained at the end of each phase of treatment. Treatment with atorvastatin was associated with a 76% reduction in lathosterol and significant increases in sitosterol (70%). Atorvastatin significantly increased intestinal mRNA levels of HMG-CoAR (59%), LDL receptor (LDLR) (52%), PCSK9 (187%), SREBP-2 (44%), and HNF-4? (13%). Furthermore, atorvastatin significantly increased intestinal mRNA levels of NPC1L1 by 19% and decreased mRNA levels of both ABCG5 and ABCG8 by 14%. Positive correlations were observed between changes in SREBP-2 and HNF-4? expression and concurrent changes in the intestinal mRNA levels of HMG-CoAR, LDLR, and NPC1L1. These results indicate that HMG-CoAR inhibition with atorvastatin stimulates the intestinal expression of NPC1L1, LDLR, and PCSK9; increases cholesterol absorption; and reduces expression of ABCG5/8; these effects are most likely mediated by upregulation of the transcription factors SREBP-2 and HNF-4?.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to study the molecular mechanism of how curcumin decreases the formation of ox-LDL induced human monocyte macrophage foam cells, promotes the efflux of cholesterol and reduces the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro cultured THP-1 cells were induced to become macrophages using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. The cells were then pre-treated with curcumin before inducing the foam cell model by addition of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Western blot assays were used to detect expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)4, nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), NF-?B inhibitor ? (I?B?), phosphorylated-I?B? and ATP binding cassette transporter (ABC)A1. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was employed to examine mRNA levels of TLR4, microRNA (miR)33a and ABCA1. ELISAs were used to detect inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and interleukin (IL)-6. ox-LDL successfully induced the foam cell model, promoted phosphorylation of I?B?, promoted nuclear translocation of NF-?B, promoted the expression of TLR4 and miR33a, and promoted the secretion of TNF-?, MCP-1 and Il-6. Additionally, ox-LDL reduced the expression of ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux. However, pretreatment with curcumin increased the expression of ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux and suppressed secretion of TNF-?, MCP-1 and Il-6. TLR4 antibodies, the NF-?B blocker, PDTC, and the miR33a inhibitor also reduced the abnormal transformations induced by ox-LDL. Curcumin promoted cholesterol efflux by suppressing the TLR4/NF-?B/miR33a signaling pathway, and reduced the formation of foam cells and the secretion of inflammatory factors.
Project description:Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare hormone-driven disease often associated with obesity. HMG-CoAR is the central enzyme of the mevalonate pathway, a molecular route deputed to produce cholesterol and steroid-based hormones. HMG-CoAR regulates the oncogenic Hippo transducers TAZ/YAP whose expression was previously associated with shorter survival in MBC. 225 MBC samples were immunostained for HMG-CoAR and 124 were considered eligible for exploring its relationship with hormone receptors (ER, PgR, AR), Hippo transducers and survival outcomes. HMG-CoAR was positively associated with the expression of hormone receptors (ER, PgR, AR) and Hippo transducers. Overall survival was longer in patients with HMG-CoAR-positive tumors compared with their negative counterparts (p?=?0.031). Five- and 10-year survival outcomes were better in patients whose tumors expressed HMG-CoAR (p?=?0.044 and p?=?0.043). Uni- and multivariate analyses for 10-year survival suggested that HMG-CoAR expression is a protective factor (HR 0.50, 95%?CI: 0.25-0.99, p?=?0.048 and HR 0.53, 95%?CI: 0.26-1.07, p?=?0.078). Results were confirmed in a sensitivity analysis by excluding uncommon histotypes (multivariate Cox: HR 0.45, 95%?CI: 0.21-0.97, p?=?0.043). A positive relationship emerged between HMG-CoAR, hormone receptors and TAZ/YAP, suggesting a connection between the mevalonate pathway, the hormonal milieu and Hippo in MBC. Moreover, HMG-CoAR expression may be a favorable prognostic indicator.
Project description:Docetaxel chemotherapy remains a standard of care for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Docetaxel modestly increases survival, yet results in frequent occurrence of side effects and resistant disease. An alternate chemotherapy with greater efficacy and minimal side effects is needed. Acquisition of metabolic aberrations promoting increased survival and metastasis in CRPC cells includes constitutive activation of Akt, loss of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity due to Ser-485/491 phosphorylation, and overexpression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR). We report that combination of simvastatin and metformin, within pharmacologic dose range (500 nmol/L to 4 ?mol/L simvastatin and 250 ?mol/L to 2 mmol/L metformin), significantly and synergistically reduces C4-2B3/B4 CRPC cell viability and metastatic properties, with minimal adverse effects on normal prostate epithelial cells. Combination of simvastatin and metformin decreased Akt Ser-473 and Thr-308 phosphorylation and AMPK? Ser-485/491 phosphorylation; increased Thr-172 phosphorylation and AMPK? activity, as assessed by increased Ser-79 and Ser-872 phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and HMG-CoAR, respectively; decreased HMG-CoAR activity; and reduced total cellular cholesterol and its synthesis in both cell lines. Studies of C4-2B4 orthotopic NCr-nu/nu mice further demonstrated that combination of simvastatin and metformin (3.5-7.0 ?g/g body weight simvastatin and 175-350 ?g/g body weight metformin) daily by oral gavage over a 9-week period significantly inhibited primary ventral prostate tumor formation, cachexia, bone metastasis, and biochemical failure more effectively than 24 ?g/g body weight docetaxel intraperitoneally injected every 3 weeks, 7.0 ?g/g/day simvastatin, or 350 ?g/g/day metformin treatment alone, with significantly less toxicity and mortality than docetaxel, establishing combination of simvastatin and metformin as a promising chemotherapeutic alternative for metastatic CRPC.
Project description:Atherosclerosis has a high incidence and is harmful to human health. An elevated level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis. During atherogenesis progression, circulating monocytes adhere to the intima and differentiate into macrophages. After differentiation, intimal macrophages intake Ox-LDL via scavenger receptors, thereby transforming into foam cells. Foam cell formation due to excessive accumulation of cholesterol by macrophages is a pathological hallmark of atherosclerosis. To gain a molecular understanding of the effect of Ox-LDL in atherosclerosis development, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of the Ox-LDL-induced macrophage transformation by microarray gene expression profiling. Here we describe in details the contents and quality controls for the gene expression and related results associated with the data uploaded to Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE54039).
Project description:Introduction. Raw and processed Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizome (NRR) have been widely used in treatment of metabolic syndromes and related disease, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study was designed to investigate lipid regulation effects of raw and processed NRR in steatotic L02 cell. Materials and Methods. Steatotic L02 cells were obtained after being cultured with 5% fat emulsion-10% FBS-RPMI 1640 medium for 48?h. Contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in steatotic L02 cells were evaluated after treatment. Furthermore, the lipid metabolism regulation mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) and its monomers were evaluated by detecting the expressions of hydroxymethyl glutaric acyl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR), sterol regulating element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), and cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7?). Results. TG and TC contents were doubled in model group compared to those in normal L02 cells group. Raw NRR and NRR heated with sand (NRR-B) showed much remarkable lipid-lowering effects in steatotic L02 cells. PNS, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, and ginsenoside Rb1 displayed the best TG and TC regulation activity, which could significantly reduce contents of SREBP-2 and HMG-CoAR and increase the content of CYP7?. Conclusions. Our results may support the fact that both raw NRR and NRR-B might have more satisfactory effects in the treatment of NAFLD.
Project description:The uptake of cholesterol carried by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is tightly controlled in the body. Macrophages are not well suited to counteract the cellular consequences of excess cholesterol leading to their transformation into "foam cells," an early step in vascular plaque formation. We have uncovered and characterized a novel mechanism involving phospholipase D (PLD) in foam cell formation. Utilizing bone marrow-derived macrophages from genetically PLD deficient mice, we demonstrate that PLD2 (but not PLD1)-null macrophages cannot fully phagocytose aggregated oxidized LDL (Agg-Ox-LDL), which was phenocopied with a PLD2-selective inhibitor. We also report a role for PLD2 in coupling Agg-oxLDL phagocytosis with WASP, Grb2, and Actin. Further, the clearance of LDL particles is mediated by both CD36 and PLD2, via mutual dependence on each other. In the absence of PLD2, CD36 does not engage in Agg-Ox-LDL removal and when CD36 is blocked, PLD2 cannot form protein-protein heterocomplexes with WASP or Actin. These results translated into humans using a GEO database of microarray expression data from atheroma plaques versus normal adjacent carotid tissue and observed higher values for NFkB, PLD2 (but not PLD1), WASP, and Grb2 in the atheroma plaques. Human atherectomy specimens confirmed high presence of PLD2 (mRNA and protein) as well as phospho-WASP in diseased arteries. Thus, PLD2 interacts in macrophages with Actin, Grb2, and WASP during phagocytosis of Agg-Ox-LDL in the presence of CD36 during their transformation into "foam cells." Thus, this study provides new molecular targets to counteract vascular plaque formation and atherogenesis.
Project description:Tilianin, a representative flavonoid ingredient of <i>Dracocephalum moldavica</i> L., has been used to treat several diseases for centuries, including atherosclerosis (AS). However, pharmacological mechanisms underlying its biological functions remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the anti-AS mechanisms of tilianin through establishing <i>in vitro</i> models using three types of cells that contributed to AS progression, including macrophage, vascular smooth muscle cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which were proved to be involve in LPS/TNF-?/oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced inflammation and ox-LDL induced foam cell formation. Our results indicate that tilianin significantly suppressed LPS induced inflammatory responses on macrophage and remarkably inhibited TNF-? induced VSMCs proliferation and migration. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effect of tilianin on macrophages and VSMCs was proved to be mainly by downregulating TNF-?/NF-?B pathway. Moreover, our results demonstrate that tilianin significantly ameliorated ox-LDL induced macrophages oriented foam cells formation through repressing mRNA expression of SR-A1 and inducting the expression of genes related to cholesterol efflux including SRB-1 and ABCA1. However, tilianin had no effect on ox-LDL induced HUVECs injury.