Impact of a History of Hypertension in Pregnancy on Later Diagnosis of Atrial Fibrillation.
ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) produces significant morbidity in women and is typically attributed to cardiac remodeling from multiple causes, particularly hypertension. Hypertensive pregnancy disorders (HPDs) are associated with future hypertension and adverse cardiac remodeling. We evaluated whether women with AF were more likely to have experienced a HPD compared with those without.A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 7566 women who had a live or stillbirth delivery in Olmsted County, Minnesota between 1976 and 1982. AF cases were matched (1:1) to controls based on date of birth, age at first pregnancy, and parity. AF and pregnancy history were confirmed by chart review. We identified 105 AF cases: mean age 57±8 (mean±SD) years, (controls 56±8 years), 32±8 years (controls 31±8 years) after the first pregnancy. Cases were more likely to have obesity during childbearing years, and hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, coronary disease, valvular disease, and heart failure at the time of AF diagnosis. Cases were more likely to have a history of HPDs, compared with controls: 28/105 (26.7%) cases versus 12/105 (11.4%) controls, odds ratio: 2.60 (95% confidence interval, 1.21-6.04). After adjustment for hypertension and obesity, the association was attenuated and no longer statistically significant; odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 2.12 (0.92-5.23).Women with AF are more likely to have had a HPD, a relationship at least partially mediated by associated obesity and hypertension. Given the high morbidity of AF, studies evaluating the benefit of screening for and management of cardiovascular risk factors in women with a history of HPD should be performed.
Project description:Importance:Potentially preventable adverse events remain a formidable cause of patient harm and health care expenditure despite advances in systems-based risk-reduction strategies. Objective:To analyze and describe the incidence of human performance deficiencies (HPDs) during the provision of surgical care to identify opportunities to enhance patient safety. Design, Setting, and Participants:This quality improvement study used a new taxonomy to inform the development and implementation of an HPD classifier tool to categorize HPDs into errors associated with cognitive, technical, and team dynamic functions. The HPD classifier tool was then used to concurrently analyze surgical adverse events in 3 adult hospital affiliates-a level I municipal trauma center, a quaternary care university hospital, and a US Veterans Administration hospital-from January 2, 2018, to June 30, 2018. Surgical trainees presented data describing all adverse events associated with surgical services at weekly hospital-based morbidity and mortality conferences. Adverse events and HPDs were classified in discussion with attending faculty and residents. Data were analyzed from July 9, 2018, to December 23, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures:The incidence and primary and secondary causes of HPDs were classified using an HPD classifier tool. Results:A total of 188 adverse events were recorded, including 182 adverse events (96.8%) among 5365 patients who underwent surgical operations and 6 adverse events (3.2%) among patients undergoing nonoperative treatment. Among these 188 adverse events, 106 (56.4%) were associated with HPDs. Among these 106 HPD adverse events, a total of 192 HPDs (mean [SD], 1.8 [0.9] HPDs per HPD event) were identified. Human performance deficiencies were categorized as execution (98 HPDs [51.0%]), planning or problem solving (55 HPDs [28.6%]), communication (24 HPDs [12.5%]), teamwork (9 HPDs [4.7%]), and rules violation (6 HPDs [3.1%]). Human performance deficiencies most commonly presented as cognitive errors in execution of care or in case planning or problem solving (99 of 192 HPDs [51.6%]). In contrast, technical execution errors without other associated HPDs were observed in 20 of 192 HPDs (10.4%). Conclusions and Relevance:Human performance deficiencies were identified in more than half of adverse events, most commonly associated with cognitive error in the execution of care. These data provide a framework and impetus for new quality improvement initiatives incorporating cognitive training to mitigate human error in surgery.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Globally, 292,982 women die due to the complications of pregnancy and childbirth per year, out of those deaths 85% occurs in Sub Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia, pre-eclampsia accounts for 11% of direct maternal deaths.<h4>Objective</h4>To determine maternal and foetal outcomes of pregnancy-induced hypertension among women who gave birth at health facilities in Hossana town administration.<h4>Methods</h4>Institutional based unmatched case-control study was conducted among women, who gave birth at health facilities from May 20 to October 30, 2018. By using Epi-Info version 7; 207 sample size was estimated, for each case two controls were selected. Two health facilities were selected using a simple random sampling method. Sample sizes for each facility were allocated proportionally. All cleaned & coded data were entered into Epi-info version 3.5.1 and analysis was carried out using SPSS version 20. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine predictors of pregnancy-induced hypertension at a p-value of <0.05.<h4>Result</h4>Women between 18 to 41 years old had participated in the study with the mean age of 26.00(SD ±4.42), and 25.87(SD ±5.02) for cases and controls respectively. Out of participants 21(30.4%) among cases and 21(15.2%) among controls had developed at least one complication following delivery. 12 (17.4%) and 8 (5.7%) foetal deaths were found in cases and controls groups respectively whereas 15.6% from cases and 3.6% from controls groups women gave birth to the foetus with intra-uterine growth retardation. Women gravidity AOR = 0.32 [95% CI (0.12 0.86)], Previous history of pregnancy-induced hypertension AOR = 22.50 [95% CI (14.95 16.52)] and educational status AOR = 0.32[95% CI (0.12, 0.85)] were identified as predictor of pregnancy-induced hypertension.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Women with a previous history of pregnancy-induced hypertension had increased risk of developing pregnancy-induced hypertension, whilst ≥ 3 previous pregnancies and informal educational status decrease odds of developing pregnancy-induced hypertension.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three interventions designed to promote hearing protector device (HPD) use.Randomized controlled trial.Farm operators (n?=?491) were randomly assigned to one of five intervention groups: (1) interactive web-based information with mailed assortment of HPDs; (2) Interactive web-based information only; (3) static web-based information with mailed assortment of HPDs; (4) Static web-based information only; or (5) mailed assortment of HPDs only. Data were analysed using a mixed model approach.HPD use increased among all participants, and increased more among participants receiving the mailed HPDs (with or without information) compared to participants receiving other interventions. Participants receiving the interactive web-based information had comparable increased use of HPDs to those receiving the static web-based information. Participants receiving the mailed HPDs had more positive situational influences scale scores than other participants. Program satisfaction was highest among mailed and web-based information groups.A mailed assortment of hearing protectors was more effective than information. Interactive and static information delivered via web were similarly effective. Programs interested in increasing HPD use among farmers should consider making hearing protectors more available to farmers.
Project description:To determine whether women who had a hypertensive pregnancy disorder (HPD) have elevated uric acid concentrations decades after pregnancy as compared with women who had normotensive pregnancies.The Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy study measured uric acid concentrations in Hispanic (30%), non-Hispanic white (28%), and non-Hispanic black (42%) women (mean age, 60 ± 10 years). This cross-sectional study was conducted between July 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004. Hispanic participants were recruited from families with high rates of diabetes, whereas non-Hispanic participants were recruited from families with high rates of hypertension. This analysis compared uric acid concentrations in women with a history of normotensive (n = 1846) or hypertensive (n = 408) pregnancies by logistic regression.Women who had an HPD had higher uric acid concentrations (median, 5.7 mg/dL vs 5.3 mg/dL; P < .001) and were more likely to have uric acid concentrations above 5.5 mg/dL (54.4% vs 42.4%; P = .001) than were women who had normotensive pregnancies. These differences persisted after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidities, and other factors that affect uric acid concentrations. A family-based subgroup analysis comparing uric acid concentrations in women who had an HPD (n = 308) and their parous sisters who had normotensive pregnancies (n = 250) gave similar results (median uric acid concentrations, 5.7 mg/dL vs 5.2 mg/dL, P = 0.02; proportion of women with uric acid concentrations > 5.5 mg/dL, 54.0% vs 40.3%, P < .001).Decades after pregnancy, women who had an HPD have higher uric acid concentrations. This effect does not appear to be explained by a familial predisposition to elevated uric acid concentrations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hearing protection devices (HPDs) are often used in the workplace to prevent hearing damage caused by noise. However, a factor that can lead to hearing loss in the workplace is improper HPD fitting, and the previous literature has shown that instructing workers on how to properly insert their HPDs can make a significant difference in the degree of attenuation.<h4>Methods</h4>Two studies were completed on a total of 33 Hydro One workers. A FitCheck Solo field attenuation estimation system was used to measure the personal attenuation rating (PAR) before and after providing one-on-one fitting instructions. In addition, external ear canal diameters were measured, and a questionnaire with items related to frequency of use, confidence, and discomfort was administered.<h4>Results</h4>Training led to an improvement in HPD attenuation, particularly for participants with poorer PARs before training. The questionnaire results indicated that much HPD discomfort is caused by heat, humidity, and communication difficulties. External ear canal asymmetry did not appear to significantly influence the measured PAR.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In accordance with the previous literature, our studies suggest that one-on-one instruction is an effective training method for HPD use. Addressing discomfort issues from heat, humidity, and communication issues could help to improve the use of HPDs in the workplace. Further research into the effects of canal asymmetry on the PAR is needed.
Project description:The association between pregnancy complications and women's later cardiovascular disease has, primarily, been evaluated in studies lacking information on important covariates. This report evaluates the prospective associations between pregnancy-related risk factors (preeclampsia/eclampsia, gestational hypertension, pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, and fetal growth restriction) and pharmacologically treated hypertension within 10 years after pregnancy, while adjusting for a wide range of covariates.Prepregnancy normotensive women participating in the MoBa (Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study) from January 2004 through July 2009 were linked to the Norwegian Prescription Database to identify women with pharmacologically treated hypertension beyond the postpartum period of 3 months. The burden of hypertension associated with pregnancy-related risk factors was evaluated using an attributable fraction method. A total of 1480 women developed pharmacologically treated hypertension within the follow-up among 60 027 women (rate of hypertension, 3.6/1000 person-years). The proportion of hypertension associated with a history of preeclampsia/eclampsia, gestational hypertension, preterm delivery, and pregestational or gestational diabetes mellitus was 28.6% (95% confidence interval, 25.5%-31.6%) on the basis of multivariable analyses adjusting for numerous covariates. The proportion was similar for women with a healthy prepregnancy body mass index (18.5-24.9 kg/m2; attributable fraction (AF)% 25.9%; 95% confidence interval, 21.3%-30.3%), but considerably higher for nulliparous women at baseline within the first 5 years of follow-up. Small-for-gestational age, however, did not increase subsequent hypertension risk in multivariable analyses.A structured postpartum follow-up of high-risk women identified through pregnancy-related risk factors would facilitate personalized preventive strategies to postpone or avoid onset of premature cardiovascular events.
Project description:Preterm birth (PTB, <37 weeks) may be a marker of endothelial dysfunction and a proinflammatory phenotype; both are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We studied 916 women (46% black) with 1181 live births between enrollment in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (age 18-30 years) and 20 years later. C-reactive protein was measured at years 7, 15, and 20. Interleukin-6 and carotid intima-media thickness, which incorporated the common carotid arteries, bifurcations, and internal carotid arteries, were measured at year 20. Blood pressure, lipids, anthropometrics, and pregnancy events were assessed at all visits. Change in risk factors and differences in inflammatory markers and intima-media thickness according to PTB were evaluated. Women with PTBs (n=226) had higher mean systolic blood pressures before pregnancy (106 versus 105 mm Hg, respectively; P=0.03). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased more rapidly over 20 years compared with women with term births (P<0.01 time interaction), even after removing women with self-reported hypertension in pregnancy. Women with PTB versus term births had similar mean intima-media thickness adjusted for age, body mass index, race, lifestyle, and cardiovascular risk factors. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 did not differ according to PTB. Women with PTB, regardless of hypertension during pregnancy, had higher blood pressure after pregnancy compared with women with term births. In the United States, where rates of PTB are high and race disparities persist, PTB may identify women with higher blood pressure in the years after pregnancy.
Project description:In Ethiopia, 20,000 women die each year from complications related to pregnancy, childbirth and post-partum. For every woman that dies, 20 more experience injury, infection, disease, or disability. "Maternal near miss" (MNM), defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a woman who nearly dies, but survives a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of a termination, is a proxy indicator of maternal mortality and quality of obstetric care. In Ethiopia, few studies have examined MNM. This study aims to identify determinants of MNM among a small population of women in Tigray, Ethiopia.Unmatched case-control study was conducted in hospitals in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia, from January 30-March 30, 2016. The sample included 103 cases and 205 controls recruited from among women seeking obstetric care at six (6) public hospitals. Clients with life-threatening obstetric complications, including hemorrhage, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, dystocia, infection, and anemia or clinical signs of severe anemia (in women without hemorrhage) were taken as cases and those with normal obstetric outcomes were controls. Cases were selected based on proportion to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression ("odds ratio") analyses were calculated at 95% CI.Roughly 90% of cases and controls were married and 25% experienced their first pregnancy before the age of 16 years. About two-thirds of controls and 45.6% of cases had gestational ages between 37-41 weeks. Among cases, severe obstetric hemorrhage (44.7%), hypertensive disorders (38.8%), dystocia (17.5%), sepsis (9.7%) and severe anemia (2.9%) were leading causes of MNM. Histories of chronic maternal medical problems like hypertension, diabetes were reported in 55.3% of cases and 33.2% of controls. Women with no formal education [AOR = 3.2;95%CI:1.24, 8.12], being less than 16 years of age at first pregnancy [AOR = 2.5;95%CI:1.12,5.63], induced labor[AOR = 3.0; 95%CI:1.44, 6.17], history of cesarean section[AOR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.98, 7.61] or chronic medical disorder[AOR = 3.5;95%CI:1.78, 6.93], and women who traveled more than 60 minutes before reaching their final place of care[AOR = 2.8;95% CI: 1.19,6.35] had higher odds of experiencing MNM.Macro-developments like increasing road and health facility access as well as expanding education will all help reduce MNM. Work should be continued to educate women and providers about common predictors of MNM like history of C-section and chronic illness as well as teenage pregnancy. These efforts should be carried out at the facility, community, and individual levels. Targeted follow-up with women with history of chronic disease and C-section could also help reduce MNM.
Project description:Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke and may increase the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) by up to fourfold. Given these relationships, it is possible that OSA may provide a link between stroke and AF. A case-control study was conducted to examine the association between AF and stroke in patients with OSA.Olmsted County, MN, USA, residents with a new diagnosis of OSA based on polysomnography (PSG) between 2005 and 2010 (N = 2980) who suffered a first-time ischemic stroke during the same period were identified as cases. Controls with no history of stroke were randomly chosen from the same database. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and coronary artery disease (CAD) as co-variates, with the diagnosis of AF as the variable of interest.A total of 108 subjects were studied. Mean age of cases (n = 34) was 73 ± 12 years and 53% were men. Among controls (n = 74), mean age was 61 ± 16 years and 55% were male. On univariate analyses, AF was significantly more common in the cases than among controls (50.0% vs 10.8%, p < 0.01). On multivariate regression analyses, the association between AF and stroke was significant after controlling for age, BMI, coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and smoking status (corrected odds ratio (OR): 5.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.79-17.29).Patients with OSA who had a stroke had higher rates of AF even after accounting for potential confounders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Several registry-based studies, using diagnostic codes, have suggested that preeclampsia is a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, because the 2 diseases share risk factors, the true nature of their association remains uncertain. Our goals were to conduct a population-based study to determine the magnitude of the association between preeclampsia and ESRD and evaluate the role of shared risk factors. STUDY DESIGN:Population-based nested case-control study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:The US Renal Data System was used to identify women with ESRD from a cohort of 34,581 women who gave birth in 1976 to 2010 in Olmsted County, MN. 44 cases of ESRD were identified and each one was matched to 2 controls based on year of birth (±1 year), age at first pregnancy (±2 years), and parity (±1 or ?4). PREDICTOR:Preeclamptic pregnancy, confirmed by medical record review. OUTCOME:ESRD. MEASUREMENTS:Prepregnancy serum creatinine and urine protein measurements were recorded. Comorbid conditions existing prior to pregnancy were abstracted from medical records and included kidney disease, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. RESULTS:There was evidence of kidney disease prior to the first pregnancy in 9 of 44 (21%) cases and 1 of 88 (<1%) controls. Per chart review, 8 of 44 (18%) cases versus 4 of 88 (5%) controls had preeclamptic pregnancies (unadjusted OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.21-13.28). Results were similar after independent adjustment for race, education, diabetes, and hypertension prior to pregnancy. However, the association was attenuated and no longer significant after adjustment for obesity (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 0.93-11.37). LIMITATIONS:The limited number of ESRD cases and missing data for prepregnancy kidney function. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings confirm that there is a sizable association between preeclampsia and ESRD; however, obesity is a previously unexplored confounder. Pre-existing kidney disease was common, but not consistently coded or diagnosed.