Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Endothelial Dysfunction Is Linked to NADPH Oxidase-Derived Superoxide Formation in Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in Mice.
ABSTRACT: Pulmonary embolism (PE) results from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and can lead to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) involving vascular dysfunction. Mechanisms are incompletely understood, in part due to lack of mouse models. We induced PE in C57BL/6 mice by intravenous injection of thrombin (166?U/kg BW), confirmed by a sudden bradycardia, bradypnea, and an increase in pulmonary artery (PA) pressure observed by high-frequency ultrasound. While symptoms resolved rapidly after single thrombin application, repeated PEs resulted in sustained PA-pressure increase, increased PA superoxide formation assessed by oxidative fluorescent microtopography, increased PA gp91phox expression, and endothelial dysfunction assessed by isometric tension studies of isolated PA segments after 24 hours. DVT was modeled in C57BL/6 mice by ligation of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Importantly, small pulmonary emboli could be detected along with a mild phenotype of PA endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the absence of PA-pressure elevation. mRNA expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was increased in PAs of mice with recurrent PE after repetitive thrombin injections and to a lesser extent in DVT mice. In summary, our data suggest that PA endothelial dysfunction, induced by gp91phox-derived ROS, is an early event upon repetitive PE. This phenomenon might help to elucidate the mechanisms of PA dysfunction in the pathogenesis of CTEPH.
Project description:Unresolved thromboemboli in the pulmonary arteries (PA) is known to cause chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). However, it remains unknown if vascular dysfunction in pulmonary arteries exists in patients with CTEPH.We enrolled 7 female patients with CTEPH in this study, who have stable pulmonary hemodynamics after balloon pulmonary angioplasty (age; 73.6 ± 3.0 years old, mean right atrial pressure; 4.1 ± 0.4 mm Hg, mean pulmonary arterial pressure; 29.4 ± 2.7, mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure; 8.1 ± 1.2, pulmonary vascular resistance; 397.3 ± 51.7 dynes, cardiac index; 3.1 ± 0.2 L/min/m2). Pulmonary artery vascular function was evaluated by measuring pulmonary artery vasomotion in response to acetylcholine (Ach) at 10-month follow-up after balloon pulmonary angioplasty. All pulmonary vasoactive drugs were discontinued on the day of the procedures. The endothelium-dependent vasomotor response was evaluated by intra-pulmonary artery infusion of Ach at the dose of 10- 8 mol/l, and the vaso-spastic response was at 10- 6 mol/l. We evaluated vasomotor responses at the same segment in each patient, by measuring % changes of luminal area detected by quantitative pulmonary arterial optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI), where OFDI catheter was fixed during the procedure. Endothelial dysfunction was observed at the dose of Ach at 10- 8 mol/l and vasoconstriction was also confirmed at the dose of Ach at 10- 6 mol/l in the diseased pulmonary arteries in CTEPH.These results indicated that the pulmonary artery dysfunction exists in patients with CTEPH, which may be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of CTEPH.
Project description:Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a complication of unresolved organised pulmonary emboli/thrombi obstructing the major pulmonary arteries. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and risk factors of CTEPH in a cohort with first venous thromboembolism (VTE). This was a population-based cohort study of patients with first VTE and no active cancer in England between 2001 and 2012. CTEPH was assessed using a rigorous case-ascertainment algorithm. Risk factors for CTEPH were studied using a nested case-control approach by matching CTEPH cases to VTE patients without CTEPH. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) of comorbidities were estimated from conditional logistic regression. During 81,413 person-years of follow-up among 23,329 patients with first VTE (mean follow-up 3.5 years; maximum 11.0 years) 283 patients were diagnosed with CTEPH (incidence rate 3.5 per 1000 person-years); cumulative incidence was 1.3% and 3.3% at 2 and 10 years after pulmonary embolism, and 0.3% and 1.3% following deep vein thrombosis (DVT), respectively. Risk factors for CTEPH included age over 70, OR 2.04 (95% CI 1.23 to 3.38), female gender, 1.44 (1.06 to 1.94), pulmonary embolism at first VTE, 3.11 (2.23 to 4.35), subsequent pulmonary embolism and DVT, 3.17 (2.02 to 4.96) and 2.46 (1.34 to 4.51) respectively, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 3.17 (2.13 to 4.73), heart failure 2.52 (1.76 to 3.63) and atrial fibrillation, 2.42 (1.71 to 3.42). CTEPH develops most commonly after pulmonary embolism and less frequently after DVT. Awareness of risk factors may increase referrals to specialised centres for confirmation of CTEPH and initiation of specific treatment.
Project description:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important complication following total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR) surgeries. Aim of this study was to comprehensively compare the clinical outcomes of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) with other anticoagulants in patients who underwent TKR or THR surgery.Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched for eligible randomized controlled studies (RCTs) published before June 30, 2017. Meta-analyses of odds ratios were performed along with subgroup and sensitivity analyses.Twenty-one RCTs were included. In comparison with placebo, LMWH treatment was associated with a lower risk of VTE and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (P values <?0.001) but similar risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) (P?=?0.227) in THR subjects. Compared to factor Xa inhibitors, LMWH treatment was associated with higher risk of VTE in TKR subjects (P?<?0.001), and higher DVT risk (P?<?0.001) but similar risk of PE and major bleeding in both THR and TKR. The risk of either VTE, DVT, PE, or major bleeding was similar between LMWH and direct thrombin inhibitors in both THR and TKR, but major bleeding was lower with LMWH in patients who underwent THR (P?=?0.048).In comparison with factor Xa inhibitors, LMWH may have higher risk of VTE and DVT, whereas compared to direct thrombin inhibitors, LMWH may have lower risk of major bleeding after THR or TKR.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a long-term complication following an acute pulmonary embolism (PE). It is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages which is concerning as delayed treatment has important implications for favourable clinical outcome. Performing a follow-up examination of patients diagnosed with acute PE regardless of persisting symptoms and using all available technical procedures would be both cost-intensive and possibly ineffective. Focusing diagnostic procedures therefore on only symptomatic patients may be a practical approach for detecting relevant CTEPH.This study aimed to evaluate if a follow-up program for patients with acute PE based on telephone monitoring of symptoms and further examination of only symptomatic patients could detect CTEPH. In addition, we investigated the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) as a diagnostic tool. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study all consecutive patients with newly diagnosed PE (n=170, 76 males, 94 females within 26 months) were recruited according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were contacted via telephone and asked to answer standardized questions relating to symptoms. At the time of the final analysis 130 patients had been contacted. Symptomatic patients underwent a structured evaluation with echocardiography, CPET and complete work-up for CTEPH. RESULTS: 37.7%, 25.5% and 29.3% of the patients reported symptoms after three, six, and twelve months respectively. Subsequent clinical evaluation of these symptomatic patients saw 20.4%, 11.5% and 18.8% of patients at the respective three, six and twelve months time points having an echocardiography suggesting pulmonary hypertension (PH). CTEPH with pathological imaging and a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ? 25 mm Hg at rest was confirmed in eight subjects. Three subjects with mismatch perfusion defects showed an exercise induced increase of PAP without increasing pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP). Two subjects with pulmonary hypertension at rest and one with an exercise induced increase of mPAP with normal PAOP showed perfusion defects without echocardiographic signs of PH but a suspicious CPET. CONCLUSION: A follow-up program based on telephone monitoring of symptoms and further structured evaluation of symptomatic subjects can detect patients with CTEPH. CPET may serve as a complementary diagnostic tool.
Project description:The pathogenesis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is unknown. Histopathologic studies revealed that pulmonary vasculature lesions similar to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) existed in CTEPH patients as well. It's well-known that genetic predisposition plays an important role in the mechanism of PAH. So we hypothesized that PAH-causing gene mutation might exist in some CTEPH patients and act as a background to facilitate the development of CTEPH. In this study, we analyzed 7 PAH-causing genes including BMPR2, ACVRL1, ENG, SMAD9, CAV1, KCNK3, and CBLN2 in 49 CTEPH patients and 17 patients recovered from pulmonary embolism (PE) but without pulmonary hypertension(PH). The results showed that the nonsynonymous mutation rate in CTEPH patients is significantly higher than that in PE without PH patients (25 out of 49 (51%) CTEPH patients vs. 3 out of 17 PE without PH patients (18%); p = 0.022). Four CTEPH patients had the same point mutation in ACVRL1 exon 10 (c.1450C>G), a mutation approved to be associated with PH in a previous study. In addition, we identified two CTEPH associated SNPs (rs3739817 and rs55805125). Our results suggest that PAH-causing gene mutation might play an important role in the development of CTEPH.
Project description:PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to evaluate the vascular and parenchymal CT imaging findings, including vessel and cardiac chamber diameter measurements, in patients newly diagnosed with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The CT imaging findings were correlated with hemodynamic measurements and patient outcome. METHODS:Vascular and parenchymal CT findings were assessed on retrospectively ECG-gated MDCT angiography scans in 76 patients newly diagnosed with CTEPH. The diameters of the right and left ventricle (dRV, dLV), the right and left atrium (dRA, dLA), the ascending aorta (dAA), the right and left pulmonary arteries (drPA, dlPA), and the main pulmonary artery (dPA) were measured on axial CT scans. The CT imaging findings were correlated with demographic and hemodynamic data and adverse patient outcome due to right heart failure (RHF). RESULTS:The majority of patients showed chronic PE, mosaic perfusion, disparity in segmental vessel size, parenchymal densities, bronchial dilatation, and bronchial collaterals in CT. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was not significantly different in patients with and those without chronic PE, mosaic perfusion, disparity in segmental vessel size, parenchymal densities, bronchial dilatation, and bronchial collaterals. Mean PAP showed significant correlations with the CT metrics of dRV/dLV ratio, dRA, dRV, dPA and dPA/dAA ratio, but no correlation with the central thrombi score. By backward linear regression, the dPA/dAA ratio independently correlated with mPAP. Patients who died of RHF tended to have a higher frequency of exclusively chronic peripheral PE and greater dRV/dLV ratios on presenting CT scans compared with survivors. CONCLUSION:The majority of patients newly diagnosed with CTEPH show vascular signs of chronic PE, mosaic perfusion, parenchymal densities, disparity in segmental vessel size, bronchial dilatation, and bronchial collaterals on presenting CT scans. Particularly CTEPH patients with exclusively chronic peripheral PE and increased dRV/dLV ratios seem to be at risk of adverse outcome due to RHF.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The pathophysiology of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is not fully understood. Poor-quality anticoagulation may contribute to a higher risk of CTEPH after acute pulmonary embolism (PE), partly explaining the transition from acute PE to CTEPH. We assessed the association between the time in therapeutic range (TTR) of vitamin-K antagonist (VKA) treatment and incidence of CTEPH after a PE diagnosis. METHODS:Case-control study in which the time spent in, under and above therapeutic range was calculated in 44 PE patients who were subsequently diagnosed with CTEPH (cases). Controls comprised 150 consecutive PE patients in whom echocardiograms two years later did not show pulmonary hypertension. All patients were treated with VKA for at least 6 months after the PE diagnosis. Time in (TTR), under and above range were calculated. Mean differences between cases and controls were estimated by linear regression. RESULTS:Mean TTR during the initial 6-month treatment period was 72% in cases versus 78% in controls (mean difference -6%, 95%CI -12 to -0.1), mainly explained by more time above the therapeutic range in the cases. Mean difference of time under range was 0% (95%CI -6 to 7) and 2% (95CI% -3 to 7) during the first 3 and 6 months, respectively. In a multivariable model, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for CTEPH were around unity considering different thresholds for 'poor anticoagulation', i.e. TTR <50%, <60% and <70%. CONCLUSION:Subtherapeutic initial anticoagulation was not more prevalent among PE patients diagnosed with CTEPH than in those who did not develop CTEPH.
Project description:Patients receiving lenalidomide are at an increased risk for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Here, we prospectively investigated the DVT risk in patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treated with lenalidomide (n = 32). Five patients developed six incidents of DVT over 1 year for an annual incidence of 16%. Three of these were considered drug-related. Median time to DVT was 105 days (range 56-259 days). No pulmonary embolism was detected. Hypercoagulability screen before study entry was negative in all patients who subsequently developed DVTs. Compared to normal volunteers CLL patients had increased baseline levels of D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin, soluble vascular endothelial adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), and thrombomodulin (p < 0.001). After 1 week on lenalidomide D-dimer, thrombomodulin, sVCAM-1, factor VIII, TNF?, and C-reactive protein were significantly increased while protein C was decreased (p < 0.001). In patients with lenalidomide-related DVTs, TNF?, and sVCAM-1 were more strongly upregulated than in all other patients (p < 0.05) and TNF? and sVCAM-1 levels were significantly correlated (r = 0.65, p < 0.001). These data link lenalidomide associated DVTs with TNF? upregulation and endothelial cell dysfunction and suggest that aspirin may have a role for DVT prophylaxis in these patients.
Project description:Chronic thromboembolic disease (CTED) is suboptimally defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) <25 mmHg at rest in patients that remain symptomatic from chronic pulmonary artery thrombi. To improve identification of right ventricular (RV) pathology in patients with thromboembolic obstruction, we hypothesized that the RV ventriculo-arterial (Ees/Ea) coupling ratio at maximal stroke work (Ees/Eamax sw) derived from an animal model of pulmonary obstruction may be used to identify occult RV dysfunction (low Ees/Ea) or residual RV energetic reserve (high Ees/Ea). Eighteen open chested pigs had conductance catheter RV pressure-volume (PV)-loops recorded during PA snare to determine Ees/Eamax sw This was then applied to 10 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and ten patients with CTED, also assessed by RV conductance catheter and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. All patients were then restratified by Ees/Ea. The animal model determined an Ees/Eamax sw = 0.68 ± 0.23 threshold, either side of which cardiac output and RV stroke work fell. Two patients with CTED were identified with an Ees/Ea well below 0.68 suggesting occult RV dysfunction whilst three patients with CTEPH demonstrated Ees/Ea ? 0.68 suggesting residual RV energetic reserve. Ees/Ea > 0.68 and Ees/Ea < 0.68 subgroups demonstrated constant RV stroke work but lower stroke volume (87.7 ± 22.1 vs. 60.1 ± 16.3 mL respectively, P = 0.006) and higher end-systolic pressure (36.7 ± 11.6 vs. 68.1 ± 16.7 mmHg respectively, P < 0.001). Lower Ees/Ea in CTED also correlated with reduced exercise ventilatory efficiency. Low Ees/Ea aligns with features of RV maladaptation in CTED both at rest and on exercise. Characterization of Ees/Ea in CTED may allow for better identification of occult RV dysfunction.
Project description:Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) is a debilitating disease, for which the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated. Occurrence of a pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major risk factor for the development of CTEPH, with non-resolution of the thrombus being considered the main cause of CTEPH. Polymorphisms in the α-chain of fibrinogen have been linked to resistance to fibrinolysis in CTEPH patients, and could be responsible for development and disease progression. However, it is likely that additional genetic predisposition, as well as genetic and molecular alterations occurring as a consequence of tissue remodeling in the pulmonary arteries following a persistent PE, also play an important role in CTEPH. This review summarises the current knowledge regarding genetic differences between CTEPH patients and controls (with or without pulmonary hypertension). Mutations in BMPR2, differential gene and microRNA expression, and the transcription factor FoxO1 have been suggested to be involved in the processes underlying the development of CTEPH. While these studies provide the first indications regarding important dysregulated pathways in CTEPH (e.g., TGF-β and PI3K signaling), additional in-depth investigations are required to fully understand the complex processes leading to CTEPH.