Development and application of a SYBR green real-time PCR for detection of the emerging avian leukosis virus subgroup K.
ABSTRACT: Avian leukosis virus subgroup K (ALV-K) is an emerging ALV tumor virus of chickens. We developed a SYBR green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the rapid and economical detection of ALV-K in chicken flocks. The assay was specific for ALV-K and did not cross-react with other ALV subgroup or avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, or Marek's Disease virus. The method was 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR and 10 times more sensitive than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the P27 antigen. The assay was also more sensitive than conventional PCR in tests of 86 clinical plasma samples. DF-1 tissue culture cells infected with 1 TCID50 ALV-K particle were identified as negative using ELISA but tested positive with the real-time PCR method. The viral loads in organs and tissues in infected chickens were highest in kidney, lungs, and glandular stomach, and these results matched ELISA findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Avian leukosis (AL), which is caused by avian leukosis virus (ALV), has led to substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. The kit used to detect all ALV-positive chickens in breeder flocks is very important for efficiently controlling AL. However, a new emerging ALV subtype is currently a severe challenge in the poultry industry. RESULTS:In this paper, we compared different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for detecting p27 of ALV in the same batch of meconium samples. Different positive samples were further analyzed by PCR or virus isolation. The results showed that 36 positive samples among the 1812 chicken meconium samples could be detected by a sandwich ELISA (sELISA) kit, but only 17 positive samples could be identified by a commercial kit. To verify this result, cloacal swabs and viruses isolated from the positive chickens (2 days old) were used to detect the presence of p27. The results showed that the positive rate of p27 was 100% for the swabs and 40% for virus isolation. Surprisingly, PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the env gene of ALV in these positive samples belonged to the novel subgroup K (ALV-K). CONCLUSION:These data not only demonstrate the relatively high sensitivity of the sELISA kit but also highlight the challenge of controlling ALV-K.
Project description:Subgroup A of the avian leukosis virus (ALV-A) can cause severe pathological lesions and death in infected chickens, and its reported hosts have increased recently. To assess the susceptibility of adult chickens, quails, and pigeons to ALV-A, three sets of 250-day-old birds were intraperitoneally inoculated with ALV-A. Viremia and cloacal virus shedding were dynamically detected using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA), ALV-P27 antigen ELISA or RT-PCR; pathological lesions were assessed using tissue sections; ALV-A in tissues was detected by IFA; and ALV-A antibody responses were detected using antibody ELISA kits and an immune diffusion test. The results indicated that persistent viremia occurred in 80% (8/10) of infected chickens, and transient viremia occurred in 17% (2/12) of infected quails, but no viremia occurred in infected pigeons. Cloacal virus shedding occurred intermittently in 80% (8/10) of infected chickens and in 8% (1/12) of infected quails but did not occur in infected pigeons. Severe inflammatory pathological lesions occurred in the visceral tissues of most infected chickens, and mild lesions occurred in a few of the infected quails, but no pathological lesions occurred in the infected pigeons. The ALV-A virus was detected in the visceral tissues of most infected chickens but not in the infected quails and pigeons. Obviously different ALV-A antibody responses occurred in the infected chickens, quails and pigeons. It can be concluded that adult chickens, quails and pigeons have dramatically different susceptibilities to ALV-A. This is the first report on artificial infection by ALV-A in different birds.
Project description:Subgroup A, B, and J ALVs are the most prevalent avian leukosis virus (ALV). Our study attempted to develop two SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assays for specific detection of ALV subgroup J (ALV-J) and multiplex detection of ALV subgroups A and B (ALV-A/B), respectively.The two assays showed high specificity for ALV-J and ALV-A/B and the sensitivity of the two assays was at least 100 times higher than that of the routine PCR assay. The minimum virus detection limit of virus culture, routine PCR and real-time PCR for detection of ALV-A strain was 10(3) TCID50 units, 10(2) TCID50 units and fewer than 10 TCID50 units, respectively. In addition, the coefficients of variation for intra- and inter-assay were both less than 5%. Forty clinical plasma samples were evaluated by real-time PCR, routine PCR, and virus culture with positive rates of 80% (32/40), 72.5% (29/40) and 62.5% (25/40), respectively. When the assay for detection of ALV-J was used to quantify the viral load of various organ tissues in chicken inoculated by ALV-J strains CHN06 and NX0101, the results exhibited that ALV-J genes could be detected in all organ tissues examined and the highest copies of ALV-J were mainly in heart and kidney samples at 30 weeks post-infection. Except in lung, the virus copies of CHN06 group were higher than that of NX0101 group in various organ tissues.The SYBR Green I-based real-time RT-PCR assay provides a powerful tool for the detection of ALV and study of virus replication and infection.
Project description:Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease, as well as hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens. To date, conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested RT-PCR methods have been used for the diagnosis of avian HEV infection in chickens. However, these assays are time consuming, inconvenient, and cannot detect the virus quantitatively. In this study, a rapid and sensitive SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay was developed to detect avian HEV RNA quantitatively in serum, liver, spleen, and fecal samples from chickens.Based on the sequence of the most conserved HEV gene, ORF3, the primers for the assay were designed, and the standard plasmid was constructed. The detection limit of the assay was shown to be 10 copies/?l of standard plasmid/reaction, with a corresponding cycle-threshold value of 29.3. The standard curve exhibited a dynamic linear range across at least 7 log units of DNA copy number. The specificity and reproducibility of this assay was high, showing that the assay detected avian HEV RNA specifically and with little variability. Compared to conventional RT-PCR, the current assay is more sensitive for detecting avian HEV in serum, liver, spleen, and fecal samples from chickens.A rapid, specific, and reproducible SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for the diagnosis of avian HEV infection in chickens. This assay can accurately detect avian HEV RNA in serum, liver, spleen, and fecal samples with more sensitivity than conventional RT-PCR.
Project description:Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an avian retrovirus that causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry. The early identification and removal of virus-shedding birds are important to reduce the spread of congenital and contact infections. In this study, a TaqMan-based real-time PCR method for the rapid detection and quantification of ALV-J with proviral DNA was developed. This method exhibited a high specificity for ALV-J. Moreover, the detection limit was as low as 10 viral DNA copies. The coefficients of variation (CVs) of both interassay and intra-assay reproducibility were less than 1%. The growth curves of ALV-J in DF-1 cells were measured by real-time PCR, yielding a trend line similar to those determined by 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) and p27 antigen detection. Tissue samples suspected of ALV infection were evaluated using real-time PCR, virus isolation, and routine PCR, and the positivity rates were 60.1%, 41.6% and 44.5%, respectively. Our data indicated that the real-time PCR method provides a sensitive, specific, and reproducible diagnostic tool for the identification and quantification of ALV-J for clinical diagnosis and in laboratory research.
Project description:Infection of breeder flocks in China with subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) has increased recently. In this study, we have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of ALV-J from culture isolates and clinical samples. The ALV-J-specific LAMP assay efficiently amplified the target gene within 45 min at 63 degrees C using only a simple laboratory water bath. To determine the specificity of the LAMP assay, various subgroup ALVs and other related viruses were detected. A ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis was observed for ALV-J isolates but not for other viruses. To evaluate the sensitivities of the LAMP assay and conventional PCR, the NX0101 isolate plasmid DNA was amplified by them. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 5 target gene copies/reaction, which was up to 20 times higher than that of conventional PCR. To evaluate the application of the LAMP assay for detection of ALV-J in clinical samples, 49 samples suspected of ALV infection from breeder flocks were tested by the LAMP assay and PCR. Moreover, virus isolation from these samples was also performed using cell culture. The positive-sample ratios were 21/49 (43%) by conventional PCR, 26/49 (53%) by the LAMP assay, and 19/46 (41%) by virus isolation. Additionally, a positive LAMP reaction can be visually ascertained by the observation of turbidity or a color change after addition of SYBR green I dye. Consequently, the LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, and sensitive diagnostic method and can potentially be developed for rapid detection of ALV-J infection in the field.
Project description:All vaccines that are prepared in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) contain a low level of particle-associated reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, which is produced from the avian cell substrate. The RNAs present in the particles have sequence homology to viral DNAs belonging to the ancient endogenous avian virus (EAV) family or to the avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ALV)-related subgroup E endogenous virus loci. Although no replication-competent retrovirus has been associated with the RT activity produced from CEFs, there have been some theoretical safety concerns regarding potential consequences of integration of EAV and ALV sequences in human DNA, which may result from nonproductive infection with replication-defective particles or infection with EAV and ALV pseudotypes bearing measles virus envelopes. To address these possibilities, we have analyzed EAV and ALV particles in a measles virus vaccine equivalent (MVVE) preparation, obtained from a U.S. manufacturer, for integration and for replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The results show the absence of EAV and ALV integrants in DNA prepared from MVVE-inoculated human cells by direct DNA PCR and Alu PCR assays and no propagation of retrovirus in 18-day cultures of MVVE-inoculated human PBMCs by a highly sensitive PCR-based RT assay. These results provide further confidence regarding the safety of chicken RT activity in live viral vaccines and support the continued use of chick-cell-derived vaccines in humans.
Project description:The group of highly related avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) in chickens are thought to have evolved from a common retroviral ancestor into six subgroups, A to E and J. These ALV subgroups use diverse cellular proteins encoded by four genetic loci in chickens as receptors to gain entry into host cells. Hosts exposed to ALVs might be under selective pressure to develop resistance to ALV infection. Indeed, resistance alleles have previously been identified in all four receptor loci in chickens. The tvb gene encodes a receptor, which determines the susceptibility of host cells to ALV subgroup B (ALV-B), ALV-D, and ALV-E. Here we describe the identification of two novel alleles of the tvb receptor gene, which possess independent insertions each within exon 4. The insertions resulted in frameshift mutations that reveal a premature stop codon that causes nonsense-mediated decay of the mutant mRNA and the production of truncated Tvb protein. As a result, we observed that the frameshift mutations in the tvb gene significantly lower the binding affinity of the truncated Tvb receptors for the ALV-B, ALV-D, and ALV-E envelope glycoproteins and significantly reduce susceptibility to infection by ALV-B, ALV-D and ALV-E in vitro and in vivo Taken together, these findings suggest that frameshift mutation can be a molecular mechanism of reducing susceptibility to ALV and enhance our understanding of virus-host coevolution.IMPORTANCE Avian leukosis virus (ALV) once caused devastating economic loss to the U.S. poultry industry prior the current eradication schemes in place, and it continues to cause severe calamity to the poultry industry in China and Southeast Asia, where deployment of a complete eradication scheme remains a challenge. The tvb gene encodes the cellular receptor necessary for subgroup B, D, and E ALV infection. Two tvb allelic variants that resulted from frameshift mutations have been identified in this study, which have been shown to have significantly reduced functionality in mediating subgroup B, D, and E ALV infection. Unlike the control of herpesvirus-induced diseases by vaccination, the control of avian leukosis in chickens has relied totally on virus eradication measures and host genetic resistance. This finding enriches the allelic pool of the tvb gene and expands the potential for genetic improvement of ALV resistance in varied chicken populations by selection.
Project description:The J subgroup of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infects domestic chickens, jungle fowl, and turkeys. This virus enters the host cell through a receptor encoded by the tvj locus and identified as Na+/H+ exchanger 1. The resistance to avian leukosis virus subgroup J in a great majority of galliform species has been explained by deletions or substitutions of the critical tryptophan 38 in the first extracellular loop of Na+/H+ exchanger 1. Because there are concerns of transspecies virus transmission, we studied natural polymorphisms and susceptibility/resistance in wild galliforms and found the presence of tryptophan 38 in four species of New World quails. The embryo fibroblasts of New World quails are susceptible to infection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J, and the cloned Na+/H+ exchanger 1 confers susceptibility on the otherwise resistant host. New World quails are also susceptible to new avian leukosis virus subgroup J variants but resistant to subgroups A and B and weakly susceptible to subgroups C and D of avian sarcoma/leukosis virus due to obvious defects of the respective receptors. Our results suggest that the avian leukosis virus subgroup J could be transmitted to New World quails and establish a natural reservoir of circulating virus with a potential for further evolution. IMPORTANCE:Since its spread in broiler chickens in China and Southeast Asia in 2000, ALV-J remains a major enzootic challenge for the poultry industry. Although the virus diversifies rapidly in the poultry, its spillover and circulation in wild bird species has been prevented by the resistance of most species to ALV-J. It is, nevertheless, important to understand the evolution of the virus and its potential host range in wild birds. Because resistance to avian retroviruses is due particularly to receptor incompatibility, we studied Na+/H+ exchanger 1, the receptor for ALV-J. In New World quails, we found a receptor compatible with virus entry, and we confirmed the susceptibilities of four New World quail species in vitro We propose that a prospective molecular epidemiology study be conducted to identify species with the potential to become reservoirs for ALV-J.
Project description:Gross lesions characterized by swollen livers and spleens accompanied by diffuse white miliary spots, which resembled those of Marek's disease, were detected in two flocks of local meat-type chickens at a Japanese poultry processing plant in June and August 2010. The microscopic examinations revealed proliferative foci consisting of spindle or polymorphic cells in the interstitium of livers, splenic follicles and the interstitium of kidneys. These cells were positive immunohistochemically with Iba1 antibody, indicating they were histiocytic cells. Some of them contained antigens of avian leukosis virus (ALV) by immunohistochemistry,and the env gene of ALV subgroup J was detected from the spleens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product indicated that the env gene might be descended from the American ADOL-7501 strain of ALV-J. These results suggest that the swollen livers and spleens of the meat-type chickens may come from histiocytic proliferation caused by ALV-J infection.