Improvements in Irritability with Open-Label Methylphenidate Treatment in Youth with Comorbid Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this open-label study was to examine the effects of long-acting methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on irritability and related emotional symptoms associated with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in youth with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS:The sample included 22 medication-free male and female subjects (ages 9-15) who met criteria for both DMDD and ADHD. Participants underwent a 4-week trial of long-acting MPH treatment (Concerta®), with weekly dosing increases until a therapeutic dose was reached. Repeated measures t-tests were used to compare pre- and posttreatment ratings of primary and secondary measures. The primary outcome was self-report irritability. Secondary outcomes included parent and child ratings of emotional frequency, emotional lability, and negative affect (NA). Multiple regression was used to examine the impact baseline hyperactivity, age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, or comorbid diagnosis had on treatment outcomes. RESULTS:Significant improvements (medium to large effect sizes) in child-rated irritability as well as parent and child ratings of emotional lability, NA, and anger were found. As anticipated, ADHD symptoms also improved. While a majority of the sample saw improvement in child-rated irritability (71%), symptoms worsened a small proportion (19%), and an even smaller portion experienced no change (10%). No demographics, psychiatric comorbidities, or severity of ADHD symptoms influenced treatment outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Study findings suggest that MPH treatment significantly improved mood and emotional symptoms associated with DMDD comorbid with ADHD. These findings, coupled with good tolerability in this open-label pilot study supports further research into the use of MPH as a first-line treatment for DMDD. Future work examining MPH treatment of youth with DMDD with and without comorbid ADHD is needed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Irritability and the new DSM-5 diagnostic category of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) have been conceptualised as related to mood disorder. Irritability is common in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) but little is known about its association with depression risk in this group. This study aims to establish levels of irritability and prevalence of DMDD in a clinical sample of children with ADHD, and examine their association with anxiety, depression and family history of depression.<h4>Methods</h4>The sample consisted of 696 children (mean age 10.9 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD, recruited from UK child psychiatry and paediatric clinics. Parents completed the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, a semi-structured diagnostic interview, about their child. This was used to establish prevalence of DMDD, anxiety disorder and depressive disorder, as well as obtain symptom scores for irritability, anxiety and depression. Questionnaires assessed current parental depression, and family history of depression.<h4>Result</h4>Irritability was common, with 91% endorsing at least one irritable symptom. 3-month DMDD prevalence was 31%. Children with higher levels of irritability or DMDD were more likely to have comorbid symptoms of anxiety, depression and a family history of depression.<h4>Limitations</h4>Results are based on a clinical sample, so may not be generalizable to children with ADHD in the general population.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Irritability and DMDD were common, and were associated with markers of depression liability. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine the association between irritability and depression in youth with ADHD as they get older.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Irritability is defined as a tendency towards anger in response to frustration. Clinically, impairing irritability is a significant public health problem. There is a need for mechanism-based psychotherapies targeting severe irritability as it manifests in the context of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). This study protocol describes a randomised multiple baseline design testing the preliminary efficacy of a new treatment, exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for severe irritability in youth, which also integrates components of parent management training. We will investigate associations of this intervention with primary clinical measures, as well as ecological momentary assessment measures.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>Forty youth will be enrolled. Participants, aged 8-17 years, must present at least one of two core symptoms of DMDD: abnormal mood or increased reactivity to negative emotional stimuli, with severe impairment in one domain (home, school, peers) and moderate in another, or moderate impairment in at least two domains. Each participant is randomised to a 2-week, 4-week or 6-week baseline observation period, followed by 12 active treatment sessions. Clinical ratings are conducted at baseline, biweekly (clinician), weekly (parent/child) throughout treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month and 6-month follow-up (clinician). Clinician ratings on the Affective Reactivity Index and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale for DMDD are our primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome measures include parent and child reports of irritability. Post hoc additional symptom measures include clinician, parent and self-ratings of depression, anxiety and overall functional impairment. Prospective, digitally based event sampling of symptoms is acquired for a week pre-treatment, mid-treatment and post-treatment. Based on our pathophysiological model of irritability implicating frustrative non-reward, aberrant threat processing and instrumental learning, we probe these three brain-based targets using functional MRI paradigms to assess target engagement.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>The research project and all related materials were submitted and approved by the appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).<h4>Trial registration numbers</h4>NCT02531893 and NCT00025935.
Project description:Objective: We sought to ascertain whether baseline anxiety/depression and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms impacted the experience of short-term methylphenidate (MPH) adverse effects (AEs) in 7- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 171) undergoing a double-blind MPH crossover trial. Method: The Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale measured baseline child anxiety/depression and ODD symptomology. The parent-completed Pittsburgh Side Effect Rating Scale assessed the AEs of anxiety, sadness, and irritability at baseline, on placebo, and on three MPH dosages. For each AE, we evaluated comorbidity main effects, dose main effects, and comorbidity × dose interactions. Results: Baseline anxiety/depression × dose and ODD × dose interactions were significant for the AEs of anxiety, sadness, and irritability. Compared with premedication baseline, these AEs attenuated on MPH for children with initially higher comorbidity symptoms, whereas those with initially lower comorbidity symptoms tended toward no change or increasing AE levels. Conclusion: Premedication anxiety/depressive and ODD symptoms may be important predictors of short-term MPH emotional AEs.
Project description:Diagnostic criteria for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) require 1) periodic rageful outbursts and 2) disturbed mood (anger or irritability) that persists most of the time in between outbursts. Stimulant monotherapy, methodically titrated, often culminates in remission of severe aggressive behavior, but it is unclear whether those with persistent mood symptoms benefit less.This study examined the association between the presence of persistent mood disturbances and treatment outcomes among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and periodic aggressive, rageful outbursts.Within a cohort of children with ADHD and aggressive behavior (n?=?156), the prevalence of persistent mood symptoms was evaluated at baseline and after completion of a treatment protocol that provided stimulant monotherapy and family-based behavioral treatment (duration mean [SD]?=?70.04 [37.83] days). The relationship of persistent mood symptoms on posttreatment aggressive behavior was assessed, as well as changes in mood symptoms.Aggressive behavior and periodic rageful outbursts remitted among 51% of the participants. Persistent mood symptoms at baseline did not affect the odds that aggressive behavior would remit during treatment. Reductions in symptoms of sustained mood disturbance accompanied reductions in periodic outbursts. Children who at baseline had high irritability but low depression ratings showed elevated aggression scores at baseline and after treatment; however, they still displayed large reductions in aggression.Among aggressive children with ADHD, aggressive behaviors are just as likely to decrease following stimulant monotherapy and behavioral treatment among those with sustained mood symptoms and those without. Improvements in mood problems are evident as well. Therefore, the abnormalities in persistent mood described by DMDD's criteria do not contraindicate stimulant therapy as initial treatment among those with comorbid ADHD. Rather, substantial improvements may be anticipated, and remission of both behavioral and mood symptoms seems achievable for a proportion of patients.ClinicalTrials.gov (U.S.); IDs: NCT00228046 and NCT00794625; www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Severe, chronic, and impairing irritability is a common presenting clinical problem in youth. Indeed, it was recently operationalized as disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in the DSM-5. However, to date, there are no evidence-based treatments that were specifically developed for DMDD. The current randomized controlled trial assesses the efficacy of a computer-based cognitive training intervention (Interpretation Bias Training; IBT) in youth with DMDD. IBT aims to reduce irritability by altering judgments of ambiguous face-emotions through computerized feedback. IBT is based on previous findings that youth with irritability-related psychopathology rate ambiguous faces as more hostile and fear producing. METHODS/DESIGN:This is a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of IBT in 40 youth with DMDD. Participants will be randomized to receive four IBT sessions (Active vs. Sham training) over 4 days. Active IBT provides computerized feedback to change ambiguous face-emotion interpretations towards happy interpretations. Face-emotion judgments are performed pre and post training, and for 2 weeks following training. Blinded clinicians will conduct weekly clinical ratings. Primary outcome measures assess changes in irritability using the clinician-rated Affective Reactivity Index (ARI) and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale for DMDD, as well as parent and child reports of irritability using the ARI. Secondary outcome measures include clinician ratings of depression, anxiety, and overall impairment. In addition, parent and child self-report measures of depression, anxiety, anger, social status, and aggression will be collected. DISCUSSION:The study described in this protocol will perform the first RCT testing the efficacy of IBT in reducing irritability in youth with DMDD. Developing non-pharmacological treatment options for youth suffering from severe, chronic irritability is important to potentially augment existing treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02531893 . Registered on 25 August 2015.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A central nosological problem concerns the etiological relationship of emotional dysregulation with ADHD. Molecular genetic risk scores provide a novel method for informing this question.<h4>Methods</h4>Participants were 514 community-recruited children of Northern European descent age 7-11 defined as ADHD or non-ADHD by detailed research evaluation. Parents-rated ADHD on standardized ratings and child temperament on the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ) and reported on ADHD and comorbid disorders by semi-structured clinical interview. Categorical and dimensional variables were created for ADHD, emotional dysregulation (implicating disruption of regulation of both anger-irritability and of positive valence surgency-sensation seeking), and irritability alone (anger dysregulation). Genome-wide polygenic risk scores (PRS) were computed for ADHD and depression genetic liability. Structural equation models and computationally derived emotion profiles guided analysis.<h4>Results</h4>The ADHD PRS was associated in variable-centered analyses with irritability (? = .179, 95% CI = 0.087-0.280; ?R<sup>2</sup> = .034, p < .0002), but also with surgency/sensation seeking (B = .146, 95%CI = 0.052-0.240, ?R<sup>2</sup> =.022, p = .002). In person-centered analysis, the ADHD PRS was elevated in the emotion dysregulation ADHD group versus other ADHD children (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.03-2.20, Nagelkerke ?R<sup>2</sup> = .013, p = .033) but did not differentiate irritable from surgent ADHD profiles. All effects were independent of variation in ADHD severity across traits or groups. The depression PRS was related to oppositional defiant disorder but not to ADHD emotion dysregulation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Irritability-anger and surgency-sensation seeking, as forms of negative and positively valenced dysregulated affect in ADHD populations, both relate principally to ADHD genetic risk and not mood-related genetic risk.
Project description:Several studies have shown that iron deficiency and ferritin levels are associated with parent and teacher Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ratings. Although there are conflicting results, it has also been reported that iron supplementation may help to decrease ADHD symptoms. When all these previous studies are taken into account, it is clear that a large study investigating the effects of iron deficiency and ferritin levels on routine pharmacological treatment of ADHD with stimulants would be helpful to elucidate this treatment from a clinical point of view.A total of 345 subjects with combined or predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (PHI) subtypes of ADHD were included. All diagnoses were based on the DSM-IV criteria and ascertained by direct interviews conducted by the authors, who are experienced child psychiatrists certified in the use of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) semi-structured interview. The two treatment response criteria were: 1) 25% or more decrease in pre-treatment Conners Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) and Conners Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS) Hyperactivity (HA) and Total Problems scores; 2) CPRS and CTRS HA scores lower than the cut-off point ("very improved").A total of 255 (73.9%) patients were on OROS-methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) and 90 (26.1%) were on immediate release methylphenidate (IR-MPH). The mean±sd of OROS-MPH and IR-MPH doses were 28.8±8.1 and 20.9±7.1 mg, respectively. More than half (52.5%) of the subjects were previously drug-naive at treatment inception. Two hundred and seventy eight (80.6%) subjects had combined subtype ADHD and the remainder had predominantly hyperactive-impulsive subtype. Only 60 (17.4%) of the subjects had no comorbid disorders, while 38.3% had one comorbid disorder, 32.8% had two comorbid disorders, and 11.6% had three or more comorbid disorders. The most frequent comorbidity was Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD, 51.6%), followed by Learning Disabilities (LD, 35.4%) and Anxiety Disorders (AD, 15.9%). Logistic regression analysis showed that subjects with comorbid ODD/CD and LD were less likely to respond to treatment. Ferritin levels and iron deficiency were not associated significantly with outcomes.In a large sample of subjects with combined or predominantly hyperactive-impulsive subtypes of ADHD, after controlling for several factors, we found that neither iron deficiency (ferritin <12 ng/ml) nor ferritin levels were associated with less favorable short-term treatment outcomes with stimulants. Subjects with comorbid ODD/CD and LD were less likely to have a 25% or more decrease in CTRS Total score. The presence of ODD/CD was also a negative predictor of treatment response in terms of CPRS Total and HA scores. The lack of a negative treatment response in ADHD subjects with iron deficiency and lack of a negative association with ferritin levels suggest that the relationship between iron metabolism and ADHD, a highly heterogeneous disorder, may be more complicated than previously believed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Compared to typically developing individuals, individuals with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are on average more often exposed to stressful conditions (e.g., school failure, family conflicts, financial problems). We hypothesized that high exposure to stress relates to a more persistent and complex (i.e., multi-problem) form of ADHD, while low-stress exposure relates to remitting ADHD over the course of adolescence. METHOD:Longitudinal data (ages 11, 13, 16, and 19) came from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Life Survey (TRAILS). We selected children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 244; 167 males; 77 females) from the TRAILS clinical cohort and children who screened positive (n = 365; 250 males; 115 females) and negative (gender-matched: n = 1222; 831 males; 391 females) for ADHD from the TRAILS general population sample cohort (total n = 1587). Multivariate latent class growth analysis was applied to parent- and self-ratings of stress exposure, core ADHD problems (attention problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity), effortful control, emotion dysregulation (irritability, extreme reactivity, frustration), and internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, somatic complaints). RESULTS:Seven distinct developmental courses in stress exposure and psychopathology were discerned, of which four related to ADHD. Two persistent ADHD courses of severely affected adolescents were associated with very high curvilinear stress exposure peaking in mid-adolescence: (1) Severe combined type with ongoing, severe emotional dysregulation, and (2) combined type with a high and increasing internalization of problems and elevated irritability; two partly remitting ADHD courses had low and declining stress exposure: (3) inattentive type, and (4) moderate combined type, both mostly without comorbid problems. CONCLUSIONS:High-stress exposure between childhood and young adulthood is strongly intertwined with a persistent course of ADHD and with comorbid problems taking the form of either severe and persistent emotion dysregulation (irritability, extreme reactivity, frustration) or elevated and increasing irritability, anxiety, and depression. Conversely, low and declining stress exposure is associated with remitting ADHD and decreasing internalizing and externalizing problems. Stress exposure is likely to be a facilitating and sustaining factor in these two persistent trajectories of ADHD with comorbid problems into young adulthood. Our findings suggest that a bidirectional, continuing, cycle of stressors leads to enhanced symptoms, in turn leading to more stressors, and so forth. Consideration of stressful conditions should, therefore, be an inherent part of the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD, to potentiate prevention and interruption of adverse trajectories.
Project description:Nonepisodic irritability is a common and impairing problem, leading to the development of the diagnoses severe mood dysregulation (SMD) and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). No psychosocial therapies have been formally evaluated for either, with medication being the most common treatment. This study examined the feasibility and efficacy of a joint parent-child intervention for SMD.A total of 68 participants aged 7 to 12 years with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and SMD were randomly assigned to the 11-week therapy or community-based psychosocial treatment. All participants were first stabilized on psychostimulant medication by study physicians. Of the participants, 56 still manifested impairing SMD symptoms and entered the therapy phase. Masked evaluators assessed participants at baseline, midpoint, and endpoint, with therapy participants reassessed 6 weeks later.All but 2 therapy participants attended the majority of sessions (n = 29), with families reporting high levels of satisfaction. The primary outcome of change in mood symptoms using the Mood Severity Index (MSI) did not reach significance except in the subset attending the majority of sessions (effect size = 0.53). Therapy was associated with significantly greater improvement in parent-rated irritability (effect size = 0.63). Treatment effects for irritability but not MSI diminished after therapy stopped. Little impact on ADHD symptoms was seen. Results may not be generalizable to youth with SMD and comorbidities different from those seen in this sample of children with ADHD, and are limited by the lack of a gold standard for measuring change in SMD symptoms.While failing to significantly improve mood symptoms versus community treatment, the integrative therapy was found to be a feasible and efficacious treatment for irritability in participants with SMD and ADHD.Group-Based Behavioral Therapy Combined With Stimulant Medication for Treating Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Impaired Mood; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00632619.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), characterized by severe irritability, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid. This is the first study to characterize neural and behavioral similarities and differences in attentional functioning across these disorders. METHOD:Twenty-seven healthy volunteers, 31 patients with DMDD, and 25 patients with ADHD (8 to 18 years old) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging attention task. Group differences in intra-subject variability in reaction time (RT) were examined. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging analytic approach precisely quantified trial-wise associations between RT and brain activity. RESULTS:Group differences manifested in the relation between RT and brain activity (all regions: p < .01, F > 2.54, partial eta-squared [?p2] > 0.06). Patients with DMDD showed specific alterations in the right paracentral lobule, superior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, and cerebellar culmen. In contrast, patients with DMDD and those with ADHD exhibited blunted compensatory increases in activity on long RT trials. In addition, youth with DMDD exhibited increased activity in the postcentral gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and cerebellar tonsil and declive (all regions: p < .05, F > 2.46, ?p2 > 0.06). Groups in the imaging sample did not differ significantly in intra-subject variability in RT (F2,79 = 2.664, p = .076, ?p2 = 0.063), although intra-subject variability in RT was significantly increased in youth with DMDD and ADHD when including those not meeting strict motion and accuracy criteria for imaging analysis (F2,96 = 4.283, p = .017, ?p2 = 0.083). CONCLUSION:Patients with DMDD exhibited specific alterations in the relation between pre-stimulus brain activity and RT. Patients with DMDD and those with ADHD exhibited similar blunting of compensatory neural activity in frontal, parietal, and other regions. In addition, patients with DMDD showed increased RT variability compared with healthy youth. This work is the first to identify common and unique behavioral and neural signatures of DMDD and ADHD.