Uncovering pH at both sides of the root plasma membrane interface using noninvasive imaging.
ABSTRACT: Building a proton gradient across a biological membrane and between different tissues is a matter of great importance for plant development and nutrition. To gain a better understanding of proton distribution in the plant root apoplast as well as across the plasma membrane, we generated Arabidopsis plants expressing stable membrane-anchored ratiometric fluorescent sensors based on pHluorin. These sensors enabled noninvasive pH-specific measurements in mature root cells from the medium-epidermis interface up to the inner cell layers that lie beyond the Casparian strip. The membrane-associated apoplastic pH was much more alkaline than the overall apoplastic space pH. Proton concentration associated with the plasma membrane was very stable, even when the growth medium pH was altered. This is in apparent contradiction with the direct connection between root intercellular space and the external medium. The plasma membrane-associated pH in the stele was the most preserved and displayed the lowest apoplastic pH (6.0 to 6.1) and the highest transmembrane delta pH (1.5 to 2.2). Both pH values also correlated well with optimal activities of channels and transporters involved in ion uptake and redistribution from the root to the aerial part. In growth medium where ionic content is minimized, the root plasma membrane-associated pH was more affected by environmental proton changes, especially for the most external cell layers. Calcium concentration appears to play a major role in apoplastic pH under these restrictive conditions, supporting a role for the cell wall in pH homeostasis of the unstirred surface layer of plasma membrane in mature roots.
Project description:Changes in pH are now widely accepted as a signalling mechanism in cells. In plants, proton pumps in the plasma membrane and tonoplast play a key role in regulation of intracellular pH homeostasis and maintenance of transmembrane proton gradients. Proton transport in response to external stimuli can be expected to be finely regulated spatially and temporally. With the ambition to follow such changes live, a new genetically encoded sensor, pHusion, has been developed. pHusion is especially designed for apoplastic pH measurements. It was constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis and targeted for expression in either the cytosol or the apoplast including intracellular compartments. pHusion consists of the tandem concatenation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1), and works as a ratiometric pH sensor. Live microscopy at high spatial and temporal resolution is highly dependent on appropriate immobilization of the specimen for microscopy. Medical adhesive often used in such experiments destroys cell viability in roots. Here a novel system for immobilizing Arabidopsis seedling roots for perfusion experiments is presented which does not impair cell viability. With appropriate immobilization, it was possible to follow changes of the apoplastic and cytosolic pH in mesophyll and root tissue. Rapid pH homeostasis upon external pH changes was reflected by negligible cytosolic pH fluctuations, while the apoplastic pH changed drastically. The great potential for analysing pH regulation in a whole-tissue, physiological context is demonstrated by the immediate alkalinization of the subepidermal apoplast upon external indole-3-acetic acid administration. This change is highly significant in the elongation zone compared with the root hair zone and control roots.
Project description:Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are damage/danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are derived from precursor proteins PROPEPs and perceived by a pair of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), PEPR1 and PEPR2, to enhance innate immunity and to inhibit root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we show that Arabidopsis Pep1 inhibits the root growth by interfering with pH signaling, as acidic condition increased, but neutral and alkaline conditions decreased the Pep1 effect on inhibiting the root growth. The perception of Pep1 to PEPRs activated the plasma membrane-localized H+-ATPases (PM H+-ATPases) -the pump proton in plant cell-to extrude the protons into apoplast, and induced an overly acidic environment in apoplastic space, which further promoted the cell swelling in root apex and inhibited root growth. Furthermore, we revealed that pump proton AUTOINHIBITED H+-ATPase 2 (AHA2) physically interacted with PEPR2 and served downstream of the Pep1-PEPRs signaling pathway to regulate Pep1-induced protons extrusion and root growth inhibition. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a previously unrecognized signaling crosstalk between Pep1 and pH signaling to regulate root growth.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anoxia leads to an energy crisis, tolerance of which varies from plant to plant. Although the apoplast represents an important storage and reaction space, and engages in the mediation of membrane transport, this extracellular compartment has not yet been granted a role during oxygen shortage. Here, an attempt is made to highlight the importance of the apoplast during oxygen stress and to test whether information about it is transferred systemically in Hordeum vulgare. METHODS: Non-invasive ion-selective microprobes were used which, after being inserted through open stomata, directly contact the apoplastic fluid and continuously measure the apoplastic pH and changes to it. KEY RESULTS: (a) Barley leaves respond to oxygen stress with apoplastic alkalinization and membrane depolarization. These responses are persistent under anoxia (N2; O2 < 3%) but transient under hypoxia. (b) Being applied to the root, the information 'anoxia' is signalled to the leaf as an increase in pH, whereas 'hypoxia' is not: flooding of the roots within the first 2 h has no effect on the leaf apoplastic pH, whereas anoxia (N2) or chemical anoxia (NaCN/salicylic hydroxamic acid) rapidly increase the leaf apoplastic pH. (c) Under anoxia, the proton motive force suffers a decrease by over 70 %, which impairs H(+) -driven transport. CONCLUSIONS: Although anoxia-induced apoplastic alkalinization is a general response to stress, its impact on the proton motive force (reduction) and thus on transport mediation of energy-rich compounds is evident. It is concluded that anoxia tolerance depends on how the plant is able to hold the proton motive force and H(+) turnover at a level that guarantees sufficient energy is harvested to overcome the crisis.
Project description:Environmental adaptation of organisms relies on fast perception and response to external signals, which lead to developmental changes. Plant cell growth is strongly dependent on cell wall remodeling. However, little is known about cell wall-related sensing of biotic stimuli and the downstream mechanisms that coordinate growth and defense responses. We generated genetically encoded pH sensors to determine absolute pH changes across the plasma membrane in response to biotic stress. A rapid apoplastic acidification by phosphorylation-based proton pump activation in response to the fungus Fusarium oxysporum immediately reduced cellulose synthesis and cell growth and, furthermore, had a direct influence on the pathogenicity of the fungus. In addition, pH seems to influence cellulose structure. All these effects were dependent on the COMPANION OF CELLULOSE SYNTHASE proteins that are thus at the nexus of plant growth and defense. Hence, our discoveries show a remarkable connection between plant biomass production, immunity, and pH control, and advance our ability to investigate the plant growth-defense balance.
Project description:Cells use plasma membrane proton fluxes to maintain cytoplasmic and extracellular pH and to mediate the co-transport of metabolites and ions. Because proton-coupled transport often involves movement of multiple substrates, traditional electrical measurements provide limited information about proton transport at the cell surface. Here we visualize voltage-dependent proton fluxes over the entire landscape of a cell by covalently attaching small-molecule fluorescent pH sensors to the cell's glycocalyx. We found that the extracellularly facing sensors enable real-time detection of proton accumulation and depletion at the plasma membrane, providing an indirect readout of channel and transporter activity that correlated with whole-cell proton current. Moreover, the proton wavefront emanating from one cell was readily visible as it crossed over nearby cells. Given that any small-molecule fluorescent sensor can be covalently attached to a cell's glycocalyx, our approach is readily adaptable to visualize most electrogenic and non-electrogenic transport events at the plasma membrane.
Project description:Arabidopsis roots sense the moisture gradient in soils and grow toward an area with higher water potential - a process called hydrotropism. Our previous study has shown that the apoplastic proton extrusion in root tips is influenced by brassinosteroids (BRs) receptor BR-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and is crucial for hydrotropic response in Arabidopsis. Here we show that BRI1 interacts directly not only with Arabidopsis plasma membrane H+-ATPase 2 (AHA2) but also with Arabidopsis plasma membrane H+-ATPase 7 (AHA7). Therefore, BRI1 may affect hydrotropic response via regulating the activities of AHA2 and AHA7.
Project description:Cells maintain intracellular pH (pHi) within a narrow range (7.1-7.2) by controlling membrane proton pumps and transporters whose activity is set by intra-cytoplasmic pH sensors. These sensors have the ability to recognize and induce cellular responses to maintain the pHi, often at the expense of acidifying the extracellular pH. In turn, extracellular acidification impacts cells via specific acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and proton-sensing G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this review, we will discuss some of the major players in proton sensing at the plasma membrane and their downstream consequences in cancer cells and how these pH-mediated changes affect processes such as migration and metastasis. The complex mechanisms by which they transduce acid pH signals to the cytoplasm and nucleus are not well understood. However, there is evidence that expression of proton-sensing GPCRs such as GPR4, TDAG8, and OGR1 can regulate aspects of tumorigenesis and invasion, including cofilin and talin regulated actin (de-)polymerization. Major mechanisms for maintenance of pHi homeostasis include monocarboxylate, bicarbonate, and proton transporters. Notably, there is little evidence suggesting a link between their activities and those of the extracellular H(+)-sensors, suggesting a mechanistic disconnect between intra- and extracellular pH. Understanding the mechanisms of pH sensing and regulation may lead to novel and informed therapeutic strategies that can target acidosis, a common physical hallmark of solid tumors.
Project description:The plant plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase regulates pH homeostasis and cell elongation in roots through the formation of an electrochemical H+ gradient across the PM and a decrease in apoplastic pH; however, the detailed signaling for the regulation of PM H+-ATPases remains unclear. Here, we show that an auxin influx carrier, AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1), is required for the maintenance of PM H+-ATPase activity and proper root elongation. We isolated a low pH-hypersensitive 1 (loph1) mutant by a genetic screen of Arabidopsis thaliana on low pH agar plates. The loph1 mutant is a loss-of-function mutant of the AUX1 gene and exhibits a root growth retardation restricted to the low pH condition. The ATP hydrolysis and H+ extrusion activities of the PM H+-ATPase were reduced in loph1 roots. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of the PM H+-ATPase was reduced in loph1 roots under both normal and low pH conditions without reduction of the amount of PM H+-ATPase. Expression of the DR5:GUS reporter gene and auxin-responsive genes suggested that endogenous auxin levels were lower in loph1 roots than in the wild type. The aux1-7 mutant roots also exhibited root growth retardation in the low pH condition like the loph1 roots. These results indicate that AUX1 positively regulates the PM H+-ATPase activity through maintenance of the auxin accumulation in root tips, and this process may serve to maintain root elongation especially under low pH conditions.
Project description:We investigated the identity and distribution of cortical domains, stained by the endocytic marker FM 1-43, in branchlet internodal cells of the characean green algae Chara corallina and Chara braunii. Co-labeling with NBD C(6)-sphingomyelin, a plasma membrane dye, which is not internalized, confirmed their location in the plasma membrane, and co-labelling with the fluorescent pH indicator Lysotracker red indicated an acidic environment. The plasma membrane domains co-localized with the distribution of an antibody against a proton-translocating ATPase, and electron microscopic data confirmed their identity with elaborate plasma membrane invaginations known as charasomes. The average size and the distribution pattern of charasomes correlated with the pH banding pattern of the cell. Charasomes were larger and more frequent at the acidic regions than at the alkaline bands, indicating that they are involved in outward-directed proton transport. Inhibition of photosynthesis by DCMU prevented charasome formation, and incubation in pH buffers resulted in smaller, homogenously distributed charasomes irrespective of whether the pH was clamped at 5.5 or 8.5. These data indicate that the differential size and distribution of charasomes is not due to differences in external pH but reflects active, photosynthesis-dependent pH banding. The fact that pH banding recovered within several minutes in unbuffered medium, however, confirms that pH banding is also possible in cells with evenly distributed charasomes or without charasomes. Cortical mitochondria were also larger and more abundant at the acid bands, and their intimate association with charasomes and chloroplasts suggests an involvement in carbon uptake and photorespiration.
Project description:Plasma membrane proton pump maintains proton electrochemical gradient and provides energy to secondary transporters. Arabidopsis mutant plants with reduced proton pump activity grow normal under ideal growth conditions; however their growth are reduced compared with wildtype plants when placed under the conditions that stress on protonmotive force (high external pH or high external potassium). Seedlings of wildtype, aha1, and aha2 mutant plants were grown under ideal growth condition. Total RNA from those seedlings were subjected to transcriptome analyses using Affymetrix Gene Chip.